Gene Summary

Gene:TRD; T cell receptor delta locus
Aliases: TCRD, TRD@, TCRDV1
Databases:HGNC, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • Taurine
  • Thiadiazines
  • Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • T-Cell Lymphoma
  • Clonal Evolution
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • T-Lymphocyte Gene Rearrangement
  • Survival Rate
  • Genetic Recombination
  • Receptors, Antigen
  • Homeobox Protein Nkx-2.5
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Chromosome 5
  • Base Sequence
  • Chromosome 14
  • Residual Disease
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Apoptosis
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Genetic Markers
  • Recurrence
  • Translocation
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Adolescents
  • Transcription Factors
  • RHOA
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • BCL2 protein
  • Lung Cancer
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Adult T-Cell Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • T-Cell Antigen Receptors
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TRD (cancer-related)

Zoutman WH, Nell RJ, van der Velden PA
Usage of Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) Assays for T Cell Quantification in Cancer.
Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 1884:1-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
T cells fulfill a central role in cell-mediated immunity and can be found in the circulation and lymphoid organs upon maturation. For clinical applications, it can be important to quantify (infiltrated) T cells accurately in a variety of body fluids and tissues of benign, inflammatory, or malignant origin. For decades, flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry have been the accustomed methods to quantify T cells. Although these methods are widely used, they depend on the accessibility of T-cell epitopes and therefore require fresh, frozen, or fixated material of a certain quality. Whenever samples are low in quantity or quality, an accurate quantification can be impeded. By shifting the focus from epitopes to DNA, quantification of T cells remains achievable.Mature T cells differ genetically from other cell types as a result of T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements. This genetic dissimilarity can be exploited to quantify the T-cell fraction in DNA specimens. Conventionally, multiplex PCR and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), combined with deep-sequencing techniques, can be applied to determine T-cell content. However, these approaches typically target the whole TCR repertoire, thereby supplying additional information about TCR use. Considering this, a simple T-cell quantification, unwantedly, turns into a complex, expensive, and time-consuming procedure. We have developed two generic single duplex ddPCR assays as alternative methods to quantify T cells in a relatively simple, cheap, and fast manner by targeting sequences located between the Dδ2 and Dδ3 genes (TRD locus) and Dβ1 and Jβ1.1 genes (TRB locus). These specific TCR loci become deleted systematically early during lymphoid differentiation and therefore will serve as biomarkers for the quantification of mature T cells. Here, we describe a simple and sensitive ddPCR-based method to quantify T cells relatively fast, accurately and independently of the cellular context.

Theunissen PMJ, de Bie M, van Zessen D, et al.
Next-generation antigen receptor sequencing of paired diagnosis and relapse samples of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Clonal evolution and implications for minimal residual disease target selection.
Leuk Res. 2019; 76:98-104 [PubMed] Related Publications
Antigen receptor gene rearrangements are frequently applied as molecular targets for detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Since such targets may be lost at relapse, appropriate selection of antigen receptor genes as MRD-PCR target is critical. Recently, next-generation sequencing (NGS) - much more sensitive and quantitative than classical PCR-heteroduplex approaches - has been introduced for identification of MRD-PCR targets. We evaluated 42 paired diagnosis-relapse samples by NGS (IGH, IGK, TRG, TRD, and TRB) to evaluate clonal evolution patterns and to design an algorithm for selection of antigen receptor gene rearrangements most likely to remain stable at relapse. Overall, only 393 out of 1446 (27%) clonal rearrangements were stable between diagnosis and relapse. If only index clones with a frequency >5% at diagnosis were taken into account, this number increased to 65%; including only index clones with an absolute read count >10,000, indicating truly major clones, further increased the stability to 84%. Over 90% of index clones at relapse were also present as index clone at diagnosis. Our data provide detailed information about the stability of antigen receptor gene rearrangements, based on which we propose an algorithm for selecting stable MRD-PCR targets, successful in >97% of patients.

Li F, Qi J, Qin C, et al.
Taurolidine promotes cell apoptosis by enhancing GRIM‑19 expression in liver cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(6):3743-3751 [PubMed] Related Publications
Taurolidine (TRD) is a substance derived from the amino sulfonic acid taurine, which was originally used to treat peritonitis and catheter‑associated bloodstream infections, due to its antimicrobial and anti‑inflammatory properties. A recent study reported the anticancer function of TRD in malignant tumors; however, the effects and mechanisms of TRD in liver cancer remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of TRD treatment on human liver cancer cells. The viability and apoptosis of liver cancer cells were evaluated using the MTT assay and flow cytometry. Subsequently, small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to knock down the expression of gene associated with retinoid‑interferon‑induced mortality‑19 (GRIM‑19), after which, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of GRIM‑19, whereas immunofluorescence was used to analyze the location of GRIM‑19. Furthermore, western blotting was performed to detect the protein expression levels of GRIM‑19, cyclin D1, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), phosphorylated (p)‑STAT3, B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) and Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (Bax). The STAT3 pathway was inhibited using niclosamide. The results revealed that TRD reduced the viability of liver cancer cells and induced apoptosis at higher frequencies. In addition, the expression levels of GRIM‑19 were increased in a time‑ and dose‑dependent manner following TRD treatment. Alongside GRIM‑19 upregulation, the expression levels of Bax were increased, whereas those of cyclin D1, Bcl‑2 and p‑STAT3 were decreased. Furthermore, following GRIM‑19 knockdown, the effects of TRD on the viability and apoptosis of HepG2 cells, and the expression of downstream target genes (including cyclin D1, STAT3, p‑STAT3, Bcl‑2 and Bax) were reversed. Conversely, treatment with a p‑STAT3 inhibitor had an inverse effect on the expression of these genes but did not affect GRIM‑19 expression compared with the TRD group. These results indicated that TRD may contribute to cell apoptosis by inducing GRIM‑19 expression and deactivating the STAT3 signaling pathway in liver cancer cells.

