Gene Summary

Gene:SHBG; sex hormone binding globulin
Aliases: ABP, SBP, TEBG
Summary:This gene encodes a steroid binding protein that was first described as a plasma protein secreted by the liver but is now thought to participate in the regulation of steroid responses. The encoded protein transports androgens and estrogens in the blood, binding each steroid molecule as a dimer formed from identical or nearly identical monomers. Polymorphisms in this gene have been associated with polycystic ovary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:sex hormone-binding globulin
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Adolescents
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Phenotype
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Genotype
  • Breast Cancer
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Haplotypes
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Gonadal Steroid Hormones
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Alleles
  • Utah
  • Messenger RNA
  • Blood Glucose
  • Hyperandrogenism
  • Androgen Receptors
  • Siblings
  • Odds Ratio
  • Estradiol
  • Exons
  • Polymorphism
  • Genetic Variation
  • Estrogens
  • Follicle Stimulating Hormone
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Chromosome 17
  • Base Sequence
  • Ultrasonography
  • Body Mass Index
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Postmenopause
  • Insulin
  • Luteinizing Hormone
  • Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin
  • Androgens
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Risk Factors
Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SHBG (cancer-related)

Yang Z, Shi J, Guo Z, et al.
A pilot study on polycystic ovarian syndrome caused by neonatal exposure to tributyltin and bisphenol A in rats.
Chemosphere. 2019; 231:151-160 [PubMed] Related Publications
The development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) could be caused by exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In the current study, two commonly found EDCs, bisphenol A (BPA) and tributyltin (TBT), were investigated for their effects on PCOS occurrence in neonatal female rats. TBT (10 and 100 ng kg

Velloso FJ, Campos AR, Sogayar MC, Correa RG
Proteome profiling of triple negative breast cancer cells overexpressing NOD1 and NOD2 receptors unveils molecular signatures of malignant cell proliferation.
BMC Genomics. 2019; 20(1):152 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a malignancy with very poor prognosis, due to its aggressive clinical characteristics and lack of response to receptor-targeted drug therapy. In TNBC, immune-related pathways are typically upregulated and may be associated with a better prognosis of the disease, encouraging the pursuit for immunotherapeutic options. A number of immune-related molecules have already been associated to the onset and progression of breast cancer, including NOD1 and NOD2, innate immune receptors of bacterial-derived components which activate pro-inflammatory and survival pathways. In the context of TNBC, overexpression of either NOD1or NOD2 is shown to reduce cell proliferation and increase clonogenic potential in vitro. To further investigate the pathways linking NOD1 and NOD2 signaling to tumorigenesis in TNBC, we undertook a global proteome profiling of TNBC-derived cells ectopically expressing each one of these NOD receptors.
RESULTS: We have identified a total of 95 and 58 differentially regulated proteins in NOD1- and NOD2-overexpressing cells, respectively. We used bioinformatics analyses to identify enriched molecular signatures aiming to integrate the differentially regulated proteins into functional networks. These analyses suggest that overexpression of both NOD1 and NOD2 may disrupt immune-related pathways, particularly NF-κB and MAPK signaling cascades. Moreover, overexpression of either of these receptors may affect several stress response and protein degradation systems, such as autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome complex. Interestingly, the levels of several proteins associated to cellular adhesion and migration were also affected in these NOD-overexpressing cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our proteomic analyses shed new light on the molecular pathways that may be modulating tumorigenesis via NOD1 and NOD2 signaling in TNBC. Up- and downregulation of several proteins associated to inflammation and stress response pathways may promote activation of protein degradation systems, as well as modulate cell-cycle and cellular adhesion proteins. Altogether, these signals seem to be modulating cellular proliferation and migration via NF-κB, PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways. Further investigation of altered proteins in these pathways may provide more insights on relevant targets, possibly enabling the immunomodulation of tumorigenesis in the aggressive TNBC phenotype.

