Gene Summary

Gene:SLC5A5; solute carrier family 5 member 5
Aliases: NIS, TDH1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the sodium glucose cotransporter family. The encoded protein is responsible for the uptake of iodine in tissues such as the thyroid and lactating breast tissue. The iodine taken up by the thyroid is incorporated into the metabolic regulators triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4). Mutations in this gene are associated with thyroid dyshormonogenesis 1.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:sodium/iodide cotransporter
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (14)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Follicular Adenocarcinoma
  • Chromosome 19
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • SLC2A1
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Cell Line
  • Phosphorylation
  • Seminoma
  • 2-amino-3-(4-((5-amino-2-phenylbenzo(d)oxazol-7-yl)methoxy)-3,5-dichlorophenyl)propanoic acid
  • Radiopharmaceuticals
  • Tyrosine
  • Papillary Carcinoma
  • Mutation
  • Thyroid Cancer, Papillary
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Positron-Emission Tomography
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Symporters
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters
  • Messenger RNA
  • Iodine Radioisotopes
  • Histones
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Testicular Cancer
  • TP53
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Apoptosis
  • Embryonal Carcinoma
  • Cell Proliferation
  • p53 Protein
  • Thyroid Gland
  • Signal Transduction
  • sodium-iodide symporter
  • Animals, Genetically Modified
  • BRAF
  • MicroRNAs
  • Gene Silencing
  • Promoter Regions
Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SLC5A5 (cancer-related)

Huang TS, Lee JJ, Li YS, Cheng SP
Ethacridine Induces Apoptosis and Differentiation in Thyroid Cancer Cells
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4095-4100 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Ethacridine is used as a topical antiseptic as well as for second-trimester abortion. Recent studies showed that ethacridine is an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) and an activator of the transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ). This study examined the effects of ethacridine on thyroid cancer cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thyroid cancer cell lines (FTC133 and SW1736) and thyroid follicular epithelial cells (Nthy-ori 3-1) were treated with ethacridine. Viability, clonogenicity, cell-cycle distribution, and apoptosis were evaluated. The expression of thyroid differentiation markers (TTF-1, PAX8, and NIS) was determined by real-time PCR.
RESULTS: Ethacridine suppressed cell growth and clonogenic ability of thyroid cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner (p<0.001). No cell-cycle arrest was found, but ethacridine dose-dependently induced apoptosis of thyroid cancer cells (p<0.001). The PAX8 and NIS expressions were significantly increased in SW1736 (3.41-fold and 1.53-fold, respectively) and Nthy-ori 3-1 cells (2.73-fold and 4.12-fold, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Ethacridine elicits apoptotic cell death in thyroid cancer cells and promotes differentiation in a subset of thyroid follicular cells.

Liu F, Yin R, Chen X, et al.
Over-expression of miR-206 decreases the Euthyrox-resistance by targeting MAP4K3 in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019; 114:108605 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in drug resistance of multiple cancers including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), indicating the potential of miRNAs as chemoresistance regulators in cancer treatment. The aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between miR-206 and chemoresistance of PTC.
METHODS: qRT-PCR was conducted to examine the expression of miR-206 in PTC tissues, parental and TPC-1/euthyrox. The CCK-8 assay, EdU assay and flow cytometry were performed to test cells viability, proliferation and apoptosis, respectively. Luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm the potential target of miR-206. Western blotting analysis was performed to evaluate the expressions of related-proteins.
RESULTS: miR-206 was significantly down-regulated in PTC tissues, parental and TPC-1/euthyrox. Moreover, the expression of miR-206 was exceptionally lower in TPC-1/euthyrox cells than that in TPC-1 cells. Furthermore, we found that over-expression of miR-206 could notably decrease the IC
CONCLUSION: miR-206 contributed to euthyrox resistance in PTC cells through blockage p38 and JNK signaling pathway by targeting MAP4K3, providing a potential therapeutic application for the treatment of patients with euthyrox-resistant PTC in the further.

Son SH, Gangadaran P, Ahn BC
A novel strategy of transferring NIS protein to cells using extracellular vesicles leads to increase in iodine uptake and cytotoxicity.
Int J Nanomedicine. 2019; 14:1779-1787 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: This study was designed to explore a novel approach for transferring NIS protein to cells using extracellular vesicle (EV) and enhancing iodine avidity in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells.
Methods: We transfected the HCC cells (Huh7) with NIS gene, designated as Huh7/NIS, and isolated the EVs from them. Presence of NIS protein in EVs and EV-mediated transport of NIS protein to recipient Huh7 cells were tested using Western blotting. We also examined radioiodine uptake in Huh7 cells treated with EV-Huh7/NIS.
Results: Successful transfer of NIS protein into Huh7 cells was confirmed by WB and microscopy. EVs showed high levels of NIS protein in them. Treatment of Huh7 cells with EV-Huh7/NIS increased the NIS protein level and enhanced
Conclusion: This is the first-of-its-kind demonstration of successful transportation of the NIS protein to cells via EVs, which increased radioiodine uptake. This approach can revert radioiodine-resistant cancers into radioiodine-sensitive cancers.