Tong WL, Callahan BM, Tu YN, et al.
Immune receptor recombinations from breast cancer exome files, independently and in combination with specific HLA alleles, correlate with better survival rates.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 173(1):167-177 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Immune characterizations of cancers, including breast cancer, have led to information useful for prognoses and are considered to be important in the future of refining the use of immunotherapies, including immune checkpoint inhibitor therapies. In this study, we sought to extend these characterizations with genomics approaches, particularly with cost-effective employment of exome files.
METHODS: By recovery of immune receptor recombination reads from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) breast cancer dataset, we observed associations of these recombinations with T-cell and B-cell biomarkers and with distinct survival rates.
RESULTS: Recovery of TRD or IGH recombination reads was associated with an improved disease-free survival (p = 0.047 and 0.045, respectively). Determination of the HLA types using the exome files allowed matching of T-cell receptor V- and J-gene segment usage with specific HLA alleles, in turn allowing a refinement of the association of immune receptor recombination read recoveries with survival. For example, the TRBV7, HLA-C*07:01 combination represented a significantly worse, disease-free outcome (p = 0.014) compared to all other breast cancer samples. By direct comparisons of distinct TRB gene segment usage, HLA allele combinations revealed breast cancer subgroups, within the entire TCGA breast cancer dataset with even more dramatic survival distinctions.
CONCLUSIONS: In sum, the use of exome files for recovery of adaptive immune receptor recombination reads, and the simultaneous determination of HLA types, has the potential of advancing the use of immunogenomics for immune characterization of breast tumor samples.

Saudemont A, Jespers L, Clay T
Current Status of Gene Engineering Cell Therapeutics.
Front Immunol. 2018; 9:153 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Legut M, Dolton G, Mian AA, et al.
CRISPR-mediated TCR replacement generates superior anticancer transgenic T cells.
Blood. 2018; 131(3):311-322 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Adoptive transfer of T cells genetically modified to express a cancer-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) has shown significant therapeutic potential for both hematological and solid tumors. However, a major issue of transducing T cells with a transgenic TCR is the preexisting expression of TCRs in the recipient cells. These endogenous TCRs compete with the transgenic TCR for surface expression and allow mixed dimer formation. Mixed dimers, formed by mispairing between the endogenous and transgenic TCRs, may harbor autoreactive specificities. To circumvent these problems, we designed a system where the endogenous TCR-β is knocked out from the recipient cells using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein-9 (Cas9) technology, simultaneously with transduction with a cancer-reactive receptor of choice. This TCR replacement strategy resulted in markedly increased surface expression of transgenic αβ and γδ TCRs, which in turn translated to a stronger, and more polyfunctional, response of engineered T cells to their target cancer cell lines. Additionally, the TCR-plus-CRISPR-modified T cells were up to a thousandfold more sensitive to antigen than standard TCR-transduced T cells or conventional model proxy systems used for studying TCR activity. Finally, transduction with a pan-cancer-reactive γδ TCR used in conjunction with CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of the endogenous αβ TCR resulted in more efficient redirection of CD4

Theunissen PMJ, van Zessen D, Stubbs AP, et al.
Antigen receptor sequencing of paired bone marrow samples shows homogeneous distribution of acute lymphoblastic leukemia subclones.
Haematologica. 2017; 102(11):1869-1877 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the initial leukemic cells share the same antigen receptor gene rearrangements. However, due to ongoing rearrangement processes, leukemic cells with different gene rearrangement patterns can develop, resulting in subclone formation. We studied leukemic subclones and their distribution in the bone marrow and peripheral blood at diagnosis. Antigen receptor gene rearrangements (IGH, IGK, TRG, TRD, TRB) were analyzed by next-generation sequencing in seven paired bone marrow samples and five paired bone marrow-peripheral blood samples. Background-thresholds were defined, which enabled identification of leukemic gene rearrangements down to very low levels. Paired bone marrow analysis showed oligoclonality in all 7 patients and up to 34 leukemic clones per patient. Additional analysis of evolutionary-related IGH gene rearrangements revealed up to 171 leukemic clones per patient. Interestingly, overall 86% of all leukemic gene rearrangements, including small subclones, were present in both bone marrow samples (range per patient: 72-100%). Paired bone marrow-peripheral blood analysis showed that 83% of all leukemic gene rearrangements in bone marrow were also found in peripheral blood (range per patient: 81-100%). Remarkably, in the paired bone marrow samples and paired bone marrow-peripheral blood samples the vast majority of leukemic gene rearrangements had a similar frequency (<5-fold frequency difference) (96% and 96% of leukemic rearrangements, respectively). Together, these results indicate that B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia is generally highly oligoclonal. Nevertheless, the vast majority of leukemic clones, even the minor antigen receptor-defined subclones, are homogeneously distributed throughout the bone marrow and peripheral blood compartment.