Grossmann M, Wierman ME, Angus P, Handelsman DJ
Reproductive Endocrinology of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.
Endocr Rev. 2019; 40(2):417-446 [PubMed] Related Publications
The liver and the reproductive system interact in a multifaceted bidirectional fashion. Sex steroid signaling influences hepatic endobiotic and xenobiotic metabolism and contributes to the pathogenesis of functional and structural disorders of the liver. In turn, liver function affects the reproductive axis via modulating sex steroid metabolism and transport to tissues via sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). The liver senses the body's metabolic status and adapts its energy homeostasis in a sex-dependent fashion, a dimorphism signaled by the sex steroid milieu and possibly related to the metabolic costs of reproduction. Sex steroids impact the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, including development of hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and carcinogenesis. Preclinical studies in male rodents demonstrate that androgens protect against hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance both via androgen receptor signaling and, following aromatization to estradiol, estrogen receptor signaling, through regulating genes involved in hepatic lipogenesis and glucose metabolism. In female rodents in contrast to males, androgens promote hepatic steatosis and dysglycemia, whereas estradiol is similarly protective against liver disease. In men, hepatic steatosis is associated with modest reductions in circulating testosterone, in part consequent to a reduction in circulating SHBG. Testosterone treatment has not been demonstrated to improve hepatic steatosis in randomized controlled clinical trials. Consistent with sex-dimorphic preclinical findings, androgens promote hepatic steatosis and dysglycemia in women, whereas endogenous estradiol appears protective in both men and women. In both sexes, androgens promote hepatic fibrosis and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, whereas estradiol is protective.

Khorshidi M, Moini A, Alipoor E, et al.
The effects of quercetin supplementation on metabolic and hormonal parameters as well as plasma concentration and gene expression of resistin in overweight or obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Phytother Res. 2018; 32(11):2282-2289 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of quercetin on metabolic and hormonal parameters as well as plasma concentration and gene expression of resistin in overweight or obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 78 overweight or obese women (25 ≤ BMI ≤ 40 kg/m

Marano F, Zunino V, Frairia R, et al.
Fibulin-1 interacts with Sex Hormone Binding Globulin and is linked to less aggressive estrogen-dependent breast cancers.
Life Sci. 2018; 207:372-380 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Interaction of Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) with estrogen-sensitive breast cancer cells has a protective role against estrogen exposure. No specific membrane receptor for SHBG had been identified by now, but a putative interaction of SHBG with extracellular matrix associated-proteins (e.g. fibulins) was suggested. In this study we investigated the expression of fibulins, their functional relationship with SHBG and involvement in behavior of estrogen-sensitive breast cancer.
MAIN METHODS: Gene expression of fibulins was performed by Real time-PCR on two estrogen-sensitive breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and T47D. Fibulin-1 protein expression and localization were determined by Western blot and immunofluorescence. SHBG interaction with-fibulin-1 was assessed by GST-pull down assay. MCF-7 cell growth and gene expression, after fibulin-1 silencing by siRNA, were evaluated. Finally, the expression of fibulin-1 was correlated to clinical and pathological data of 21 breast cancer tissue samples.
KEY FINDINGS: Fibulin-1 was expressed in both cell lines and it was increased by estradiol. SHBG interacted with fibulin-1C; proteins co-localized at MCF-7 cell membranes and SHBG localization at membranes disappeared after silencing fibulin-1. Fibulin-1 silencing, moreover, generated MCF-7 cells unresponsive to estradiol and SHBG and characterized by increased proliferation. Finally, in breast cancer tissue samples expressing fibulin-1 the proliferation index was significantly lower than in fibulin-1 negative samples.
SIGNIFICANCE: Fibulin-1 interacts with SHBG, it is associated with a less aggressive behavior of breast cancer cells and correlates to a better prognosis of the tumor.

Okuma H, Hashimoto K, Ohashi T, et al.
A case of TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma with cyclic fluctuations in serum TSH levels.
Endocr J. 2018; 65(7):737-746 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 29-year-old man was referred to our department due to adrenal insufficiency with the inappropriate secretion of TSH (SITSH). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a pituitary tumor. A weak TSH response in the TRH test, elevated sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels, and the absence of a family medical history of SITSH or TRβ gene mutations supported the diagnosis of TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma). However, complete TSH suppression and a blunted cholesterol response in the T3 suppression test as well as normal glycoprotein α-subunit (α-GSU) levels were not compatible with TSHoma. Since TSH, FT3, and FT4 spontaneously returned to normal ranges after admission, he was discharged. One month after his discharge, thyrotoxicosis with elevated serum TSH levels relapsed. After admission, his serum TSH levels returned to within the normal range. After his discharge from the second admission, his serum TSH levels fluctuated in accordance with serum FT3 and FT4 levels and symptoms, such as palpitations. Ten months after his discharge, he was admitted to our department again due to adrenal insufficiency and thyrotoxicosis with elevated serum TSH levels, suggesting cyclic SITSH. Although resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) was not completely excluded, the pituitary tumor was removed by transsphenoidal surgery (TSS). A pathological diagnosis confirmed TSHoma. We herein report a case of TSHoma in which serum TSH, FT3, and FT4 levels fluctuated periodically. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of "cyclic TSHoma", which needs to be considered when making a differential diagnosis of SITSH.