Labib PL, Goodchild G, Pereira SP
Molecular Pathogenesis of Cholangiocarcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):185 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinomas are a heterogeneous group of malignancies arising from a number of cells of origin along the biliary tree. Although most cases in Western countries are sporadic, large population-based studies have identified a number of risk factors. This review summarises the evidence behind reported risk factors and current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of cholangiocarcinoma, with a focus on inflammation and cholestasis as the driving forces in cholangiocarcinoma development.
RISK FACTORS FOR CHOLANGIOCARCINOGENESIS: Cholestatic liver diseases (e.g. primary sclerosing cholangitis and fibropolycystic liver diseases), liver cirrhosis, and biliary stone disease all increase the risk of cholangiocarcinoma. Certain bacterial, viral or parasitic infections such as hepatitis B and C and liver flukes also increase cholangiocarcinoma risk. Other risk factors include inflammatory disorders (such as inflammatory bowel disease and chronic pancreatitis), toxins (e.g. alcohol and tobacco), metabolic conditions (diabetes, obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) and a number of genetic disorders.
MOLECULAR PATHOGENESIS OF CHOLANGIOCARCINOMA: Regardless of aetiology, most risk factors cause chronic inflammation or cholestasis. Chronic inflammation leads to increased exposure of cholangiocytes to the inflammatory mediators interleukin-6, Tumour Necrosis Factor-ɑ, Cyclo-oxygenase-2 and Wnt, resulting in progressive mutations in tumour suppressor genes, proto-oncogenes and DNA mismatch-repair genes. Accumulating bile acids from cholestasis lead to reduced pH, increased apoptosis and activation of ERK1/2, Akt and NF-κB pathways that encourage cell proliferation, migration and survival. Other mediators upregulated in cholangiocarcinoma include Transforming Growth Factor-β, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Hepatocyte Growth Factor and several microRNAs. Increased expression of the cell surface receptor c-Met, the glucose transporter GLUT-1 and the sodium iodide symporter lead to tumour growth, angiogenesis and cell migration. Stromal changes are also observed, resulting in alterations to the extracellular matrix composition and recruitment of fibroblasts and macrophages that create a microenvironment promoting cell survival, invasion and metastasis.
CONCLUSION: Regardless of aetiology, most risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma cause chronic inflammation and/or cholestasis, leading to the activation of common intracellular pathways that result in reactive cell proliferation, genetic/epigenetic mutations and cholangiocarcinogenesis. An understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of cholangiocarcinoma is vital when developing new diagnostic biomarkers and targeted therapies for this disease.

Kaushik N, Kim MJ, Kaushik NK, et al.
Low dose radiation regulates BRAF-induced thyroid cellular dysfunction and transformation.
Cell Commun Signal. 2019; 17(1):12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The existence of differentiated thyroid cells is critical to respond radioactive iodide treatment strategy in thyroid cancer, and loss of the differentiated phenotype is a trademark of iodide-refractive thyroid disease. While high-dose therapy has been beneficial to several cancer patients, many studies have indicated this clinical benefit was limited to patients having BRAF mutation. BRAF-targeted paired box gene-8 (PAX8), a thyroid-specific transcription factor, generally dysregulated in BRAF-mutated thyroid cancer.
METHODS: In this study, thyroid iodine-metabolizing gene levels were detected in BRAF-transformed thyroid cells after low and high dose of ionizing radiation. Also, an mRNA-targeted approach was used to figure out the underlying mechanism of low (0.01Gyx10 or 0.1Gy) and high (2Gy) radiation function on thyroid cancer cells after BRAF
RESULTS: Low dose radiation (LDR)-induced PAX8 upregulation restores not only BRAF-suppressive sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) expression, one of the major protein necessary for iodine uptake in healthy thyroid, on plasma membrane but also regulate other thyroid metabolizing genes levels. Importantly, LDR-induced PAX8 results in decreased cellular transformation in BRAF-mutated thyroid cells.
CONCLUSION: The present findings provide evidence that LDR-induced PAX8 acts as an important regulator for suppression of thyroid carcinogenesis through novel STAT3/miR-330-5p pathway in thyroid cancers.