Efimenko E, Davé UP, Lebedeva IV, et al.
PI3Kγ/δ and NOTCH1 Cross-Regulate Pathways That Define the T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Disease Signature.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2017; 16(10):2069-2082 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PI3K/AKT and NOTCH1 signaling pathways are frequently dysregulated in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALL). Although we have shown that the combined activities of the class I PI3K isoforms p110γ and p110δ play a major role in the development and progression of PTEN-null T-ALL, it has yet to be determined whether their contribution to leukemogenic programing is unique from that associated with NOTCH1 activation. Using an

Villarese P, Lours C, Trinquand A, et al.
TCRα rearrangements identify a subgroup of NKL-deregulated adult T-ALLs associated with favorable outcome.
Leukemia. 2018; 32(1):61-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) results from leukemic transformation of T-cell precursors arrested at specific differentiation stages, including an 'early-cortical' thymic maturation arrest characterized by expression of cytoplasmic TCRβ but no surface T-cell receptor (TCR) and frequent ectopic expression of the TLX1/3 NK-like homeotic proteins (NKL). We designed a TCRα VJC PCR to identify clonal TCRα rearrangements in 32% of 127 T-ALLs, including 0/52 immature/TCRγδ lineage cases and 41/75 (55%) TCRαβ lineage cases. Amongst the latter, TCRα rearrangements were not identified in 30/54 (56%) of IMβ/pre-αβ early-cortical T-ALLs, of which the majority (21/30) expressed TLX1/3. We reasoned that the remaining T-ALLs might express other NKL proteins, so compared transcript levels of 46 NKL in T-ALL and normal thymic subpopulations. Ectopic overexpression of 10 NKL genes, of which six are unreported in T-ALL (NKX2-3, BARHL1, BARX2, EMX2, LBX2 and MSX2), was detectable in 17/104 (16%) T-ALLs. Virtually all NKL overexpressing T-ALLs were TCRα unrearranged and ectopic NKL transcript expression strongly repressed Eα activity, suggesting that ectopic NKL expression is the major determinant in early-cortical thymic T-ALL maturation arrest. This immunogenetic T-ALL subtype, defined by TCRβ VDJ but no TCRα VJ rearrangement, is associated with a favorable outcome in GRAALL-treated adult T-ALLs.

Buchholz M, Majchrzak-Stiller B, Hahn S, et al.
Innovative substance 2250 as a highly promising anti-neoplastic agent in malignant pancreatic carcinoma - in vitro and in vivo.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):216 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Former studies already revealed the anti-neoplastic properties of the anti-infective agent Taurolidine (TRD) against many tumor species in vitro and in vivo. Its anti-proliferative and cell death inducing capacity is largely due to its main derivative Taurultam (TRLT). In this study it could be demonstrated, that substance 2250 - a newly defined innovative structural analogue of TRLT - exhibits an anti-neoplastic effect on malignant pancreatic carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.
METHODS: The anti-neoplastic potential of substance 2250 as well as its mode of action was demonstrated in extensive in vitro analysis, followed by successful and effective in vivo testings, using xenograft models derived from established pancreatic cancer cell lines as well as patient derived tissue.
RESULTS: Our functional analysis regarding the role of oxidative stress (ROS) and caspase activated apoptosis showed, that ROS driven programmed cell death (PCD) is the major mechanisms induced by substance 2250 in pancreatic carcinoma. What is strongly relevant towards clinical practice is especially the observed inhibition of patient derived pancreatic cancer tumor growth in mice treated with this new substance in combination with its sharply higher metabolic stability.
CONCLUSION: These encouraging results provide new therapeutical opportunities in pancreatic cancer treatment and build the basis for further functional analysis as well as first clinical studies for this promising agent.

Samy MD, Tong WL, Yavorski JM, et al.
T cell receptor gene recombinations in human tumor specimen exome files: detection of T cell receptor-β VDJ recombinations associates with a favorable oncologic outcome for bladder cancer.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2017; 66(3):403-410 [PubMed] Related Publications
Understanding tumor-resident T cells is important for cancer prognosis and treatment options. Conventional, solid tumor specimen exome files can be searched directly for recombined T cell receptor (TcR)-α segments; RNASeq files can include TcR-β VDJ recombinations. To learn whether there are medically relevant uses of exome-based detection of TcR V(D)J recombinations in the tumor microenvironment, we searched cancer genome atlas and Moffitt Cancer Center, tumor specimen exome files for TcR-β, TcR-γ, and TcR-δ recombinations, for bladder and stomach cancer. We found that bladder cancer exomes with productive TcR-β recombinations had a significant association with No Subsequent Tumors and a positive response to drug treatments, with p < 0.004, p < 0.05, and p < 0.004, depending on the sample sets examined. We also discovered the opportunity to detect productive TcR-γ and TcR-δ recombinations in the tumor microenvironment, via the tumor specimen exome files.

