Gene Summary

Gene:ABCB1; ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1
Aliases: CLCS, MDR1, P-GP, PGY1, ABC20, CD243, GP170
Summary:The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MDR/TAP subfamily. Members of the MDR/TAP subfamily are involved in multidrug resistance. The protein encoded by this gene is an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump for xenobiotic compounds with broad substrate specificity. It is responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells and often mediates the development of resistance to anticancer drugs. This protein also functions as a transporter in the blood-brain barrier. Mutations in this gene are associated with colchicine resistance and Inflammatory bowel disease 13. Alternative splicing and the use of alternative promoters results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2017]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:ATP-dependent translocase ABCB1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: ABCB1 (cancer-related)

Giorgi C, Gasser UE, Lafont ME, et al.
Inhibition of Chemoresistance in Primary Tumor Cells by
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4101-4110 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Despite improvements in cancer therapy, life expectancy after tumor recurrence remains low. Relapsed cancer is characterized by drug resistance, often mediated through overexpression of multidrug resistance (MDR) genes. Camellia sinensis non fermentatum extract is known for its anticancer properties in several cancer cell lines and might improve cancer therapy outcome after tumor recurrence.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines, alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines and primary rhabdomyosarcoma MAST139 cells were used to test NPE® effects on cell viability in combination with chemotherapeutic agents. Cell viability was measured by the WST-1 assay and CV staining. Gene expression levels of chemotherapy-induced efflux pumps and their activity was assessed upon NPE® treatment by measuring doxorubicin retention through evaluation of the autofluorescence signal.
RESULTS: Administration of increasing doxorubicin concentrations triggered immediate adaptation to the drug, which was surprisingly overcome by the addition of NPE®. Investigating the mechanism of immediate adaptation, MDR1 gene overexpression was observed upon doxorubicin treatment. Although NPE® did not alter pump gene expression, it was able to reduce pump activity, thus allowing the chemotherapeutic agent to stay inside the cells to exert its full anticancer activity.
CONCLUSION: NPE® might improve chemotherapeutic treatment by re-sensitizing relapsed tumors to anticancer drugs. Fighting MDR represents the key to overcome tumor relapse and improve the overall survival of cancer patients.

Landgraf V, Griessmann M, Roller J, et al.
DL-Methadone as an Enhancer of Chemotherapeutic Drugs in Head and Neck Cancer Cell Lines.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(7):3633-3639 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of DL-methadone on enhancing the action of the chemotherapeutic drugs cisplatin, doxorubicin, 5-fluoruracil (5-FU) and paclitaxel on head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chemotherapeutic drugs were applied alone or in combination with DL-methadone and cytotoxicity was analyzed by XTT assays. Expression of the μ-opioid receptor and the drug transporter p-glycoprotein were analyzed by qRT-PCR.
RESULTS: The effect of DL-methadone strongly depended on the respective chemotherapeutic agent. The basic expression of the μ-opioid receptor was not associated with the effect of DL-methadone, rather its induction by chemotherapeutic drugs. Expression or expression induction of p-glycoprotein was higher in weak-responder cell lines.
CONCLUSION: Enhancement of the toxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs by DL-methadone depends on the drug and on the cell line used.

Briz O, Perez-Silva L, Al-Abdulla R, et al.
What "The Cancer Genome Atlas" database tells us about the role of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins in chemoresistance to anticancer drugs.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2019; 15(7):577-593 [PubMed] Related Publications

Mai L, Luo M, Wu JJ, et al.
The combination therapy of HIF1α inhibitor LW6 and cisplatin plays an effective role on anti-tumor function in A549 cells.
Neoplasma. 2019; 2019 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) has been demonstrated to be involved in the resistance of various human cancer cells to chemotherapies. However, the correlation between HIF1α and the sensitivity of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to cisplatin has not been illuminated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of HIF1α on drug resistance in NSCLC cells. A549 cells were incubated in 21% or 0.5% O2 followed by the assessment of the level of HIF1α with qRT-PCR and western blot and ROS level by DCFH-DA assays. Effects of hypoxia or HIF1α inhibitor LW6 on the proliferation and apoptosis of A549 cells were evaluated via CCK-8 and flow cytometry assays. IC50 of A549 cells to cisplatin was determined by MTT assay. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was measured via JC-1 staining. Moreover, the expression of apoptosis related protein (Bcl-2, Bax) and drug resistance related proteins (MDR1, MRP1) were measured by western blotting. Exposure of A549 cells to 1% O2 significantly up-regulated HIF1α expression, maintained cell viability to cisplatin but decreased the ROS level, which promoted chemoresistance to cisplatin. LW6-treated A549 cells showed an increase in ROS level that blocked the hypoxia induced resistance to cisplatin and in addition, decreased expression of MDR1 and MRP1 in cisplatin-treated cells. This study revealed that hypoxia-improved cisplatin chemoresistance of NSCLC cells by regulated MDR1 and MRP1 expression via HIF1α/ROS pathway is reversed by LW6, suggesting that LW6 may act as effective sensitizer in chemotherapy for NSCLC.