Urnauer S, Schmohl KA, Tutter M, et al.
Dual-targeted NIS polyplexes-a theranostic strategy toward tumors with heterogeneous receptor expression.
Gene Ther. 2019; 26(3-4):93-108 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor heterogeneity, within and between tumors, may have severe implications for tumor therapy, especially for targeted gene therapy, where single-targeted approaches often result in limited efficacy and therapy resistance. Polymer-formulated nonviral vectors provide a potent delivery platform for cancer therapy. To improve applicability for future clinical use in a broad range of patients and cancer types, a dual-targeting approach was performed. Synthetic LPEI-PEG

Massimino M, Tirrò E, Stella S, et al.
Effect of Combined Epigenetic Treatments and Ectopic NIS Expression on Undifferentiated Thyroid Cancer Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(12):6653-6662 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid (ATC) cancer cells are characterized by the acquisition of epigenetic abnormalities, leading to the silencing of both the sodium iodide co-transporter and the Coxsackie adenovirus receptor. As aberrant histone acetylation and DNA methylation represent epigenetic mechanisms involved in neoplastic transformation, our study investigated the anticancer properties of epigenetic modifiers in thyroid carcinoma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cytotoxicity and gene expression modulation of histone deacetylase and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors were evaluated in both PDTC and ATC.
RESULTS: Epigenetic treatments were cytotoxic to tumor thyrocytes and restored sodium iodide co-transporter and Coxsackie adenovirus receptor, expression as well as radioiodine uptake, in PDTC but not in ATC. However, ectopic expression sodium iodide co-transporter re-activated radioiodine incorporation in ATC.
CONCLUSION: The ability of epigenetic treatments to interfere with tumor proliferation and induce Coxsackie adenovirus receptor expression, coupled with the ability of ectopic sodium iodide co-transporter to restore radioiodine uptake, raise the possibility that these therapeutic approaches may provide clinical benefit to patients with thyroid carcinoma refractory to radioiodine treatment.

Häfliger P, Graff J, Rubin M, et al.
The LAT1 inhibitor JPH203 reduces growth of thyroid carcinoma in a fully immunocompetent mouse model.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):234 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1/SLC7A5) transports essential amino acids across the plasma membrane. While LAT1 is overexpressed in a variety of human neoplasms, its expression and its role in thyroid cancer is currently unknown. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a highly aggressive malignancy for which no effective therapy exists. The purpose of this study was to explore whether the inhibition of LAT1 in ATC would affect tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo.
METHODS: LAT1 was pharmacologically blocked by JPH203 in human ATC and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) cell lines. The effects on proliferation and mTORC1 activity were addressed in vitro. A genetically engineered mouse model of ATC was used to address the effect of blocking LAT1 on tumor growth in vivo. SLC7A5 transcription was measured in patient-derived ATC samples to address the clinical relevance of the findings.
RESULTS: LAT1 block by JPH203 reduced proliferation and mTORC1 signaling in human thyroid cancer cell lines. SLC7A5 transcription was upregulated in ATC tissues derived from a genetically engineered mouse model and in ATC samples recovered from patients. JPH203 treatment induced thyroid tumor growth arrest in vivo in a fully immunocompetent mouse model of thyroid cancer. Additionally, analysis of publicly available datasets of thyroid carcinomas revealed that high LAT1 expression is associated with potentially untreatable PTC presenting reduced NIS/SLC5A5 transcription and with ATC.
CONCLUSIONS: These preclinical results show that LAT1 inhibition is a novel therapeutic approach in the context of thyroid cancers, and more interestingly in untreatable thyroid cancers.

Wächter S, Wunderlich A, Greene BH, et al.
Selumetinib Activity in Thyroid Cancer Cells: Modulation of Sodium Iodide Symporter and Associated miRNAs.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(7) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)⁻inhibitor selumetinib led to increased radioiodine uptake and retention in a subgroup of patients suffering from radioiodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (RR-DTC). We aimed to analyse the effect of selumetinib on the expression of sodium iodide symporter (NIS; SLC5A5) and associated miRNAs in thyroid cancer cells.
METHODS: Cytotoxicity was assessed by viability assay in TPC1, BCPAP, C643 and 8505C thyroid cancer cell lines. NIS, hsa-let-7f-5p, hsa-miR-146b-5p, and hsa-miR-146b-3p expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. NIS protein was detected by Western blot. Radioiodine uptake was performed with a Gamma counter.
RESULTS: Selumetinib caused a significant reduction of cell viability in all thyroid cancer cell lines. NIS transcript was restored by selumetinib in all cell lines. Its protein level was found up-regulated in TPC1 and BCPAP cells and down-regulated in C643 and 8505C cells after treatment with selumetinib. Treatment with selumetinib caused a down-regulation of hsa-let-7f-5p, hsa-miR-146b-5p and hsa-miR-146b-3p in TPC1 and BCPAP cells. In 8505C cells, a stable or down-regulated hsa-miR-146b-5p was detected after 1h and 48h of treatment. C643 cells showed stable or up-regulated hsa-let-7f-5p, hsa-miR-146b-5p and hsa-miR-146b-3p. Selumetinib treatment caused an increase of radioiodine uptake, which was significant in TPC1 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The study shows for the first time that selumetinib restores NIS by the inhibition of its related targeting miRNAs. Further studies are needed to clarify the exact mechanism activated by hsa-miR-146b-5p, hsa-miR-146b-3p and hsa-let7f-5p to stabilise NIS. Restoration of NIS could represent a milestone for the treatment of advanced RR-DTC.