Jin Z, Luo Q, Lu S, et al.
Oligoclonal expansion of TCR Vδ T cells may be a potential immune biomarker for clinical outcome of acute myeloid leukemia.
J Hematol Oncol. 2016; 9(1):126 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent data have shown that γδ T cells can act as mediators for immune defense against tumors. Our previous study has demonstrated that persisting clonally expanded TRDV4 T cells might be relatively beneficial for the outcome of patients with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, little is known about the distribution and clonality of the TRDV repertoire in T cell receptor (TCR) of γδ T cells and their effects on the clinical outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The aim of this study was to assess whether the oligoclonal expansion of TCR Vδ T cells could be used as an immune biomarker for AML outcome.
FINDINGS: γδ T cells were sorted from the peripheral blood of 30 patients with untreated AML and 12 healthy donors. The complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) sizes of eight TCR Vδ subfamily genes (TRDV1 to TRDV8) were analyzed in sorted γδ T cells using RT-PCR and GeneScan. The most frequently expressed TRDV subfamilies in the AML patients were TRDV8 (86.67 %) and TRDV2 (83.33 %), and the frequencies for TRDV1, TRDV3, TRDV4, and TRDV6 were significantly lower than those in healthy individuals. The most frequent clonally expanded TRDV subfamilies in the AML patients included TRDV8 (56.67 %) and TRDV4 (40 %). The clonal expansion frequencies of the TRDV2 and TRDV4 T cells were significantly higher than those in healthy individuals, whereas a significantly lower TRDV1 clonal expansion frequency was observed in those with AML. Moreover, the oligoclones of TRDV4 and TRDV8 were independent protective factors for complete remission. Furthermore, the oligoclonal expansion frequencies of TRDV5 and TRDV6 in patients with relapse were significantly higher than those in non-recurrent cases.
CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, we characterized for the first time a significant alteration in the distribution and clonality of the TRDV subfamily members in γδ T cells sorted from AML patients. Clonally expanded TRDV4 and TRDV8 T cells might contribute to the immune response directed against AML, while oligoclonal TRDV5 and TRDV6 might occur in patients who undergo relapse. While the function of such γδ T cell clones requires further investigation, TRDV γδ T cell clones might be potential immune biomarkers for AML outcome.

Mirzaei HR, Mirzaei H, Lee SY, et al.
Prospects for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) γδ T cells: A potential game changer for adoptive T cell cancer immunotherapy.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 380(2):413-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Excitement is growing for therapies that harness the power of patients' immune systems to combat their diseases. One approach to immunotherapy involves engineering patients' own T cells to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to treat advanced cancers, particularly those refractory to conventional therapeutic agents. Although these engineered immune cells have made remarkable strides in the treatment of patients with certain hematologic malignancies, success with solid tumors has been limited, probably due to immunosuppressive mechanisms in the tumor niche. In nearly all studies to date, T cells bearing αβ receptors have been used to generate CAR T cells. In this review, we highlight biological characteristics of γδ T cells that are distinct from those of αβ T cells, including homing to epithelial and mucosal tissues and unique functions such as direct antigen recognition, lack of alloreactivity, and ability to present antigens. We offer our perspective that these features make γδ T cells promising for use in cellular therapy against several types of solid tumors, including melanoma and gastrointestinal cancers. Engineered γδ T cells should be considered as a new platform for adoptive T cell cancer therapy for mucosal tumors.

Mirji G, Bhat J, Kode J, et al.
Risk stratification of T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia patients based on gene expression, mutations and copy number variation.
Leuk Res. 2016; 45:33-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene expression, copy number variations (CNV), mutations and survival were studied to delineate TCRγδ+T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) as a distinct subgroup from TCRαβ+T-ALL. Gene Ontology analysis showed that differential regulation of genes involved in pathways for leukemogenesis, apoptosis, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and antigen processing/presentation may offer a survival benefit to TCRγδ+T-ALL patients. Genes involved in disease biology and having equal expression in both the subgroups, were further analysed for mutations and CNV using droplet digital PCR. TCRγδ+T-ALL patients exhibited differential level of mutations for NOTCH1 and IKZF3; however BRAF mutations were detected at equal levels in both the subgroups. Although TCRγδ+T-ALL patients with these mutations demonstrated improved disease-free survival (DFS) as compared TCRαβ+T-ALL patients, it was not statistically significant. Patients with homozygous deletion of CDKN2A/CDKN2B showed poor DFS in each subgroup. TCRγδ+T-ALL patients with wild type/heterozygous deletion of CDKN2A/CDKN2B possess significantly better DFS over TCRαβ+T-ALL patients (p=0.017 and 0.045, respectively). Thus, the present study has for the first time demonstrated TCRγδ clonality and CDKN2A/CDKN2B CNV together as potential prognostic markers in management of T-ALL. Further understanding the functional significance of differentially regulated genes in T-ALL patients would aid in designing risk based treatment strategies in subset specific manner.

López C, Bergmann AK, Paul U, et al.
Genes encoding members of the JAK-STAT pathway or epigenetic regulators are recurrently mutated in T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia.
Br J Haematol. 2016; 173(2):265-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia (T-PLL) is an aggressive leukaemia. The primary genetic alteration in T-PLL are the inv(14)(q11q32)/t(14;14)(q11;q32) leading to TRD/TRA-TCL1A fusion, or the t(X;14)(q28;q11) associated with TRD/TRA-MTCP1 fusion. However, additional cooperating abnormalities are necessary for emergence of the full neoplastic phenotype. Though the pattern of secondary chromosomal aberrations is remarkably conserved, targets of the changes are largely unknown. We analysed a cohort of 43 well-characterized T-PLL for hotspot mutations in the genes JAK3, STAT5B and RHOA. Additionally, we selected a subset of 23 T-PLL cases for mutational screening of 54 genes known to be recurrently mutated in T-cell and other haematological neoplasms. Activating mutations in the investigated regions of the JAK3 and STAT5B genes were detected in 30% (13/43) and 21% (8/39) of the cases, respectively, and were mutually exclusive. Further, we identified mutations in the genes encoding the epigenetic regulators EZH2 in 13% (3/23), TET2 in 17% (4/23) and BCOR in 9% (2/23) of the cases. We confirmed that the JAK-STAT pathway is a major mutational target, and identified epigenetic regulators recurrently mutated in T-PLL. These findings complement the mutational spectrum of secondary aberrations in T-PLL and underscore the potential therapeutical relevance of epigenetic regulators in T-PLL.