Liu J, Guo N, Gao C, et al.
Effective Gene Silencing Mediated by Polypeptide Nanoparticles LAH4-L1-siMDR1 in Multi-Drug Resistant Human Breast Cancer.
J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2019; 15(3):531-543 [PubMed] Related Publications
MDR (multi-drug resistance) is a major obstacle to the successful treatment of cancers. The combination therapeutic based on RNAi has been investigated as a potential strategy for reversing the MDR. However, the effective delivery of siRNA

Gao Y, Jia L, Wang Q, et al.
pH/Redox Dual-Responsive Polyplex with Effective Endosomal Escape for Codelivery of siRNA and Doxorubicin against Drug-Resistant Cancer Cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2019; 11(18):16296-16310 [PubMed] Related Publications
The enhanced endo-lysosomal sequestration still remains a big challenge in overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR). Herein, a dual-responsive polyplex with effective endo-lysosomal escape based on methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-polylactide-polyhistidine-ss-oligoethylenimine (mPEG- b-PLA-PHis-ssOEI) was developed for codelivering MDR1 siRNA and doxorubicin (DOX). The polyplex showed good encapsulation of DOX and siRNA as well as triggered payload release in response to pH/redox stimuli because of the PHis protonation and the disulfide bond cleavage. The polyplex at an N/P ratio of 7 demonstrated a much higher payload delivery efficiency, MDR1 gene silence efficiency, cytotoxicity against MCF-7/ADR cell, and stronger MCF-7/ADR tumor growth inhibition than the polyplexes at higher N/P ratios. This was attributed to the stronger electrostatic attraction between siRNA and OEIs at higher N/P ratios that suppressed the release of MDR1 siRNA and OEIs, which played a dominant role in overcoming payload endo-lysosomal sequestration by the OEI-induced membrane permeabilization effect. Consequently, the polyplex with effective endo-lysosomal escape provides a rational approach for codelivery of siRNAs and chemotherapy agents for MDR reversal.

Matsuoka S, Tsutsumi Y, Kikuchi R, et al.
Gene Polymorphism of Tacrolimus-Metabolizing Enzymes Associated With Impaired Absorption of Tacrolimus Following Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Report.
Transplant Proc. 2019; 51(3):998-1001 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the mechanisms by which orally administered tacrolimus was not absorbed in a patient following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
CLINICAL COURSE: A 17-year-old girl with acute myeloid leukemia underwent HLA-haploidentical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation following fludarabine, busulfan, and total-body irradiation. Graft-vs-host disease prophylaxis was post-transplant cyclophosphamide, followed by intravenous tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. When tacrolimus was switched to oral administration, its blood level declined rapidly, resulting in development of acute graft-vs-host disease, which was ameliorated by switching back to intravenous administration.
METHODS/RESULTS: To elucidate if impaired tacrolimus absorption could be related to genetic polymorphism of tacrolimus-metabolizing enzymes, we analyzed gene polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 3A4, cytochrome P450 3A5, and multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1). The patient had wild-type cytochrome P450 3A4 (*1/*1) and variant-type cytochrome P450 3A5 (*3/*3), while MDR1 genes (2677A/G, 3435C/C) were wild-type.
CONCLUSION: Wild-type MDR1 gene product P-glycoprotein expressed in the intestine reduces drug absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and may have contributed to low blood levels of tacrolimus in this patient when tacrolimus was orally administered.

He C, Sun Z, Hoffman RM, et al.
P-Glycoprotein Overexpression Is Associated With Cisplatin Resistance in Human Osteosarcoma.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(4):1711-1718 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Osteosarcoma (OS) is a diagnosed primary cancer of the bone. Despite the great advances that have been made during the past decades in OS therapy, drug resistance and tumor recurrence are still major problems. It is urgent to find novel strategies to overcome drug resistance in order to prolong the survival time of OS patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell viability was investigated by the cell count kit-8 (CCK-8) and colony formation assays. P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) expression was analyzed by RT-qPCR and western blot. A xenograft mouse model was used to identify the synergistic efficacy of a P-gp inhibitor with cisplatin. Student's t-test was used to determine statistically significant differences.
RESULTS: P-gp expression levels were associated with cisplatin efficacy in OS patients. OS cells with higher P-gp expression were more resistant to cisplatin. Knockdown or inhibition of P-gp sensitized OS cells to cisplatin.
CONCLUSION: Down-regulating the expression of P-gp in OS maybe a promising strategy to overcome cisplatin resistance.