Suh S, Kim YH, Goh TS, et al.
mRNA Expression of SLC5A5 and SLC2A Family Genes in Papillary Thyroid Cancer: An Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas.
Yonsei Med J. 2018; 59(6):746-753 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: The present study investigated the dynamics and prognostic role of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression responsible for ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in FDG positron emission tomography (PET) and radioactive iodine (¹³¹I) uptake in whole-body radioactive iodine scans (WBS) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The primary and processed data were downloaded from the Genomic Data Commons Data Portal. Expression data for sodium/iodide symporter (solute carrier family 5 member 5, SLC5A5), hexokinase (HK1-3), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and glucose transporter (solute carrier family 2, SLC2A1-4) mRNA were collected.
RESULTS: Expression of SLC5A5 mRNA were negatively correlated with SLC2A1 mRNA and positively correlated with SLC2A4 mRNA. In PTC with BRAF mutations, expressions of SLC2A1, SLC2A3, HK2, and HK3 mRNA were higher than those in PTC without BRAF mutations. Expression of SLC5A5, SLC2A4, HK1, and G6PD mRNA was lower in PTC without BRAF mutation. PTCs with higher expression of SLC5A5 mRNA had more favorable disease-free survival, but no association with overall survival.
CONCLUSION: Expression of SLC5A5 mRNA was negatively correlated with SLC2A1 mRNA. This finding provides a molecular basis for the management of PTC with negative WBS using ¹⁸F-FDG PET scans. In addition, higher expression of SLC5A5 mRNA was associated with less PTC recurrence, but not with deaths.

Soler Arias EA, Castillo VA, Garcia JD, Fyfe JC
Congenital dyshormonogenic hypothyroidism with goiter caused by a sodium/iodide symporter (SLC5A5) mutation in a family of Shih-Tzu dogs.
Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2018; 65:1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
An iodide transport defect (ITD) in the thyroid gland was determined to cause congenital dyshormonogenic hypothyroidism with goiter (CDHG) in 2 members of a family of Shih-Tzu dogs. Strikingly, both dogs were also diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy at 24 and 1.5 mo of age. The only sign of hypothyroidism was a moderate growth delay in the adult dog. The ITD was recognized by the absence of uptake of technetium-99m in the salivary glands (sg) and goiter observed by scintigraphy. In the same scan, radiopharmaceutical uptake was found in the anterior mediastinum of both dogs and in the right axillary lymph node in the oldest dog. A follicular thyroid carcinoma was diagnosed by histopathology after thyroidectomy of the older dog. An adenomatous goiter with ectopic thyroid tissue, and degenerative changes in myocardium were the findings after necropsy in the youngest dog. A homozygous mutation of the intron 9 splice acceptor site of SLC5A5 gene, encoding the sodium/iodine symporter (NIS), was found in the DNA of one of the affected dogs. The mutation was a single base transition of guanine > adenine (G > A) at position 45,024,672 of dog chromosome 20 (CFA20). Five of eight healthy dogs, including both parents of one of the dogs exhibiting CDHG, were heterozygous A/G, and the other 3 were homozygous for the wild-type allele G/G. No sequence variant was found in thyroid peroxidase of the affected dog. Congenital dyshormonogenic hypothyroidism with goiter in this family is an autosomal recessive trait. Our findings are the first evidence of an SLC5A5 mutation in dogs and establish a new genetic cause of CDHG.

Neyrinck K, Breuls N, Holvoet B, et al.
The human somatostatin receptor type 2 as an imaging and suicide reporter gene for pluripotent stem cell-derived therapy of myocardial infarction.
Theranostics. 2018; 8(10):2799-2813 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Tavares C, Eloy C, Melo M, et al.
mTOR Pathway in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Different Contributions of mTORC1 and mTORC2 Complexes for Tumor Behavior and
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is overactivated in thyroid cancer (TC). We previously demonstrated that phospho-mTOR expression is associated with tumor aggressiveness, therapy resistance, and lower mRNA expression of