Thorsson V, Gibbs DL, Brown SD, et al.
The Immune Landscape of Cancer.
Immunity. 2018; 48(4):812-830.e14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We performed an extensive immunogenomic analysis of more than 10,000 tumors comprising 33 diverse cancer types by utilizing data compiled by TCGA. Across cancer types, we identified six immune subtypes-wound healing, IFN-γ dominant, inflammatory, lymphocyte depleted, immunologically quiet, and TGF-β dominant-characterized by differences in macrophage or lymphocyte signatures, Th1:Th2 cell ratio, extent of intratumoral heterogeneity, aneuploidy, extent of neoantigen load, overall cell proliferation, expression of immunomodulatory genes, and prognosis. Specific driver mutations correlated with lower (CTNNB1, NRAS, or IDH1) or higher (BRAF, TP53, or CASP8) leukocyte levels across all cancers. Multiple control modalities of the intracellular and extracellular networks (transcription, microRNAs, copy number, and epigenetic processes) were involved in tumor-immune cell interactions, both across and within immune subtypes. Our immunogenomics pipeline to characterize these heterogeneous tumors and the resulting data are intended to serve as a resource for future targeted studies to further advance the field.

Schindler P, Kupcinskas J, Juzenas S, et al.
Expression of microRNAs in the ascites of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis and peritonitis.
Cancer Cytopathol. 2018; 126(5):353-363 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PCA) has a prognostic role in patients with gastrointestinal cancers. The differential diagnosis may be challenging due to the low sensitivity of cytology. Although microRNAs (miRNAs) have been a focus of various specimens and diseases, to the best of the authors' knowledge only limited knowledge exists regarding ascites. Herein, the authors systematically evaluated preanalytical factors and the potential of miRNAs as biomarkers of ascites.
METHODS: The authors prospectively analyzed samples from patients with PCA, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), and portal hypertension (no SBP/PCA). Various preanalytical factors such as extraction kits, sample storage, stability, and processing were systematically evaluated. MiRNA expression profiling using TaqMan Low Density Array and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction were used to evaluate miRNA expression.
RESULTS: All selected miRNAs were found to be reliably detectable in ascites samples. Ascites miRNAs were well preserved from degradation with required short-term and long-term stability. MiRNA expression profiling in patients with PCA compared with those with no SBP/PCA revealed miR-21, miR-186, miR-222, and miR-483-5p to be upregulated and miR-26b to be downregulated. MiRNA expression validation analysis confirmed higher expression levels of miR-21 and miR-186 in patients with PCA compared with those with no SBP/PCA, whereas miR-223 was significantly upregulated in patients with SBP. A simple proportion score between miR-21 and miR-223 allowed the authors to discriminate between the patients with PCA and those with SBP with an area under the curve of 0.982 (95% confidence interval, 0.943-1.022).
CONCLUSIONS: The data from the current study provide novel evidence of the differential expression of miRNAs in ascites from patients with PCA and SBP, which may offer an additional miRNA-based molecular approach for the differential diagnosis of PCA. Cancer Cytopathol 2018;126:353-63. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

Pierre A, Taieb J, Giton F, et al.
Dysregulation of the Anti-Müllerian Hormone System by Steroids in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017; 102(11):3970-3978 [PubMed] Related Publications
Context: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and AMH type II receptor (AMHR2) are overexpressed in granulosa cells (GCs) from women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common cause of female infertility.
Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the regulation of the AMH/AMHR2 system by 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) and estradiol (E2) in GCs from control subjects and women with PCOS.
Design, Setting, Patients: Experiments were performed on follicular fluids (FF) and GCs from women undergoing in vitro fertilization.
Main Outcome Measures: FF steroid levels were measured by mass spectrometry, and messenger RNA (mRNA) accumulation was quantified by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction.
Results: Total testosterone (T), free T, and 5α-DHT FF levels were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in women with PCOS than in controls. However, E2 and sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations were comparable between the two groups. In GCs from control women, the AMH and AMHR2 expression were not affected by 5α-DHT treatment, whereas AMH mRNA levels were upregulated by 5α-DHT in GCs from patients with PCOS (2.3-fold, P < 0.01) overexpressing the androgen receptor (1.4-fold, P < 0.05). E2 downregulated the AMH and AMHR2 expression in GCs from control women (1.4-fold, P < 0.001 and 1.8-fold, P < 0.01, respectively) but had no effect on these genes in GCs from women with PCOS. This differential effect of E2 was associated with a higher estrogen receptor 1 expression in GCs from women with PCOS (1.9-fold, P < 0.05).
Conclusions: In GCs from women with PCOS, the regulation of AMH and AMHR2 expression is altered in a way that promotes the overexpression of the AMH/AMHR2 system, and could contribute to the follicular arrest observed in these patients.