Lim JS, Jung GY, Park SY
Nkx-2.5 Regulates MDR1 Expression via Its Upstream Promoter in Breast Cancer Cells.
J Korean Med Sci. 2019; 34(12):e100 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Increased expression of MDR1 gene is one of the major mechanisms responsible for multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Two alternative promoters, upstream and downstream, are responsible for transcription of MDR1 gene in the human. However, the molecular mechanism regarding the transactivation of MDR1 upstream promoter (USP) has not been determined.
Methods: Dual-luciferase reporter gene assays were used to assess the effect of Nkx-2.5 on MDR1 USP activity using reporter plasmids for human MDR1 USP and its mutants. MDR1 mRNA level was examined by quantitative real-time PCR. The direct binding of Nkx-2.5 to the USP of MDR1 was evaluated by promoter enzyme immunoassays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays.
Results: Nkx-2.5 significantly stimulates the transactivation of MDR1 USP and increases MDR1 mRNA expression in MCF7 breast cancer cells. Reporter gene assays with deleted MDR1 USPs showed that the Nkx-2.5-binding site is located between positions -71 and +12. Mutation of the Nkx-2.5-binding site at nucleotide +4 to +10 markedly reduced the Nkx-2.5-mediated activation of MDR1 USP activity. A promoter binding immunoassay and a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that Nkx-2.5 binds directly to the region +4/+10 of human MDR1 USP.
Conclusion: The results in the present study show Nkx-2.5 is a positive regulator for the transactivation of MDR1 USP in MCF7 breast cancer cells. Our findings will help elucidate the regulatory mechanism responsible for the multidrug resistant cancer phenotype.

Liu F, Yin R, Chen X, et al.
Over-expression of miR-206 decreases the Euthyrox-resistance by targeting MAP4K3 in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019; 114:108605 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in drug resistance of multiple cancers including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), indicating the potential of miRNAs as chemoresistance regulators in cancer treatment. The aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between miR-206 and chemoresistance of PTC.
METHODS: qRT-PCR was conducted to examine the expression of miR-206 in PTC tissues, parental and TPC-1/euthyrox. The CCK-8 assay, EdU assay and flow cytometry were performed to test cells viability, proliferation and apoptosis, respectively. Luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm the potential target of miR-206. Western blotting analysis was performed to evaluate the expressions of related-proteins.
RESULTS: miR-206 was significantly down-regulated in PTC tissues, parental and TPC-1/euthyrox. Moreover, the expression of miR-206 was exceptionally lower in TPC-1/euthyrox cells than that in TPC-1 cells. Furthermore, we found that over-expression of miR-206 could notably decrease the IC
CONCLUSION: miR-206 contributed to euthyrox resistance in PTC cells through blockage p38 and JNK signaling pathway by targeting MAP4K3, providing a potential therapeutic application for the treatment of patients with euthyrox-resistant PTC in the further.

Kuwano M, Shibata T, Watari K, Ono M
Oncogenic Y-box binding protein-1 as an effective therapeutic target in drug-resistant cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(5):1536-1543 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Y-box binding protein-1 (YBX1), a multifunctional oncoprotein containing an evolutionarily conserved cold shock domain, dysregulates a wide range of genes involved in cell proliferation and survival, drug resistance, and chromatin destabilization by cancer. Expression of a multidrug resistance-associated ATP binding cassette transporter gene, ABCB1, as well as growth factor receptor genes, EGFR and HER2/ErbB2, was initially discovered to be transcriptionally activated by YBX1 in cancer cells. Expression of other drug resistance-related genes, MVP/LRP, TOP2A, CD44, CD49f, BCL2, MYC, and androgen receptor (AR), is also transcriptionally activated by YBX1, consistently indicating that YBX1 is involved in tumor drug resistance. Furthermore, there is strong evidence to support that nuclear localization and/or overexpression of YBX1 can predict poor outcomes in patients with more than 20 different tumor types. YBX1 is phosphorylated by kinases, including AKT, p70S6K, and p90RSK, and translocated into the nucleus to promote the transcription of resistance- and malignancy-related genes. Phosphorylated YBX1, therefore, plays a crucial role as a potent transcription factor in cancer. Herein, a novel anticancer therapeutic strategy is presented by targeting activated YBX1 to overcome drug resistance and malignant progression.

Sabol RA, Beighley A, Giacomelli P, et al.
Obesity-Altered Adipose Stem Cells Promote ER⁺ Breast Cancer Metastasis through Estrogen Independent Pathways.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Adipose stem cells (ASCs) play an essential role in tumor microenvironments. These cells are altered by obesity (obASCs) and previous studies have shown that obASCs secrete higher levels of leptin. Increased leptin, which upregulates estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and aromatase, enhances estrogen bioavailability and signaling in estrogen receptor positive (ER⁺) breast cancer (BC) tumor growth and metastasis. In this study, we evaluate the effect of obASCs on ER⁺BC outside of the ERα signaling axis using breast cancer models with constitutively active ERα resulting from clinically relevant mutations (Y537S and D538G). We found that while obASCs promote tumor growth and proliferation, it occurs mostly through abrogated estrogen signaling when BC has constitutive ER activity. However, obASCs have a similar promotion of metastasis irrespective of ER status, demonstrating that obASC promotion of metastasis may not be completely estrogen dependent. We found that obASCs upregulate two genes in both ER wild type (WT) and ER mutant (MUT) BC:

Christie EL, Pattnaik S, Beach J, et al.
Multiple ABCB1 transcriptional fusions in drug resistant high-grade serous ovarian and breast cancer.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1295 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
ABCB1 encodes Multidrug Resistance protein (MDR1), an ATP-binding cassette member involved in the cellular efflux of chemotherapeutic drugs. Here we report that ovarian and breast samples from chemotherapy treated patients are positive for multiple transcriptional fusions involving ABCB1, placing it under the control of a strong promoter while leaving its open reading frame intact. We identified 15 different transcriptional fusion partners involving ABCB1, as well as patients with multiple distinct fusion events. The partner gene selected depended on its structure, promoter strength, and chromosomal proximity to ABCB1. Fusion positivity was strongly associated with the number of lines of MDR1-substrate chemotherapy given. MDR1 inhibition in a fusion positive ovarian cancer cell line increased sensitivity to paclitaxel more than 50-fold. Convergent evolution of ABCB1 fusion is therefore frequent in chemotherapy resistant recurrent ovarian cancer. As most currently approved PARP inhibitors (PARPi) are MDR1 substrates, prior chemotherapy may precondition resistance to PARPi.

Sone K, Oguri T, Uemura T, et al.
Genetic variation in the ATP binding cassette transporter ABCC10 is associated with neutropenia for docetaxel in Japanese lung cancer patients cohort.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):246 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Docetaxel is a widely used cytotoxic agent for treatments of various cancers. The ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter / multidrug resistance protein (MRP) ABCC10/MRP7, involved in transporting taxanes, has been associated with resistance to these agents. Since genetic variation in drug transporters may affect clinical outcomes, we examined whether polymorphism of ABCC10 could affect clinical responses to docetaxel.
METHODS: Using 18 NSCLC cell lines and CRISPR-based genome-edited HeLa cells, we analyzed whether genetic variants of ABCC10 (rs2125739, rs9349256) affected cytotoxicity to docetaxel. Subsequently, we analyzed genetic variants [ABCC10 (rs2125739), ABCB1 (C1236T, C3435T, G2677 T/A), ABCC2 (rs12762549), and SLCO1B3 (rs11045585)] in 69 blood samples of NSCLC patients treated with docetaxel monotherapy. Clinical outcomes were evaluated between genotype groups.
RESULTS: In the cell lines, only one genetic variant (rs2125739) was significantly associated with docetaxel cytotoxicity, and this was confirmed in the genome-edited cell line. In the 69 NSCLC patients, there were no significant differences related to rs2125739 genotype in terms of RR, PFS, or OS. However, this SNP was associated with grade 3/4 neutropenia (T/C group 60% vs. T/T group 87%; P = 0.028). Furthermore, no patient with a T/C genotype experienced febrile neutropenia.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that genetic variation in the ABCC10 gene is associated with neutropenia for docetaxel treatment.

Chen Q, Liu Y, Zhu XL, et al.
Increased NHE1 expression is targeted by specific inhibitor cariporide to sensitize resistant breast cancer cells to doxorubicin in vitro and in vivo.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):211 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: The NHE1 expression levels were first evaluated using the online database Oncomine and were determined by RT-PCR and western blot in vitro and in vivo. Cell proliferation was assessed In vitro through a CCK-8 assay, and apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. An in vivo analysis was performed in BALB/c nude mice, which were intraperitoneally injected with MCF-7/ADR cells.
RESULTS: NHE1 levels were significantly higher in breast cancer tissue than adjacent tissue, as well as in resistant cancer cells compared to sensitive cells. Cariporide induced the apoptosis of MCF-7/ADR cells and was associated with the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Moreover, cariporide decreased MDR1 expression and activated cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9, promoting caspase-independent apoptosis in vitro. In vivo, cariporide significantly improved doxorubicin sensitivity in a xenograft model, enhancing tumor growth attenuation and diminishing tumor volume.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that cariporide significantly facilitates the sensitivity of breast cancer to doxorubicin both in vitro and in vivo. This finding suggests that NHE1 may be a novel adjuvant therapeutic candidate for the treatment of resistant breast cancer.

El-Ashmawy NE, El-Zamarany EA, Khedr EG, Abo-Saif MA
Effect of modification of MTDH gene expression on colorectal cancer aggressiveness.
Gene. 2019; 698:92-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metadherin (MTDH) is an oncogene that has been overexpressed in numerous types of malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, few investigations associated with the biological behavior of MTDH in CRC have been performed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of modification of MTDH gene expression (knockdown and overexpression) on the biological behavior of CRC in vitro.
METHODS: MTDH gene expression was analyzed in two CRC cell lines (Caco-2 and HCT116) by qPCR. MTDH was down-regulated via siRNA-mediated knockdown of human MTDH in HCT116 cells, which express high endogenous levels of MTDH gene. Also, MTDH gene was up-regulated via transfection of Caco-2 cells, which express low endogenous levels of MTDH gene, with a plasmid carrying human MTDH gene.
RESULTS: Knockdown of MTDH gene expression significantly decreased the gene expression of multidrug resistance gene (MDR1), Snail and NF-κB p65, but increased the gene expression of E-cadherin. Furthermore, MTDH-knockdown significantly decreased anaerobic glycolysis (glucose consumption and lactate production), cell proliferation ability and transformation into cancer stem cell. Moreover, up-regulation of MTDH gene significantly increased the gene expression of MDR1, Snail and NF-κB p65, deceased the gene expression of E-cadherin, enhanced cell proliferation, and anaerobic glycolysis and activated transformation into cancer stem cells.
CONCLUSIONS: MTDH has an important role in promoting CRC aggravation. Also, inhibition of MTDH expression may attenuate the carcinogenic behavior of CRC cells. Furthermore, MTDH-associated NF-κB p65 signaling pathways may be involved in mediating the biological behavior of CRC.