Penha RCC, Buexm LA, Rodrigues FR, et al.
NKX2.5 is expressed in papillary thyroid carcinomas and regulates differentiation in thyroid cells.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):498 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: NKX2.5 is a transcription factor transiently expressed during thyroid organogenesis. Recently, several works have pointed out the oncogenic role of NKX2.5 in a variety of tumors. We therefore hypothesized that NKX2.5 could also play a role in thyroid cancer.
METHODS: The validation of NKX2.5 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry analysis in a Brazilian case series of 10 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients. Then, the long-term prognostic value of NKX2.5 and its correlation with clinicopathologic features of 51 PTC patients was evaluated in a cohort with 10-years follow-up (1990-1999). Besides, the effect of NKX2.5 overexpression on thyroid differentiation markers and function was also investigated in a non-tumor thyroid cell line (PCCL3).
RESULTS: NKX2.5 was shown to be expressed in most PTC samples (8/10, case series; 27/51, cohort). Patients who had tumors expressing NKX2.5 showed lower rates of persistence/recurrence (p = 0.013). Overexpression of NKX2.5 in PCCL3 cells led to: 1) downregulation of thyroid differentiation markers (thyrotropin receptor, thyroperoxidase and sodium-iodide symporter); 2) reduced iodide uptake; 3) increased extracellular H
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, NKX2.5 is expressed in most PTC samples analyzed and its presence correlates to better prognosis of PTC. In vitro, NKX2.5 overexpression reduces the expression of thyroid differentiation markers and increases ROS production. Thus, our data suggests that NKX2.5 could play a role in thyroid carcinogenesis.

Sui X, Sui Y, Wang Y
LARP7 in papillary thyroid carcinoma induces NIS expression through suppression of the SHH signaling pathway.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 17(6):7521-7528 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased the past few decades, the most frequent type has been identified to be the papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Following thyroidectomy, radioiodine ablation treatment on PTC is routinely performed. However, many patients do not benefit from radioiodine therapy. Therefore, novel targeted therapies to suppress tumor growth and improve radioiodine uptake are required. La ribonucleoprotein domain family member (LARP)7 is a member of the LARP family and functions as a potential suppressor of the progression of carcinoma. In the present study, the expression status of LARP7 in PTC tissues and cell lines was investigated, and the cell viability, proliferation and apoptotic rate, radioiodine uptake ability of PTC cells with overexpression of LARP7 in vitro was determined. Expression levels of LARP7 were significantly downregulated in PTC tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of LARP7 inhibited the proliferation and increased the radioiodine uptake ability of PTC cells in vitro and inhibited the tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, LARP7 overexpression inhibited the sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway and increased sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) expression. However, treatment with recombinant human SHH partially reduced radioiodine uptake ability and NIS expression induced by LARP7. In conclusion, LARP7 may act as a tumor suppressor in PTC by inhibiting the SHH signaling pathway and may be a promising therapeutic target in patients with PTC.

Volpe A, Man F, Lim L, et al.
Radionuclide-fluorescence Reporter Gene Imaging to Track Tumor Progression in Rodent Tumor Models.
J Vis Exp. 2018; (133) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastasis is responsible for most cancer deaths. Despite extensive research, the mechanistic understanding of the complex processes governing metastasis remains incomplete. In vivo models are paramount for metastasis research, but require refinement. Tracking spontaneous metastasis by non-invasive in vivo imaging is now possible, but remains challenging as it requires long-time observation and high sensitivity. We describe a longitudinal combined radionuclide and fluorescence whole-body in vivo imaging approach for tracking tumor progression and spontaneous metastasis. This reporter gene methodology employs the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) fused to a fluorescent protein (FP). Cancer cells are engineered to stably express NIS-FP followed by selection based on fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Corresponding tumor models are established in mice. NIS-FP expressing cancer cells are tracked non-invasively in vivo at the whole-body level by positron emission tomography (PET) using the NIS radiotracer [

Kotlarek M, Kubiak A, Czetwertyńska M, et al.
The rs2910164 Genetic Variant of miR-146a-3p Is Associated with Increased Overall Mortality in Patients with Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant expression of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) and the resistance to post-operative radioactive iodide treatment is a crucial cause of higher mortality of some thyroid cancer patients. In this study, we analyzed the impact of miR-146a on the expression and function of NIS and on the overall survival of thyroid cancer patients. The study included 2441 patients (2163 women; 278 men); including 359 cases with follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (fvPTC). miR:

Tesselaar MH, Crezee T, Schuurmans I, et al.
Digitalislike Compounds Restore hNIS Expression and Iodide Uptake Capacity in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.
J Nucl Med. 2018; 59(5):780-786 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a rare malignancy that accounts for 1%-2% of all thyroid cancers. ATC is one of the most aggressive human cancers, with rapid growth, tumor invasion, and development of distant metastases. The median survival is only 5 mo, and the 1-y survival is less than 20%. Moreover, as a result of severe dedifferentiation, including the loss of human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) expression, radioactive iodide (RAI) therapy is ineffective. Recently, we have demonstrated beneficial effects of autophagy-activating digitalislike compounds (DLCs) on redifferentiation and concomitant restoration of iodide uptake in RAI-refractory papillary and follicular thyroid cancer cell lines. In the current study, the effects of DLCs on differentiation and proliferation of ATC cell lines were investigated.