Ferret Y, Caillault A, Sebda S, et al.
Multi-loci diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis.
Br J Haematol. 2016; 173(3):413-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
High-throughput sequencing (HTS) is considered a technical revolution that has improved our knowledge of lymphoid and autoimmune diseases, changing our approach to leukaemia both at diagnosis and during follow-up. As part of an immunoglobulin/T cell receptor-based minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients, we assessed the performance and feasibility of the replacement of the first steps of the approach based on DNA isolation and Sanger sequencing, using a HTS protocol combined with bioinformatics analysis and visualization using the Vidjil software. We prospectively analysed the diagnostic and relapse samples of 34 paediatric patients, thus identifying 125 leukaemic clones with recombinations on multiple loci (TRG, TRD, IGH and IGK), including Dd2/Dd3 and Intron/KDE rearrangements. Sequencing failures were halved (14% vs. 34%, P = 0.0007), enabling more patients to be monitored. Furthermore, more markers per patient could be monitored, reducing the probability of false negative MRD results. The whole analysis, from sample receipt to clinical validation, was shorter than our current diagnostic protocol, with equal resources. V(D)J recombination was successfully assigned by the software, even for unusual recombinations. This study emphasizes the progress that HTS with adapted bioinformatics tools can bring to the diagnosis of leukaemia patients.

Jeong JH, Ahn JY, Park PW, et al.
A t(11;14)(p13;q11.2) in myelofibrosis following polycythemia vera.
Cancer Genet. 2016; 209(3):112-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosomal abnormalities at 14q11, which encodes the T-cell receptor α and δ chain genes, are generally specific for T-cell malignancies, and are rarely reported in other malignancies. We report a novel t(11;14)(p13;q11.2) in a patient with myelofibrosis (MF) following polycythemia vera (PV). This 55-year-old male developed post-PV MF 12 years after the initial diagnosis of PV. He had a normal karyotype at polycythemic disease stage, t(11;14)(p13;q11.2) was newly detected at the time of fibrotic transformation. Therefore, it is likely that this clonal chromosomal abnormality was associated with progression of disease.

Martinez-Escala ME, Guggina LM, Cotliar J, et al.
Cutaneous Involvement in a Case of Intravascular T-Cell Lymphoma With a γδ Phenotype.
Am J Dermatopathol. 2016; 38(2):e27-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intravascular lymphomas (IVL) are uncommon variants of extranodal non-Hodgkin which are usually difficult to diagnose because of their lack of clinical uniformity. Most cases are of B-cell differentiation followed by natural killer/T-cell differentiation and underlying CD30 lymphoproliferative conditions. Epstein-Barr virus is pathogenically related in most of the natural killer/T-cell variants, and the skin is a common site of presentation noted in approximately 40% of cases. Recently, cases with uncommon phenotypes have been described, expanding our understanding of the pathogenesis of this condition. In this report, we describe a 67-year-old man with a 3-month history of constitutional symptoms associated with linear purpuric macules on the trunk, pancytopenia, and high levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase. He had been followed for longstanding adenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. Skin biopsy demonstrated a intravascular lymphocytic proliferation with positivity for CD3, CD2, CD5, and γδ T-cell receptor marker; in situ hybridization Epstein-Barr virus RNA was negative. The patient was subsequently treated with chemotherapy and allogenic stem cell transplant. He remains in complete remission 6 months posttransplant. Although the presence of hepatosplenomegaly led to consideration of a hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma, it was pre-existing for several years making the diagnosis doubtful. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of an IVL γδ T-cell lymphoma.

Kirsch IR, Watanabe R, O'Malley JT, et al.
TCR sequencing facilitates diagnosis and identifies mature T cells as the cell of origin in CTCL.
Sci Transl Med. 2015; 7(308):308ra158 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Early diagnosis of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is difficult and takes on average 6 years after presentation, in part because the clinical appearance and histopathology of CTCL can resemble that of benign inflammatory skin diseases. Detection of a malignant T cell clone is critical in making the diagnosis of CTCL, but the T cell receptor γ (TCRγ) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in current clinical use detects clones in only a subset of patients. High-throughput TCR sequencing (HTS) detected T cell clones in 46 of 46 CTCL patients, was more sensitive and specific than TCRγ PCR, and successfully discriminated CTCL from benign inflammatory diseases. HTS also accurately assessed responses to therapy and facilitated diagnosis of disease recurrence. In patients with new skin lesions and no involvement of blood by flow cytometry, HTS demonstrated hematogenous spread of small numbers of malignant T cells. Analysis of CTCL TCRγ genes demonstrated that CTCL is a malignancy derived from mature T cells. There was a maximal T cell density in skin in benign inflammatory diseases that was exceeded in CTCL, suggesting that a niche of finite size may exist for benign T cells in skin. Last, immunostaining demonstrated that the malignant T cell clones in mycosis fungoides and leukemic CTCL localized to different anatomic compartments in the skin. In summary, HTS accurately diagnosed CTCL in all stages, discriminated CTCL from benign inflammatory skin diseases, and provided insights into the cell of origin and location of malignant CTCL cells in skin.