El-Ashmawy NE, El-Zamarany EA, Khedr EG, Abo-Saif MA
Activation of EMT in colorectal cancer by MTDH/NF-κB p65 pathway.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2019; 457(1-2):83-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) leads to tumor dissemination and metastasis. Metadherin (MTDH) is an oncogene that plays an important role in metastasis regulation. This study tries to investigate the effect of MTDH gene up-regulation on the activation of EMT in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells and identify the role of NF-κB p65. The CaCO2 cells were divided into three groups: one control group of cultured CaCO2 cells (C1), and two groups of CaCO2 cells co-transfected using human MTDH expression plasmid with either siRNA targeting human NF-κB p65 or its negative control (C2 and C3 respectively). The gene modification was confirmed by qPCR and the effect of gene modification on CRC aggravation was studied. MTDH up-regulation significantly promoted CRC cell proliferation, activated anaerobic respiration (glucose consumption and lactate production), and increased gene expression of multidrug resistance gene (MDR1), Snail transcription factor and NF-κB p65, but decreased the gene expression of E-cadherin. Moreover, MTDH up-regulation led to a significant increase in the acquisition of surface markers of CRC stem cells. Interference with NF-κB p65 gene expression reversed the action of MTDH gene up-regulation on MDR1 and E-cadherin gene expression and anaerobic respiration. Moreover, NF-κB p65 interference significantly decreased MTDH-induced cell proliferation and acquisition of surface markers of CRC stem cells but didn't affect the Snail transcription factor. MTDH-dependent EMT in CRC is activated via NF-κB p65 and is mediated by up-regulation of Snail. These results identify a pathway by which MTDH regulates NF-κB p65 induced EMT during CRC cell metastasis.

Hu D, Li M, Su J, et al.
Dual-Targeting of miR-124-3p and ABCC4 Promotes Sensitivity to Adriamycin in Breast Cancer Cells.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2019; 23(3):156-165 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Increasing evidence links the abnormal expression of microRNAs and ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 (ABCC4) with tumor development and progression, as well as with chemoresistance. Our aims were to determine the therapeutic potential of targeting both miR-124-3p and ABCC4 in breast cancer cells and to determine if duel targeting increased their sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs, in vitro.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of the ABCC4 protein and miR-124-3p were detected, respectively, by immunohistochemical staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in breast cancer tumor tissue, MCF-7 and MCF-7-ADR cell lines. Suppression of ABCC4 expression and miR-124-3p overexpression were performed in MCF-7-ADR cell lines. Western blot assays were used to detect expression of ABCC4 and permeability glycoprotein 1/multi-drug resistance protein 1 (P-gp) in cells. Cell Counting Kit-8, flow cytometry, transwell, and scratch assays were conducted to detect cell proliferation, cell cycle, invasion, and migration of cells.
RESULTS: We found that ABCC4 protein expression was significantly increased, while the miR-124-3p level was significantly decreased in breast cancer tissue and cell lines. Tumor size and clinical tumor node metastasis stage were significantly correlated with elevated expression of ABCC4 and decreased expression of miR-124-3p. Interestingly, ABCC4 expression was significantly increased in MCF-7-ADR cells, while miR-124-3p level was significantly decreased compared with MCF-7 cells. The inhibition of ABCC4 and miR-124-3p overexpression both led to a significant decrease in cell proliferation, invasion, and migration of MCF-7-ADR cells, and combination of suppression of ABCC4 with miR-124-3p overexpression had a synergistic inhibitory effect. Our results further demonstrated that inhibition of ABCC4 expression and overexpression of miR-124-3p significantly enhanced the sensitivity to adriamycin (ADR) in MCF-7-ADR cells, and that simultaneous dual-targeting of miR-124-3p and ABCC4 had a stronger promotive effect on the sensitivity to ADR in MCF-7-ADR cells. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that miR-124-3p overexpression significantly inhibited P-gp expression in MCF-7-ADR cells.
CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that the combination of downregulation of ABCC4 with overexpression of miR-124-3p significantly increased sensitivity to ADR in MCF-7-ADR cells. This finding suggests that similar dual targeting may serve as a means to enhance therapies for drug-resistant breast cancers.