Schmohl KA, Dolp P, Schug C, et al.
Reintroducing the Sodium-Iodide Symporter to Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma.
Thyroid. 2017; 27(12):1534-1543 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), the most aggressive form of thyroid cancer, is unresponsive to radioiodine therapy. The current study aimed to extend the diagnostic and therapeutic application of radioiodine beyond the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer by targeting the functional sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) to ATC.
METHODS: The study employed nanoparticle vectors (polyplexes) based on linear polyethylenimine (LPEI), shielded by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and coupled to the synthetic peptide GE11 as an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-specific ligand in order to target a NIS-expressing plasmid (LPEI-PEG-GE11/NIS) to EGFR overexpressing human thyroid carcinoma cell lines. Using ATC xenograft mouse models, transfection efficiency by
RESULTS: In vitro iodide uptake studies in SW1736 and Hth74 ATC cells, and, for comparison, in more differentiated follicular (FTC-133) and papillary (BCPAP) thyroid carcinoma cells demonstrated high transfection efficiency and EGFR-specificity of LPEI-PEG-GE11/NIS that correlated well with EGFR expression levels. After systemic polyplex injection, in vivo
CONCLUSIONS: The data open the exciting prospect of NIS-mediated radionuclide imaging and therapy of ATC after non-viral reintroduction of the NIS gene. The high tumor specificity after systemic application makes the strategy an attractive alternative for the treatment of highly metastatic ATC.

Ferrari SM, Centanni M, Virili C, et al.
Sunitinib in the Treatment of Thyroid Cancer.
Curr Med Chem. 2019; 26(6):963-972 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Sunitinib (SU11248) is an oral multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) with low molecular weight, that inhibits platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGF-Rs) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs), c-KIT, fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) and RET. The concurrent inhibition of these pathways reduces tumor vascularization and causes cancer cell apoptosis, inducing a tumor shrinkage. Sunitinib is approved for the treatment of imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), renal carcinoma, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.
METHODS: We searched the literature on PubMed library.
RESULTS: In vitro studies showed that sunitinib targeted the cytosolic MEK/ERK and SAPK/JNK pathways in the RET/PTC1 cell inhibiting cell proliferation and causing stimulation of sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene expression in RET/PTC1 cells. Furthermore sunitinib is active in vitro and in vivo against anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) cells. Most of the clinical studies report that sunitinib is effective as first- and second-line TKI therapy in patients with advanced dedifferentiated thyroid cancer (DeTC), or medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Sunitinib 37.5 mg/day is well tolerated, and effective. The most common adverse events include: reduction in blood cell counts (in particular leukocytes), hand-foot skin reaction, diarrhea, fatigue, nausea, hypertension, and musculoskeletal pain.
CONCLUSION: Even if sunitinib is promising in the therapy of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), until now no phase III studies have been published, and additional prospective researches are necessary in order to evaluate the real efficacy of sunitinib in aggressive thyroid cancer.

Liu L, Li D, Chen Z, et al.
Wild-Type P53 Induces Sodium/Iodide Symporter Expression Allowing Radioiodide Therapy in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017; 43(3):905-914 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Anaplastic thyroid cancer(ATC) is one of the most aggressive solid tumors. Mutations in the p53 gene are common in anaplastic thyroid cancer, but the effects of p53 mutations are yet to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the role of p53 in ATC.
METHODS: p53 mutation was detect by immunohistochemistry in ATC tissues. Expression of NIS were measured using immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, western blot, immunofluorescence in ATC tissues and cell line 8505c. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to examine the effect of wild-type p53 on NIS. Radioiodide uptake assay and flow cytometry analysis were used to detect the role of wild-type p53 on radioiodide uptake.and cell apoptosis in ATC cell line.
RESULTS: We showed that the p53 mutation can be detected in ATC tissues. Furthermore, we demonstrated that wild-type p53 transactivated the NIS promoter. In 8505c cells transfected with wild-type p53, treatment with radioiodine resulted in increased radioiodine uptake and increased apoptotic cell death compared with 8505c cells harboring the p53 mutation.
CONCLUSION: In summary, transfection with wild-type p53 can increase the therapeutic effect of radioiodine by regulating the expression of the NIS.