Cai Z, Lv H, Cao W, et al.
Targeting strategies of adenovirus‑mediated gene therapy and virotherapy for prostate cancer (Review).
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(5):6443-6458 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) poses a high risk to older men and it is the second most common type of male malignant tumor in western developed countries. Additionally, there is a lack of effective therapies for PCa at advanced stages. Novel treatment strategies such as adenovirus‑mediated gene therapy and virotherapy involve the expression of a specific therapeutic gene to induce death in cancer cells, however, wild‑type adenoviruses are also able to infect normal human cells, which leads to undesirable toxicity. Various PCa‑targeting strategies in adenovirus‑mediated therapy have been developed to improve tumor‑targeting effects and human safety. The present review summarizes the relevant knowledge regarding available adenoviruses and PCa‑targeting strategies. In addition, future directions in this area are also discussed. In conclusion, although they remain in the early stages of basic research, adenovirus‑mediated gene therapy and virotherapy are expected to become important therapies for tumors in the future due to their potential targeting strategies.

Demark-Wahnefried W, Rais-Bahrami S, Desmond RA, et al.
Presurgical weight loss affects tumour traits and circulating biomarkers in men with prostate cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2017; 117(9):1303-1313 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with aggressive prostate cancer. To explore whether weight loss favourably affects tumour biology and other outcomes, we undertook a presurgical trial among overweight and obese men with prostate cancer.
METHODS: This single-blinded, two-arm randomised controlled trial explored outcomes of a presurgical weight loss intervention (WLI) that promoted ∼1 kg per week loss via caloric restriction and increased physical activity (PA). Forty overweight/obese men with clinically confirmed prostate cancer were randomised to the WLI presurgery or to a control arm; changes in weight, body composition, quality-of-life, circulating biomarkers, gene expression, and immunohistochemical markers in tumour and benign prostatic tissue were evaluated.
RESULTS: The study period averaged 50 days. Mean (s.d.) change scores for the WLI vs control arms were as follows: weight: -4.7 (3.1) kg vs -2.2 (4.4) kg (P=0.0508); caloric intake: -500 (636) vs -159 (600) kcal per day (P=0.0034); PA: +0.9 (3.1) vs +1.7 (4.6) MET-hours per day (NS); vitality: +5.3 (7.l4) vs -1.8 (8.1) (P=0.0491); testosterone: +55.1 (86.0) vs -48.3 (203.7) ng dl
CONCLUSIONS: Intentional weight loss shows mixed effects on circulating biomarkers, tumour gene expression, and proliferative markers. More study is needed before recommending weight loss, in particular rapid weight loss, among men with prostate cancer.

Gorsic LK, Kosova G, Werstein B, et al.
Pathogenic Anti-Müllerian Hormone Variants in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017; 102(8):2862-2872 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common endocrine condition, is the leading cause of anovulatory infertility.
Objective: Given that common disease-susceptibility variants account for only a small percentage of the estimated PCOS heritability, we tested the hypothesis that rare variants contribute to this deficit in heritability.
Design, Setting, and Participants: Unbiased whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 80 patients with PCOS and 24 reproductively normal control subjects identified potentially deleterious variants in AMH, the gene encoding anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH). Targeted sequencing of AMH of 643 patients with PCOS and 153 control patients was used to replicate WGS findings.
Main Outcome Measures: Dual luciferase reporter assays measured the impact of the variants on downstream AMH signaling.
Results: We found 24 rare (minor allele frequency < 0.01) AMH variants in patients with PCOS and control subjects; 18 variants were specific to women with PCOS. Seventeen of 18 (94%) PCOS-specific variants had significantly reduced AMH signaling, whereas none of 6 variants observed in control subjects showed significant defects in signaling. Thus, we identified rare AMH coding variants that reduced AMH-mediated signaling in a subset of patients with PCOS.
Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study is the first to identify rare genetic variants associated with a common PCOS phenotype. Our findings suggest decreased AMH signaling as a mechanism for the pathogenesis of PCOS. AMH decreases androgen biosynthesis by inhibiting CYP17 activity; a potential mechanism of action for AMH variants in PCOS, therefore, is to increase androgen biosynthesis due to decreased AMH-mediated inhibition of CYP17 activity.