Menon MP, Nicolae A, Meeker H, et al.
Primary CNS T-cell Lymphomas: A Clinical, Morphologic, Immunophenotypic, and Molecular Analysis.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(12):1719-1729 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas are relatively rare with the most common subtype being diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Primary CNS T-cell lymphomas (PCNSTL) account for <5% of CNS lymphomas. We report the clinical, morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular characteristics of 18 PCNSTLs. Fifteen cases were classified as peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, 2 of which were of γδ T-cell derivation and 1 was TCR silent; there was 1 anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-positive and 2 anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-negative. Median age was 58.5 years (range, 21 to 81 y), with an M:F ratio of 11:7. Imaging results showed that 15 patients had supratentorial lesions. Regardless of subtype, necrosis and perivascular cuffing of tumor cells were frequently observed (11/18 cases). CD3 was positive in all cases but 1; 10/17 were CD8-positive, and 5/17 were CD4-positive. Most cases studied had a cytotoxic phenotype with expression of TIA1 (13/15) and granzyme-B (9/13). Polymerase chain reaction analysis of T-cell receptor γ rearrangement confirmed a T-cell clone in 14 cases with adequate DNA quality. Next-generation sequencing showed somatic mutations in 36% of cases studied; 2 had >1 mutation, and none showed overlapping mutations. These included mutations in DNMT3A, KRAS, JAK3, STAT3, STAT5B, GNB1, and TET2 genes, genes implicated previously in other T-cell neoplasms. The outcome was heterogenous; 2 patients are alive without disease, 4 are alive with disease, and 6 died of disease. In conclusion, PCNSTLs are histologically and genomically heterogenous with frequent phenotypic aberrancy and a cytotoxic phenotype in most cases.

Yokokawa Y, Taki T, Chinen Y, et al.
Unique clonal relationship between T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and subsequent Langerhans cell histiocytosis with TCR rearrangement and NOTCH1 mutation.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2015; 54(7):409-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) occasionally develops before or after the onset of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). The mechanism of LCH developing after ALL remains unclear; thus the clonality of LCH developing during maintenance chemotherapy for T-cell ALL (T-ALL) was investigated. The T-ALL and LCH cells tested had the same T-cell receptor (TCR) gamma rearrangement. Mutation analysis of the NOTCH1 gene revealed 7213C>T (Q2405X) in exon 34 in T-ALL and LCH cells, but 5156T>C (I1719T) in exon 27 only in T-ALL. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed three patterns of NOTCH1 mutations in T-ALL cells. The results suggest that the T-ALL and LCH cells were derived from a common precursor with TCR rearrangement and a single NOTCH1 mutation, rather than LCH cells developing from a minor clone of T-ALL with single NOTCH1 mutation.

Kato S, Asano N, Miyata-Takata T, et al.
T-cell receptor (TCR) phenotype of nodal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma (CTL): a clinicopathologic study of 39 cases.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(4):462-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Among Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive cytotoxic T/NK-cell lymphoma, there are only a few reports on the clinicopathologic features of patients with primary nodal presentation (nodal EBV cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma [CTL]). Here, we compared the clinicopathologic profiles of 39 patients with nodal EBV CTL with those of 27 cases of "extranasal" NK/T-cell lymphoma of nasal type (ENKTL), especially addressing their T-cell receptor (TCR) phenotype. Histologically, 22 of 39 nodal EBV CTL cases (56%) were unique in having centroblastoid appearance, which was contrasted with the lower incidence of this feature in ENKTL (15%, P=0.001). In contrast, pleomorphic appearance was more frequently seen in ENKTL than in nodal EBV CTL (67% vs. 23%, P=0.001). Thirty-three of 39 nodal EBV CTL cases (85%) were of T-cell lineage on the basis of TCR expression and/or TCRγ gene rearrangement; in detail, 18 cases (46%) were TCRβ positive (αβ T), 5 (13%) were TCRγ and/or δ positive (γδ T), and 10 (26%) were TCR-silent type with clonal TCRγ gene rearrangement but no expression of TCRβ, γ, or δ. These results were clearly contrasted by a lower incidence of T-cell lineage in ENKTL (7 cases, 26%, P<0.001). Notably, the survival time of the 5 nodal lymphoma patients with γδ T-cell phenotype was within 3 months, which was inferior to those of αβ T and TCR-silent types (P=0.003), and 3 of those with available clinical information were all found to be associated with autoimmune diseases. These data suggest that nodal EBV CTL is distinct from ENKTL.

Kempf W, Kazakov DV, Hübscher E, et al.
Cutaneous borreliosis associated with T cell-predominant infiltrates: a diagnostic challenge.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015; 72(4):683-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: With the exception of erythema migrans, Borrelia infection of the skin manifests much more commonly with B cell-rich infiltrates. T cell-rich lesions have rarely been described.
OBJECTIVE: We report a series of 6 patients with cutaneous borreliosis presenting with T cell-predominant skin infiltrates.
METHODS: We studied the clinicopathologic and molecular features of 6 patients with T cell-rich skin infiltrates.
RESULTS: Half of the patients had erythematous patchy, partly annular lesions, and the other patients had features of acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Histopathology revealed a dense, band-like or diffuse dermal infiltrate. Apart from small, well differentiated lymphocytes, there were medium-sized lymphocytes with slight nuclear atypia and focal epidermotropism. An interstitial histiocytic component was found in 4 cases, including histiocytic pseudorosettes. Fibrosis was present in all cases but varied in severity and distribution. In 5 patients, borrelia DNA was detected in lesional tissue using polymerase chain reaction studies. No monoclonal rearrangement of T-cell receptor gamma genes was found.
LIMITATIONS: This retrospective study was limited by the small number of patients.
CONCLUSION: In addition to unusual clinical presentation, cutaneous borreliosis can histopathologically manifest with a T cell-rich infiltrate mimicking cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Awareness of this clinicopathologic constellation is important to prevent underrecognition of this rare and unusual presentation representing a Borrelia-associated T-cell pseudolymphoma.