Niebudek K, Balcerczak E, Mirowski M, Żebrowska M
Association of ABCB1 T-129C polymorphism and multiple myeloma risk in Polish population.
Pol J Pathol. 2018; 69(4):405-409 [PubMed] Related Publications
The possible interaction between gene polymorphism and cancer risk development is a very interesting issue. The genetic variants of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) are known to be involved in developing cancer risk and individual differences in chemotherapeutic response. Polymorphisms may affect the reduction of the activity and/or expression of important protective cellular proteins. The increased exposure to toxic compounds, including carcinogens is associated with an increased risk of developing cancers. The present study was aimed to evaluate the possible effect of ABCB1 T-129C single nucleotide polymorphism in risk of cancer development in Polish patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma. 91 multiple myeloma patients and 94 healthy controls were enrolled in this case-control study. The ABCB1 T-129C genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). The distribution of particular genotypes between multiple myeloma patients and controls group was not significantly different for T-129C SNP (p = 0.4297). The studied polymorphism does not seem to affect the increased risk of multiple myeloma development.

Tse J, Ghandour R, Singla N, Lotan Y
Molecular Predictors of Complete Response Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder and Upper Tracts.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) and upper tracts (UTUC) is often regarded as one entity and is managed generally with similar principles. While neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) followed by radical cystectomy (RC) is an established standard of care in UCB, strong evidence for a similar approach is lacking in UTUC. The longest survival is seen in patients with complete response (pT0) on pathological examination of the RC specimen, but impact of delayed RC in nonresponders may be detrimental. The rate of pT0 following NAC in UTUC is considerably lower than that in UCB due to differences in access and instrumentation. Molecular markers have been evaluated to try to predict response to chemotherapy to reduce unnecessary treatment and expedite different treatment for nonresponders. A variety of potential biomarkers have been evaluated to predict response to cisplatin based chemotherapy including DNA repair genes (

Su S, Sun X, Zhang Q, et al.
CCL20 Promotes Ovarian Cancer Chemotherapy Resistance by Regulating ABCB1 Expression.
Cell Struct Funct. 2019; 44(1):21-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer (OC) is one of prevalent tumors and this study aimed to explore CCL20's effects on doxorubicin resistance of OC and related mechanisms. Doxorubicin-resistant SKOV3 DR cells were established from SKOV3 cells via 6-month continuous exposure to gradient concentrations of doxorubicin. Quantitative PCR and Western blot assay showed that SKOV3 DR cells had higher level of CCL20 than SKOV3 cells, and doxorubicin upregulated CCL20 expression in SKOV3 cells. MTT and cell count assay found that CCL20 overexpression plasmid enhanced doxorubicin resistance of SKOV3 and OVCA433 cells compared to empty vector, as shown by the increase in cell viability. In contrast, CCL20 shRNA enhanced doxorubicin sensitivity of SKOV3 DR cells compared to control. CCL20 overexpression plasmid promoted NF-kB activation and positively regulated ABCB1 expression. Besides, ABCB1 overexpression plasmid enhanced the viability of SKOV3 and OVCA433 cells compared to empty vector under treatment with the same concentration of doxorubicin, whereas ABCB1 shRNA inhibited doxorubicin resistance of SKOV3 DR cells compared to control. In conclusion, CCL20 enhanced doxorubicin resistance of OC cells by regulating ABCB1 expression.Key words: CCL20, ovarian cancer, doxorubicin resistance, tumor-promoting, ABCB1.

La X, Zhang L, Li Z, et al.
(-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) Enhances the Sensitivity of Colorectal Cancer Cells to 5-FU by Inhibiting GRP78/NF-κB/miR-155-5p/MDR1 Pathway.
J Agric Food Chem. 2019; 67(9):2510-2518 [PubMed] Related Publications
Green tea accounts for approximately 20% of the world's total tea yield. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is an active catechin in green tea, which suppresses tumor growth and enhances drug sensitivity in various cancers, but the molecular mechanism is still unclear. Chemotherapy drugs, such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), are a common strategy for clinical treatment of cancer patients; however, the lower response rate caused by prolonged use becomes the main reason for tumor recurrence. Therefore, discovering a safe and effective chemo-sensitizer is an urgent task required to be solved. Here, we report that EGCG reinforces the sensitivity of colon cancer cells to 5-FU, and the IC

Wu T, Kang H, Zhuang D, et al.
The role of ABCB1 polymorphism as a prognostic marker for primary central nervous system lymphoma.
Ann Hematol. 2019; 98(4):923-930 [PubMed] Related Publications
To investigate the possible role of functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in circadian genes as prognostic markers of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). We conducted a prospective study using data from Huashan Hospital 2006-2015 and followed up 91 PCNSL patients until June 30, 2016. The survival of patients with different prognostic factors was compared by log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed by Cox regression. During a long-term follow-up (6-110 months), overall survival (OS) was 32 months (95% CI, 13.3-91.1) and progression-free survival (PFS) was 23 months (95% CI, 9.0-41.0) for the entire cohort. Age (P = 0.046, P = 0.001) and performance status (PS) score (P = 0.013, P = 0.003) showed differences in OS and PFS. ABCB1 rs1045642 variant showed significant difference in PFS between patients with CC genotype and those with CT/TT genotypes (P = 0.020). In multivariate analysis, age (HR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.2, P = 0.008), PS (HR = 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.4, P = 0.007), and ABCB1 rs1045642 (HR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0-3.3, P = 0.036) were the independent risk factors for PFS. In our results, the most important prognostic factors associated with higher risk of progression were ABCB1 rs1045642 CC genotype, PS > 2, and older age.