Ose J, Poole EM, Schock H, et al.
Androgens Are Differentially Associated with Ovarian Cancer Subtypes in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(14):3951-3960 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. The etiology of EOC remains elusive; however, experimental and epidemiologic data suggest a role for hormone-related exposures in ovarian carcinogenesis and risk factor differences by histologic phenotypes and developmental pathways. Research on prediagnosis androgen concentrations and EOC risk has yielded inconclusive results, and analyses incorporating EOC subtypes are sparse. We conducted a pooled analysis of 7 nested case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium to investigate the association between pre-diagnosis circulating androgens [testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS)], sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and EOC risk by tumor characteristics (i.e., histology, grade, and stage). The final study population included 1,331 EOC cases and 3,017 matched controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to assess risk associations in pooled individual data. Testosterone was positively associated with EOC risk (all subtypes combined, OR

Kalyvianaki K, Gebhart V, Peroulis N, et al.
Antagonizing effects of membrane-acting androgens on the eicosanoid receptor OXER1 in prostate cancer.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7:44418 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Accumulating evidence during the last decades revealed that androgen can exert membrane initiated actions that involve signaling via specific kinases and the modulation of significant cellular processes, important for prostate cancer cell growth and metastasis. Results of the present work clearly show that androgens can specifically act at the membrane level via the GPCR oxoeicosanoid receptor 1 (OXER1) in prostate cancer cells. In fact, OXER1 expression parallels that of membrane androgen binding in prostate cancer cell lines and tumor specimens, while in silico docking simulation of OXER1 showed that testosterone could bind to OXER1 within the same grove as 5-OxoETE, the natural ligand of OXER1. Interestingly, testosterone antagonizes the effects of 5-oxoETE on specific signaling pathways and rapid effects such as actin cytoskeleton reorganization that ultimately can modulate cell migration and metastasis. These findings verify that membrane-acting androgens exert specific effects through an antagonistic interaction with OXER1. Additionally, this interaction between androgen and OXER1, which is an arachidonic acid metabolite receptor expressed in prostate cancer, provides a novel link between steroid and lipid actions and renders OXER1 as new player in the disease. These findings should be taken into account in the design of novel therapeutic approaches in prostate cancer.

Hüsing A, Fortner RT, Kühn T, et al.
Added Value of Serum Hormone Measurements in Risk Prediction Models for Breast Cancer for Women Not Using Exogenous Hormones: Results from the EPIC Cohort.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(15):4181-4189 [PubMed] Related Publications

Lutz P, M Haimid M, Pohlmann A, et al.
MicroRNA-155 is upregulated in ascites in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7:40556 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MircoRNA's (miR) have been recognised as important modulators of gene expression and potential biomarkers. However, they have been rarely investigated in bio fluids apart from blood. We investigated the association of miR-125b and miR-155 with complications of cirrhosis. Ascites was prospectively collected from patients with cirrhosis undergoing paracentesis at our department. miR's were determined in the supernatant using qPCR and normalized by SV-40. Clinical parameters were assessed at paracentesis and during follow-up. 76 specimens from 72 patients were analysed. MiR's were not associated to age, sex or aetiology of cirrhosis. MiR-125b levels differed between patients with low and high MELD score, and miR-125b levels showed an inverse correlation to serum creatinine (r