Delas A, Gaulard P, Plat G, et al.
Follicular variant of peripheral T cell lymphoma with mediastinal involvement in a child: a case report.
Virchows Arch. 2015; 466(3):351-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Peripheral T cell lymphomas are rare in young patients. We report the first case of a follicular variant of peripheral T cell lymphoma not otherwise specified in an 11-year-old boy, who presented with a large mediastinal mass. Microscopic examination of the mediastinal biopsy revealed nodular infiltration of medium- to large-sized atypical lymphocytes. Immunohistochemistry showed expression of follicular helper T cell markers (CD10, PD1, CXCL13, and BCL6) in tumor T cells. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was not detected by an in situ hybridization assay for EBV-encoded RNA. Interestingly, fluorescence in situ hybridization detected the presence in the tumor cells of the t(5;9)(q33;q22) translocation, involving ITK and SYK rearrangement. T cell clonality was detected by multiplex PCR analysis of TRG and TRD gene rearrangements. After 4 cycles of systemic chemotherapy, the patient was in complete remission. Although this entity is very rare, our observations show that lymphomas arising from T follicular helper cells may occur in children and that this should be distinguished from other lymphomas, such T-lymphoblastic lymphomas, which require a specific therapeutic approach.

Tota G, Coccaro N, Zagaria A, et al.
ADAMTS2 gene dysregulation in T/myeloid mixed phenotype acute leukemia.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:963 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mixed phenotype acute leukemias (MPAL) include acute leukemias with blasts that express antigens of more than one lineage, with no clear evidence of myeloid or lymphoid lineage differentiation. T/myeloid (T/My) MPAL not otherwise specified (NOS) is a rare leukemia that expresses both T and myeloid antigens, accounting for less than 1% of all leukemias but 89% of T/My MPAL. From a molecular point of view, very limited data are available on T/My MPAL NOS.
CASE PRESENTATION: In this report we describe a T/My MPAL NOS case with a complex rearrangement involving chromosomes 5 and 14, resulting in overexpression of the ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 2 (ADAMTS2) gene due to its juxtaposition to the T cell receptor delta (TRD) gene segment.
CONCLUSION: Detailed molecular cytogenetic characterization of the complex rearrangement in the reported T/My MPAL case allowed us to observe ADAMTS2 gene overexpression, identifying a molecular marker that may be useful for monitoring minimal residual disease. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of gene dysregulation due to a chromosomal rearrangement in T/My MPAL NOS.

Ehrlich LA, Yang-Iott K, Bassing CH
Tcrδ translocations that delete the Bcl11b haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene promote atm-deficient T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Cell Cycle. 2014; 13(19):3076-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
ATM is the master regulator of the cellular response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Deficiency of ATM predisposes humans and mice to αβ T lymphoid cancers with clonal translocations between the T cell receptor (TCR) α/δ locus and a 450 kb region of synteny on human chromosome 14 and mouse chromosome 12. While these translocations target and activate the TCL1 oncogene at 14q32 to cause T cell pro-lymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL), the TCRα/δ;14q32 translocations in ATM-deficient T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) have not been characterized and their role in cancer pathogenesis remains unknown. The corresponding lesion in Atm-deficient mouse T-ALLs is a chromosome t(12;14) translocation with Tcrδ genes fused to sequences on chromosome 12; although these translocations do not activate Tcl1, they delete the Bcl11b haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene. To assess whether Tcrδ translocations that inactivate one copy of Bcl11b promote transformation of Atm-deficient cells, we analyzed Atm(-/-) mice with mono-allelic Bcl11b deletion initiating in thymocytes concomitant with Tcrδ recombination. Inactivation of one Bcl11b copy had no effect on the predisposition of Atm(-/-) mice to clonal T-ALLs. Yet, none of these T-ALLs had a clonal chromosome t(12;14) translocation that deleted Bcl11b indicating that Tcrδ translocations that inactivate a copy of Bcl11b promote transformation of Atm-deficient thymocytes. Our data demonstrate that antigen receptor locus translocations can cause cancer by deleting a tumor suppressor gene. We discuss the implications of these findings for the etiology and therapy of T-ALLs associated with ATM deficiency and TCRα/δ translocations targeting the 14q32 cytogenetic region.

Li D, Huang L, Guo B, et al.
Primary cutaneous γδ-T-cell lymphoma (CGD-TCL) with unilateral lower extremity swelling as first-onset symptom: a rare case report.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(8):5337-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Primary cutaneous γδ-T-cell lymphoma (CGD-TCL) is a distinct disease entity which is an extremely rare neoplasm with poor prognosis, characterized by the γ/δ T-cell receptor expression on atypical lymphocytes. We report the case of a 42-year-old man who first presented with a swelling in the extremities and subsequent appeared subcutaneous nodule over the body. In order to clarify the diagnosis, a biopsy of subcutaneous nodule for pathology had been done. CGD-TCL was diagnosed by histopathology, immunophenotype, in situ hybridization and analysis of TCRγ genes rearrangement. The patient was treated with chemotherapeutic regimens-CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone). After one period of chemotherapy, subcutaneous nodules became small, even disappeared, swelling and ulcer in the left pedal gone away gradually. One month later after first chemotherapy, tumor relapsed with lesions growing back rapidly, also showed disease in double lungs. The patient was just 10-month survival time from the onset. To our knowledge, this case is the first report of CGD-TCL with unilateral lower extremity swelling as the first-onset symptom. If patient is presented the first symptoms such as swelling of extremities, especially when ulceration appears, it is of great significance to be considerate about the possibility of CGD-TCL.