Lee SI, Kim DK, Seo EJ, et al.
Role of Krüppel-Like Factor 4 in the Maintenance of Chemoresistance of Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.
Thyroid. 2017; 27(11):1424-1432 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) has a very poor prognosis due to its aggressive nature and resistance to conventional treatment. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are not fully effective because of the undifferentiated phenotype and enhanced drug resistance of ATC. The objective of this study was to evaluate the involvement of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), a stemness-associated transcription factor, in the undifferentiated phenotype and drug resistance of ATC.
METHODS: ATC cells were compared to papillary thyroid cancer cells in drug resistance and gene expression. The effects of KLF4 knockdown in ATC cells on in vitro and in vivo drug resistance were measured. The effects of KLF4 overexpression and knockdown on ABC transporter activity were determined.
RESULTS: ATC cells, such as HTH83, 8505C, and SW1736, exhibited higher resistance to the anticancer drug paclitaxel and higher expression of KLF4 than TPC-1 papillary thyroid cancer cells. Knockdown of KLF4 expression in ATC cells increased the expression of the thyroid-specific differentiation genes, such as thyrotropin receptor, thyroid peroxidase, thyroglobulin, and sodium-iodide symporter. Knockdown of KLF4 expression in ATC cells decreased the resistance to doxorubicin and paclitaxel, and reduced ABC transporter expression. Luciferase reporter assay results showed that KLF4 overexpression increased ABCG2 promoter activity, which was abolished by KLF4 knockdown. A tumorigenicity assay showed that the combination of paclitaxel treatment and KLF4 knockdown significantly decreased tumor mass originated from HTH83 cells in mice.
CONCLUSIONS: ATC cells show high expression of KLF4, and KLF4 expression is necessary for maintaining the undifferentiated phenotype and drug resistance in vitro and in vivo. The present study identifies KLF4 as a potential therapeutic target for eliminating ATC cells.

Stasiołek M, Adamczewski Z, Śliwka PW, et al.
The Molecular Effect of Diagnostic Absorbed Doses from
Molecules. 2017; 22(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Diagnostic whole-body scan is a standard procedure in patients with thyroid cancer prior to the application of a therapeutic dose of

Kelkar MG, Thakur B, Derle A, et al.
Tumor suppressor protein p53 exerts negative transcriptional regulation on human sodium iodide symporter gene expression in breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017; 164(3):603-615 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Aberrant expression of human sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in breast cancer (BC) is well documented but the transcription factors (TF) regulating its aberrant expression is poorly known. We identify the presence of three p53 binding sites on the human NIS promoter sequence by conducting genome-wide TF analysis, and further investigate their regulatory role.
METHODS: The differences in transcription and translation were measured by real-time PCR, luciferase reporter assay, site-directed mutagenesis, in vivo optical imaging, and chromatin immunoprecipitation. The relation of NIS and p53 in clinical samples was judged by TCGA data analysis and immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Overexpression of wild-type p53 as a transgene or pharmacological activation by doxorubicin drug treatment shows significant suppression of NIS transcription in multiple BC cell types which also results in lowered NIS protein content and cellular iodide intake. NIS repression by activated p53 is further confirmed by non-invasive bioluminescence imaging in live cell and orthotropic tumor model. Abrogation of p53-binding sites by directional mutagenesis confirms reversal of transcriptional activity in wild-type p53-positive BC cells. We also observe direct binding of p53 to these sites on the human NIS promoter. Importantly, TCGA data analysis of NIS and p53 co-expression registers an inverse relationship between the two candidates.
CONCLUSION: Our data for the first time highlight the role of p53 as a negative regulator of functional NIS expression in BC, where the latter is a potential targeted radioiodine therapy candidate. Thus, the study provides an important insight into prospective clinical application of this approach that may significantly impact the patient with mutant versus wild-type p53 profile.

Urnauer S, Klutz K, Grünwald GK, et al.
Systemic tumor-targeted sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma mediated by B6 peptide polyplexes.
J Gene Med. 2017; 19(5) [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nonviral polymer-based gene transfer represents an adaptable system for tumor-targeted gene therapy because various design strategies of shuttle systems, together with the mechanistic concept of active tumor targeting, lead to improved gene delivery vectors resulting in higher tumor specificity, efficacy and safety.
METHODS: Using the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) as a theranostic gene, nonviral gene delivery vehicles based on linear polyethylenimine (LPEI), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and coupled to the synthetic peptide B6 (LPEI-PEG-B6), which specifically binds to tumor cells, were investigated in a hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft model for tumor selectivity and transduction efficiency.
RESULTS: In vitro incubation of three different tumor cell lines with LPEI-PEG-B6/NIS resulted in significant increase in iodide uptake activity compared to untargeted and empty vectors. After establishment of subcutaneous HuH7 tumors, NIS-conjugated nanoparticles were injected intravenously followed by analysis of radioiodide biodistribution using
CONCLUSIONS: These results clearly demonstrate that systemic in vivo NIS gene transfer using nanoparticle vectors coupled to B6 tumor targeting ligand is capable of inducing tumor-specific radioiodide uptake. This promising gene therapy approach opens the exciting prospect of NIS-mediated radionuclide therapy in metastatic cancer, together with the possibility of combining several targeting ligands to enhance selective therapeutic efficacy in a broad field of cancer types with various receptor expression profiles.