Su S, Parris AB, Grossman G, et al.
Up-Regulation of Follistatin-Like 1 By the Androgen Receptor and Melanoma Antigen-A11 in Prostate Cancer.
Prostate. 2017; 77(5):505-516 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: High affinity androgen binding to the androgen receptor (AR) activates genes required for male sex differentiation and promotes the development and progression of prostate cancer. Human AR transcriptional activity involves interactions with coregulatory proteins that include primate-specific melanoma antigen-A11 (MAGE-A11), a coactivator that increases AR transcriptional activity during prostate cancer progression to castration-resistant/recurrent prostate cancer (CRPC).
METHODS: Microarray analysis and quantitative RT-PCR were performed to identify androgen-regulated MAGE-A11-dependent genes in LAPC-4 prostate cancer cells after lentivirus shRNA knockdown of MAGE-A11. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to assess androgen-dependent AR recruitment, and immunocytochemistry to localize an androgen-dependent protein in prostate cancer cells and tissue and in the CWR22 human prostate cancer xenograft.
RESULTS: Microarray analysis of androgen-treated LAPC-4 prostate cancer cells indicated follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) is up-regulated by MAGE-A11. Androgen-dependent up-regulation of FSTL1 was inhibited in LAPC-4 cells by lentivirus shRNA knockdown of AR or MAGE-A11. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated AR recruitment to intron 10 of the FSTL1 gene that contains a classical consensus androgen response element. Increased levels of FSTL1 protein in LAPC-4 cells correlated with higher levels of MAGE-A11 relative to other prostate cancer cells. FSTL1 mRNA levels increased in CRPC and castration-recurrent CWR22 xenografts in association with predominantly nuclear FSTL1. Increased nuclear localization of FSTL1 in prostate cancer was suggested by predominantly cytoplasmic FSTL1 in benign prostate epithelial cells and predominantly nuclear FSTL1 in epithelial cells in CRPC tissue and the castration-recurrent CWR22 xenograft. AR expression studies showed nuclear colocalization of AR and endogenous FSTL1 in response to androgen.
CONCLUSION: AR and MAGE-A11 cooperate in the up-regulation of FSTL1 to promote growth and progression of CRPC. Prostate 77:505-516, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Almawi WY, Gammoh E, Malalla ZH, Al-Madhi SA
Analysis of VEGFA Variants and Changes in VEGF Levels Underscores the Contribution of VEGF to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(11):e0165636 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) contributes to the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and genetic variations in VEGFA gene were suggested to contribute to VEGF secretion and PCOS.
AIM: To evaluate the association of altered VEGF levels, stemming from the presence of specific VEGFA variants, with altered risk of PCOS.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Retrospective case-control study, performed between 2012-2015. Study subjects comprised 382 women with PCOS, and 393 control subjects. ELISA measured VEGF levels; genotyping of VEGFA variants was done by allelic exclusion.
RESULTS: Among the 12 tested VEGFA SNPs, minor allele frequency of only rs3025020 was significantly higher in PCOS cases than control women. Increased and reduced PCOS risk was seen with rs3025020 and rs2010963 genotypes, respectively. Increases and reduction in VEGF levels were associated with rs3025020 and rs2010963, respectively. Increased fasting insulin and HOMA-IR, and bioactive testosterone were linked with rs3025020, while carriage of rs2010963 was linked with reduction in fasting insulin, and free and bioactive testosterone. Of the 12 VEGFA variants, 9 were in LD, thus allowing construction of 9-locus haplotypes. Increased frequency of CAACAGCGA haplotype was seen in PCOS cases, after controlling for BMI, free and bioactive testosterone, SHBG, free insulin and HOMA-IR.
CONCLUSION: This study confirms the contribution of altered VEGF secretion, resulting from genetic variation in VEGFA gene into the pathogenesis of PCOS. This supports a role for VEGF as PCOS candidate locus.

Böhm J, Pianka F, Stüttgen N, et al.
Discovery of novel plasma proteins as biomarkers for the development of incisional hernias after midline incision in patients with colorectal cancer: The ColoCare study.
Surgery. 2017; 161(3):808-817 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ventral incisional hernia is the most common long-term complication after an abdominal operation. Among newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients, we screened the preoperative plasma proteome to explore predictive markers for the development of an incisional hernia.
METHODS: We utilized preoperative plasma samples of 72 newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients who underwent midline incision for tumor resection between 2010 and 2013. A total of 21 patients with incisional hernia occurrence were matched with 51 patients with at least 18 months follow-up without an incisional hernia by sex, age, and body mass index. To assess predictive markers of incisional hernia risk, we screened the plasma proteome for >2,000 distinct proteins using a well-validated antibody microarray test. Paired t tests were used to compare protein levels between cases and controls. A gene-set-enrichment analysis (Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) was applied to test for differences in signaling pathways between the 2 groups.
RESULTS: The proteome screen identified 25 proteins that showed elevated or reduced plasma levels in the hernia group compared to the control group (nominal P values < .05). Several proteins were in pathways associated with wound healing (CCL21, SHBG, BRF2) or cell adhesion (PCDH15, CDH3, EPCAM).
CONCLUSION: Our study shows that there are multiple individual and groups of plasma proteins that could feasibly predict the personal hernia risk prior to undergoing an operation. Further investigations in larger, independent sample sets are warranted to replicate findings and validate clinical utility of potential biomarkers. After validation, such a biomarker could be incorporated into a multifactorial risk model to guide clinical decision-making.

Ali M, Heyob K, Jacob NK, Rogers LK
Alterative Expression and Localization of Profilin 1/VASPpS157 and Cofilin 1/VASPpS239 Regulates Metastatic Growth and Is Modified by DHA Supplementation.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2016; 15(9):2220-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Profilin 1, cofilin 1, and vasodialator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) are actin-binding proteins (ABP) that regulate actin remodeling and facilitate cancer cell metastases. miR-17-92 is highly expressed in metastatic tumors and profilin1 and cofilin1 are predicted targets. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) inhibits cancer cell proliferation and adhesion. These studies tested the hypothesis that the metastatic phenotype is driven by changes in ABPs including alternative phosphorylation and/or changes in subcellular localization. In addition, we tested the efficacy of DHA supplementation to attenuate or inhibit these changes. Human lung cancer tissue sections were analyzed for F-actin content and expression and cellular localization of profilin1, cofilin1, and VASP (S157 or S239 phosphorylation). The metastatic phenotype was investigated in A549 and MLE12 cells lines using 8 Br-cAMP as a metastasis inducer and DHA as a therapeutic agent. Migration was assessed by wound assay and expression measured by Western blot and confocal analysis. miR-17-92 expression was measured by qRT-PCR. Results indicated increased expression and altered cellular distribution of profilin1/VASP(pS157), but no changes in cofilin1/VASP(pS239) in the human malignant tissues compared with normal tissues. In A549 and MLE12 cells, the expression patterns of profilin1/VASP(pS157) or cofilin1/VASP(pS239) suggested an interaction in regulation of actin dynamics. Furthermore, DHA inhibited cancer cell migration and viability, ABP expression and cellular localization, and modulated expression of miR-17-92 in A549 cells with minimal effects in MLE12 cells. Further investigations are warranted to understand ABP interactions, changes in cellular localization, regulation by miR-17-92, and DHA as a novel therapeutic. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(9); 2220-31. ©2016 AACR.