Yamamoto M, Suzuki S, Togashi K, et al.
AS602801 Sensitizes Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells to Paclitaxel by Down-regulating MDR1.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(2):609-617 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: AS602801, an anti-cancer stem cell (CSC) candidate drug, sensitizes ovarian CSCs to paclitaxel and carboplatin by reducing the expression of survivin, an anti-apoptotic protein. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of AS602801 on the expression of multi drug resistance protein 1 (MDR1).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using two ovarian CSC lines, A2780 CSLC and TOV-21G CSLC, mechanisms other than survivin down-regulation were examined by comparing the effects of AS602801 and YM155, an inhibitor of survivin. After screening for the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters with or without AS602801 treatment, the sensitivity of cells to paclitaxel, carboplatin, and cisplatin was examined following knockdown of the ABC transporter.
RESULTS: The combinational effect of AS602801 on paclitaxel was less dependent on survivin than the effect on carboplatin. AS602801 reduced the expression of MDR1, an ABC transporter. Knockdown of MDR1 sensitized the cells to paclitaxel, but not to carboplatin or cisplatin.
CONCLUSION: AS602801 chemosensitized ovarian CSCs to paclitaxel by reducing the expression of MDR1.

Zhang H, Jiang H, Zhang H, et al.
Ribophorin II potentiates P-glycoprotein- and ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance via activating ERK pathway in gastric cancer.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2019; 128:574-582 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a critical reason of cancer chemotherapy failure. Ribophorin II (RPN2) has emerged as a vital regulator of MDR in multiple cancers including gastric cancer (GC). However, the roles and molecular mechanisms of RPN2 in MDR have not been well featured till now. The present study aimed to explore the roles and molecular mechanisms of RPN2 in MDR of drug-resistant GC cells. Results showed that the expressions of RPN2, multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1), and ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) were upregulated in SGC7901/DDP and SGC7901/VCR cells. Knockdown of RPN2 alleviated MDR through downregulating MDR1 and ABCG2 expressions in SGC7901/DDP and SGC7901/VCR cells. RPN2 depletion inhibited the activation of MEK/ERK pathway. RPN2 overexpression enhanced MDR by upregulating P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and ABCG2 protein expressions in SGC7901/DDP or SGC7901/VCR cells, while this effect of RPN2 was abrogated by ERK knockdown or treatment with ERK inhibitor PD98059. Our findings suggested that RPN2 potentiated P-gp- and ABCG2-mediated MDR via activating MEK/ERK pathway in GC, hinting the critical values of RPN2 in ameliorating MDR and providing a promising target for GC therapy.

Hwang SH, Kim MC, Ji S, et al.
Glucose starvation induces resistance to metformin through the elevation of mitochondrial multidrug resistance protein 1.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(4):1256-1267 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metformin, a drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus, has shown therapeutic effects for various cancers. However, it had no beneficial effects on the survival rate of human malignant mesothelioma (HMM) patients. The present study was performed to elucidate the underlying mechanism of metformin resistance in HMM cells. Glucose-starved HMM cells had enhanced resistance to metformin, demonstrated by decreased apoptosis and autophagy and increased cell survival. These cells showed abnormalities in mitochondria, such as decreased ATP synthesis, morphological elongation, altered mitochondrial permeability transition pore and hyperpolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Intriguingly, Mdr1 was significantly upregulated in mitochondria but not in cell membrane. The upregulated mitochondrial Mdr1 was reversed by treatment with carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone, an MMP depolarization inducer. Furthermore, apoptosis and autophagy were increased in multidrug resistance protein 1 knockout HMM cells cultured under glucose starvation with metformin treatment. The data suggest that mitochondrial Mdr1 plays a critical role in the chemoresistance to metformin in HMM cells, which could be a potential target for improving its therapeutic efficacy.