O'Doherty J, Jauregui-Osoro M, Brothwood T, et al.
J Nucl Med. 2017; 58(10):1666-1671 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We report the safety, biodistribution, and internal radiation dosimetry, in humans with thyroid cancer, of

Schmohl KA, Gupta A, Grünwald GK, et al.
Imaging and targeted therapy of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma using the theranostic sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(20):33393-33404 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The theranostic sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene allows detailed molecular imaging of transgene expression and application of therapeutic radionuclides. As a crucial step towards clinical application, we investigated tumor specificity and transfection efficiency of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted polyplexes as systemic NIS gene delivery vehicles in an advanced genetically engineered mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) that closely reflects human disease. PDAC was induced in mice by pancreas-specific activation of constitutively active KrasG12D and deletion of Trp53. We used tumor-targeted polyplexes (LPEI-PEG-GE11/NIS) based on linear polyethylenimine, shielded by polyethylene glycol and coupled with the EGFR-specific peptide ligand GE11, to target a NIS-expressing plasmid to high EGFR-expressing PDAC. In vitro iodide uptake studies in cell explants from murine EGFR-positive and EGFR-ablated PDAC lesions demonstrated high transfection efficiency and EGFR-specificity of LPEI-PEG-GE11/NIS. In vivo 123I gamma camera imaging and three-dimensional high-resolution 124I PET showed significant tumor-specific accumulation of radioiodide after systemic LPEI-PEG-GE11/NIS injection. Administration of 131I in LPEI-PEG-GE11/NIS-treated mice resulted in significantly reduced tumor growth compared to controls as determined by magnetic resonance imaging, though survival was not significantly prolonged. This study opens the exciting prospect of NIS-mediated radionuclide imaging and therapy of PDAC after systemic non-viral NIS gene delivery.

Schwertheim S, Wein F, Lennartz K, et al.
Curcumin induces G2/M arrest, apoptosis, NF-κB inhibition, and expression of differentiation genes in thyroid carcinoma cells.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017; 143(7):1143-1154 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The therapy of unresectable advanced thyroid carcinomas shows unfavorable outcome. Constitutive nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in thyroid carcinomas frequently contributes to therapeutic resistance; the radioiodine therapy often fails due to the loss of differentiated functions in advanced thyroid carcinomas. Curcumin is known for its anticancer properties in a series of cancers, but only few studies have focused on thyroid cancer. Our aim was to evaluate curcumin's molecular mechanisms and to estimate if curcumin could be a new therapeutic option in advanced thyroid cancer.
METHODS: Human thyroid cancer cell lines TPC-1 (papillary), FTC-133 (follicular), and BHT-101 (anaplastic) were treated with curcumin. Using real-time PCR analysis, we investigated microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA expression levels. Cell cycle, Annexin V/PI staining, and caspase-3 activity analysis were performed to detect apoptosis. NF-κB p65 activity and cell proliferation were analyzed using appropriate ELISA-based colorimetric assay kits.
RESULTS: Treatment with 50 μM curcumin significantly increased the mRNA expression of the differentiation genes thyroglobulin (TG) and sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in all three cell lines and induced inhibition of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and decrease of NF-κB p65 activity. The miRNA expression analyses showed a significant deregulation of miRNA-200c, -21, -let7c, -26a, and -125b, known to regulate cell differentiation and tumor progression. Curcumin arrested cell growth at the G2/M phase.
CONCLUSIONS: Curcumin increases the expression of redifferentiation markers and induces G2/M arrest, apoptosis, and downregulation of NF-κB activity in thyroid carcinoma cells. Thus, curcumin appears to be a promising agent to overcome resistance to the conventional cancer therapy.

Msaouel P, Opyrchal M, Dispenzieri A, et al.
Clinical Trials with Oncolytic Measles Virus: Current Status and Future Prospects.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2018; 18(2):177-187 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Attenuated Edmonston lineage measles virus (MV-Edm) vaccine strains can preferentially infect and lyse a wide variety of cancer cells. Oncolytic MV-Edm derivatives are genetically engineered to express the human carcinoembryonic antigen (MV-CEA virus) or the human sodium iodide symporter (MV-NIS virus) and are currently being tested in clinical trials against ovarian cancer, glioblastoma multiforme, multiple myeloma, mesothelioma, head and neck cancer, breast cancer and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. This review describes the basic and preclinical data that facilitated the clinical translation of MV-Edm strains, and summarizes the clinical results of this oncolytic platform to date. Furthermore, we discuss the latest clinically relevant MV-Edm vector developments and creative strategies for future translational steps.

Ravera S, Reyna-Neyra A, Ferrandino G, et al.
The Sodium/Iodide Symporter (NIS): Molecular Physiology and Preclinical and Clinical Applications.
Annu Rev Physiol. 2017; 79:261-289 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Active iodide (I

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