Pan Z, Fu Z, Song Q, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms and haplotype of hormone-related genes are associated with the risk of breast cancer in Chinese women.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
Sex hormones play important roles in breast cancer (BC) development. This study investigated associations between BC risk and hormone-related gene variants in Chinese women. In a cohort of 336 patients with histopathologically confirmed BC and 390 age-matched controls, we genotyped seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five hormone-related genes: estrogen receptor-α (ESR1), aromatase (CYP19), catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1). Among these seven SNPs, the SNPs in GSTP1 rs1695 [A/G; odds ratio (OR): 1.68; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23-2.30] and ESR1 rs2046210 (C/T; OR: 1.39; 95%CI = 1.02-1.91) were associated with an increased risk among heterozygote carriers. Homozygotes of minor alleles of CYP19 rs10046 (CC) were associated with a reduced risk of BC with OR: 0.61 (95%CI = 0.39-0.95). In addition, a stratified analysis by menopausal status indicated that the association of the CYP19 polymorphisms (rs10046 and rs700519) with BC risk was mainly evident in premenopausal women, and the association of CYP19 rs700519 with BC risk was significant in women less than 50 years old. Haplotype analysis identified 15 common haplotypes (>1%). The haplotype TGGGGTC was significantly associated with BC risk compared with the reference haplotype CGAGGTC (OR > 1000, P < 0.0001). Our data demonstrate that these ESR1, GSTP1, and CYP19 polymorphisms are associated with risk of BC, and the risk haplotype TGGGGTC could help to identify populations with high susceptibility to BC in Chinese women.

Zhao H, Lv Y, Li L, Chen ZJ
Genetic Studies on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2016; 37:56-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly heterogeneous reproductive system disorder of which the aetiology is not fully understood. Previous association studies have been conducted on >100 candidate genes, which principally related to reproductive hormones, cellular metabolism and chronic inflammation. Heritable tendencies have long been recognized for pathogeneses of PCOS, and recently a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in PCOS provides new clues to understand the genetic components and pathways in PCOS physiology. However, the current knowledge of the pathogenesis of PCOS is still in its infancy. Further studies using new technologies such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) shall be useful to understand more causal variants for PCOS.

Price DK, Chau CH, Till C, et al.
Association of androgen metabolism gene polymorphisms with prostate cancer risk and androgen concentrations: Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.
Cancer. 2016; 122(15):2332-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is highly influenced by androgens and genes. The authors investigated whether genetic polymorphisms along the androgen biosynthesis and metabolism pathways are associated with androgen concentrations or with the risk of prostate cancer or high-grade disease from finasteride treatment.
METHODS: A nested case-control study from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial using data from men who had biopsy-proven prostate cancer (cases) and a group of biopsy-negative, frequency-matched controls was conducted to investigate the association of 51 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 12 genes of the androgen pathway with overall (total), low-grade, and high-grade prostate cancer incidence and serum hormone concentrations.
RESULTS: There were significant associations of genetic polymorphisms in steroid 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1) (reference SNPs: rs3736316, rs3822430, rs1560149, rs248797, and rs472402) and SRD5A2 (rs2300700) with the risk of high-grade prostate cancer in the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial; 2 SNPs were significantly associated with an increased risk (SRD5A1 rs472402 [odds ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.75; Ptrend = .03] and SRD5A2 rs2300700 [odds ratio, 1.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-3.18; Ptrend = .01]). Eleven SNPs in SRD5A1, SRD5A2, cytochrome P450 family 1, subfamily B, polypeptide 1 (CYP1B1), and CYP3A4 were associated with modifying the mean concentrations of serum androgen and sex hormone-binding globulin; and 2 SNPs (SRD5A1 rs824811 and CYP1B1 rs10012; Ptrend < .05) consistently and significantly altered all androgen concentrations. Several SNPs (SRD5A1 rs3822430, SRD5A2 rs2300700, CYP3A43 rs800672, and CYP19 rs700519; Ptrend < .05) were significantly associated with both circulating hormone levels and prostate cancer risk.
CONCLUSIONS: Germline genetic variations of androgen-related pathway genes are associated with serum androgen concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer. Further studies to examine the functional consequence of novel causal variants are warranted. Cancer 2016;122:2332-2340. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