Fang Y, Xia M, Liang F, et al.
Establishment and Use of Human Mouth Epidermal Carcinoma (KB) Cells Overexpressing P-Glycoprotein To Characterize Structure Requirements for Flavonoids Transported by the Efflux Transporter.
J Agric Food Chem. 2019; 67(8):2350-2360 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study was aimed to determine the mechanism for flavonoid poor absorption related to P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The cellular uptake (CU) of 40 flavonoids was investigated in P-gp overexpressing KB/multidrug-resistant (MDR) cells. A total of 9 flavonoids, including 5,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone, with a significant ( p < 0.05) CU

Gupta P, Gao HL, Ashar YV, et al.
Ciprofloxacin Enhances the Chemosensitivity of Cancer Cells to ABCB1 Substrates.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
ABCB1 is one of the major drug efflux transporters that is known to cause multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy for the treatment of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Inhibition of ABCB1 efflux function is important for maintaining the intracellular concentration of chemotherapeutic drugs. Here, we evaluated ciprofloxacin for its ability to reverse MDR caused by the overexpression of ABCB1. Cytotoxicity of ciprofloxacin was determined by the MTT assay. The chemosensitizing effects of ciprofloxacin were determined in combination with ABCB1 substrates. The intracellular accumulation and efflux of ABCB1 substrates was measured by a scintillation counter, and protein expression was determined by the Western blotting. Vanadate-sensitive ATPase assay was performed to determine the effect of ciprofloxacin on the ATPase activity of ABCB1, and docking analysis was done to determine the interaction of ciprofloxacin with ABCB1. Ciprofloxacin significantly potentiated the cytotoxic effects of ABCB1 substrates in ABCB1-overexpressing cells. Furthermore, ciprofloxacin increased the intracellular accumulation and decreased the efflux of [³H]-paclitaxel without altering the expression of ABCB1. Ciprofloxacin stimulated the ATPase activity of ABCB1 in a concentration-dependent manner. Our findings showed that ciprofloxacin potently inhibits the ABCB1 efflux function and it has potential to be developed as a combination anticancer therapy.

Priyadarshini R, Raj GM, Kayal S, et al.
Influence of ABCB1 C3435T and C1236T gene polymorphisms on tumour response to docetaxel-based neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer patients of South India.
J Clin Pharm Ther. 2019; 44(2):188-196 [PubMed] Related Publications
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Variable response to docetaxel-based neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in breast cancer patients had been reported. Genetic polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene coding for the efflux transporter MDR1 (P-glycoprotein, P-gp) could result in altered tumour response. Hence, this study was proposed to assess the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ABCB1 gene on tumour response in locally advanced breast cancer patients (LABC) of South India who have a distinct genetic makeup.
METHODS: Out of 162 LABC patients recruited, 129 patients were included for the final analysis. DNA was extracted by "phenol-chloroform extraction method" from the WBCs, and genotyping for SNPs rs1045642 (C3435T) and rs1128503 (C1236T) in ABCB1 gene was performed with real-time PCR system using validated TaqMan
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A total of 102 (79.1%) patients were found to be responders and 27 (20.9%) patients were found to be non-responders to docetaxel therapy. Patients with "CT/TT" genotypes (response rate: 83.3%) of ABCB1 (C1236T) gene showed better tumour response than those with "CC" genotype (response rate: 16.6%) [OR = 2.94 (CI: 1.15-7.52); P = 0.03]. However, on performing binary logistic regression, neither the studied SNPs nor the non-genetic factors like age, BMI, postmenopausal status, laterality of the tumour, ER status, PR status and Her-2/neu status were found to be associated with tumour response to docetaxel (P > 0.05).
WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: The tumour response to docetaxel was significantly influenced by the SNP C1236T of ABCB1 gene coding for the P-gp. However, when adjusted for other non-genetic factors, neither of the ABCB1 variants were found to be associated with tumour response to docetaxel-based NACT in LABC patients of South India.

Gao Z, Li Z, Liu Y, Liu Z
Forkhead box O3 promotes colon cancer proliferation and drug resistance by activating MDR1 expression.
Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2019; 7(3):e554 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Globally, colon cancer (CC) is the third reason of tumor-related deaths. Previous reports indicate that Forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) is involved in the development of various tumors and may have different effects depending upon the types of tumors. Hence, this study was to examine the effects of FOXO3 on CC cells and uncover the possible mechanisms.
METHODS: MTT and cell count assay were applied to analyze the viability of transfected CC cells. rVista, dual luciferase reporter assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay were used to identify the downstream target of FOXO3 in HCT116 cells. The mRNA and protein abundance of FOXO3 and MDR1 were determined by quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively.
RESULTS: Forkhead box O3 stimulated the proliferation of both HCT116 and DLD1 cells. Moreover, FOXO3 overexpression inhibited doxorubicin sensitivity of HCT116 cells, while the knockout of FOXO3 by FOXO3 shRNA restored the doxorubicin sensitivity in doxorubicin-resistant HCT116 DR cells. Next, we found that FOXO3 directly bound to the promoter of MDR1 and enhanced MDR1 expression in HCT116 cells. MDR1 overexpression enhanced the viability and doxorubicin resistance of CC cells. Besides, MDR1 overexpression plasmid significantly abrogated the decrease in cell proliferation and resistance of HCT116 cells to doxorubicin caused by FOXO3 knockout.
CONCLUSION: Forkhead box O3 exhibited promotive effects on the proliferation and doxorubicin resistance in CC cells via targeting MDR1.

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