Musilova P, Drbalova J, Kubickova S, et al.
Illegitimate recombination between T cell receptor genes in humans and pigs (Sus scrofa domestica).
Chromosome Res. 2014; 22(4):483-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
T cell receptor (TCR) genes (TRA/TRD, TRB and TRG) reside in three regions on human chromosomes (14q11.2, 7q34 and 7p14, respectively) and pig chromosomes (7q15.3-q21, 18q11.3-q12 and 9q21-22, respectively). During the maturation of T cells, TCR genes are rearranged by site-specific recombination. Occasionally, interlocus recombination of different TCR genes takes place, resulting in chromosome rearrangements. It has been suggested that the absolute number of these "innocent" trans-rearrangements correlates with the risk of lymphoma. The aims of this work were to assess the frequencies of rearrangements with breakpoints in TCR genes in domestic pig lymphocytes and to compare these with the frequencies of corresponding rearrangements in human lymphocytes by using fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome painting probes. We show that frequencies of trans-rearrangements involving TRA/TRD locus in pigs are significantly higher than the frequency of translocations with breakpoints in TRB and TRG genes in pigs and the frequencies of corresponding trans-rearrangements involving TRA/TRD locus in humans. Complex structure of the pig TRA/TRD locus with high number of potential V(D)J rearrangements compared to the human locus may account for the observed differences. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trans-rearrangements involving pig TRA/TRD locus occur at lower frequencies in γδ T cells than in αβ T lymphocytes. The decrease of the frequencies in γδ T cells is probably caused by the absence of TRA recombination during maturation of this T cell lineage. High numbers of innocent trans-rearrangements in pigs may indicate a higher risk of T-cell lymphoma than in humans.

Choe JY, Bisig B, de Leval L, Jeon YK
Primary γδ T cell lymphoma of the lung: report of a case with features suggesting derivation from intraepithelial γδ T lymphocytes.
Virchows Arch. 2014; 465(6):731-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
T cell lymphoma of γδ T cell origin is a rare disease that mainly involves extranodal sites and shows aggressive clinical behavior. Here, we report a case of primary γδ T cell lymphoma of the lungs with epitheliotropism in the respiratory epithelium, a feature somewhat reminiscent of what is observed in enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma. A 63-year-old man presented with chest pain and dyspnea on exertion, weight loss, and general weakness. On a positron emission tomography (PET) scan, multiple hypermetabolic lesions were found in both lungs. Microscopic examination of the wedge lung biopsy revealed nodular infiltration of monomorphic, medium- to large-sized atypical lymphocytes with round nuclei, coarse chromatin, and a variable amount of clear to eosinophilic cytoplasm. Of note, intraepithelial lymphocytosis by atypical lymphoid cells was observed in the respiratory epithelium within and around the nodule. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were CD3+, TCRβF1-, TCRγ+, CD5-, CD7+, CD20-, CD79a-, CD30-, CD4-, CD8-, CD10-, BCL6-, CD21-, CD56+, CD57-, and CD138-, and expressed cytotoxic molecules. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was not detected by an in situ hybridization assay for EBV-encoded RNA. Interestingly, CD103 was expressed by a subset of tumor cells, especially those infiltrating the epithelium. T cell clonality was detected by multiplex PCR analysis of TRG and TRD gene rearrangements. After 2 months of systemic chemotherapy, PET scan showed regression of the size and metabolic activity of the lesions. This case represents a unique γδ T cell lymphoma of the lungs showing epitheliotropism by CD103+ γδ T cells that is suggestive of tissue-resident γδ T cells as the cell of origin.

Logan AC, Vashi N, Faham M, et al.
Immunoglobulin and T cell receptor gene high-throughput sequencing quantifies minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and predicts post-transplantation relapse and survival.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2014; 20(9):1307-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Minimal residual disease (MRD) quantification is an important predictor of outcome after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Bone marrow ALL burden ≥ 10(-4) after induction predicts subsequent relapse. Likewise, MRD ≥ 10(-4) in bone marrow before initiation of conditioning for allogeneic (allo) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) predicts transplantation failure. Current methods for MRD quantification in ALL are not sufficiently sensitive for use with peripheral blood specimens and have not been broadly implemented in the management of adults with ALL. Consensus-primed immunoglobulin (Ig), T cell receptor (TCR) amplification and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) permit use of a standardized algorithm for all patients and can detect leukemia at 10(-6) or lower. We applied the LymphoSIGHT HTS platform (Sequenta Inc., South San Francisco, CA) to quantification of MRD in 237 samples from 29 adult B cell ALL patients before and after allo-HCT. Using primers for the IGH-VDJ, IGH-DJ, IGK, TCRB, TCRD, and TCRG loci, MRD could be quantified in 93% of patients. Leukemia-associated clonotypes at these loci were identified in 52%, 28%, 10%, 35%, 28%, and 41% of patients, respectively. MRD ≥ 10(-4) before HCT conditioning predicted post-HCT relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 7.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0 to 30; P = .003). In post-HCT blood samples, MRD ≥10(-6) had 100% positive predictive value for relapse with median lead time of 89 days (HR, 14; 95% CI, 4.7 to 44, P < .0001). The use of HTS-based MRD quantification in adults with ALL offers a standardized approach with sufficient sensitivity to quantify leukemia MRD in peripheral blood. Use of this approach may identify a window for clinical intervention before overt relapse.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. TRD@, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 31 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999