Kopp TI, Jensen DM, Ravn-Haren G, et al.
Alcohol-related breast cancer in postmenopausal women - effect of CYP19A1, PPARG and PPARGC1A polymorphisms on female sex-hormone levels and interaction with alcohol consumption and NSAID usage in a nested case-control study and a randomised controlled trial.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:283 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of breast cancer (BC), and the underlying mechanism is thought to be sex-hormone driven. In vitro and observational studies suggest a mechanism involving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in a complex with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α) and interaction with aromatase (encoded by CYP19A1). Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) may also affect circulating sex-hormone levels by modifying PPARγ activity.
METHODS: In the present study we assessed whether genetic variation in CYP19A1 is associated with risk of BC in a case-control study group nested within the Danish "Diet, Cancer and Health" cohort (ncases = 687 and ncontrols = 687) and searched for gene-gene interaction between CYP19A1 and PPARGC1A, and CYP19A1 and PPARG, and gene-alcohol and gene-NSAID interactions. Association between the CYP19A1 polymorphisms and hormone levels was also examined among 339 non-HRT users. Incidence rate ratios were calculated based on Cox' proportional hazards model. Furthermore, we performed a pilot randomised controlled trial to determine the effect of the PPARG Pro(12)Ala polymorphism and the PPARγ stimulator Ibuprofen on sex-hormone levels following alcohol intake in postmenopausal women (n = 25) using linear regression.
RESULTS: Genetic variations in CYP19A1 were associated with hormone levels (estrone: P rs11070844 = 0.009, estrone sulphate: P rs11070844 = 0.01, P rs749292 = 0.004, P rs1062033 = 0.007 and P rs10519297 = 0.03, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG): P rs3751591 = 0.03) and interacted with alcohol intake in relation to hormone levels (estrone sulphate: P interaction/rs2008691 = 0.02 and P interaction/rs1062033= 0.03, and SHBG: P interaction/rs11070844 = 0.03). CYP19A1/rs3751591 was both associated with SHBG levels (P = 0.03) and with risk of BC (Incidence Rate Ratio = 2.12; 95 % Confidence Interval: 1.02-4.43) such that homozygous variant allele carriers had increased levels of serum SHBG and were at increased risk of BC. Acute intake of alcohol decreased blood estrone (P = <0.0001), estrone sulphate (P = <0.0001), and SHBG (P = 0.009) levels, whereas Ibuprofen intake and PPARG Pro(12)Ala genotype had no effect on hormone levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that genetically determined variation in CYP19A1 is associated with differences in sex hormone levels. However, the genetically determined differences in sex hormone levels were not convincingly associated with BC risk. The results therefore indicate that the genetically determined variation in CYP19A1 contributes little to BC risk and to alcohol-mediated BC risk.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02463383, June 3, 2015.

Graff RE, Meisner A, Ahearn TU, et al.
Pre-diagnostic circulating sex hormone levels and risk of prostate cancer by ERG tumour protein expression.
Br J Cancer. 2016; 114(8):939-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Experimental studies have shown androgen receptor stimulation to facilitate formation of the TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion in prostate cell lines. No study has tested whether higher pre-diagnostic circulating sex hormone levels in men increase risk of developing TMPRSS2:ERG-positive prostate cancer specifically.
METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study of 200 prostate cancer cases and 1057 controls from the Physicians' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We examined associations between pre-diagnostic circulating levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, DHT, androstanediol glucuronide, estradiol, and SHBG and risk of prostate cancer by TMPRSS2:ERG status. TMPRSS2:ERG was estimated by ERG immunohistochemistry. We used multivariable unconditional polytomous logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of ERG-positive (n=94) and, separately, ERG-negative (n=106) disease.
RESULTS: Free testosterone was significantly associated with the risk of ERG-positive prostate cancer (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.05-1.77), but not ERG-negative prostate cancer (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.86-1.38) (Pdiff=0.17). None of the remaining hormones evaluated showed clear differential associations with ERG-positive vs ERG-negative disease.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide some suggestive evidence that higher pre-diagnostic free testosterone levels are associated with an increased risk of developing TMPRSS2:ERG-positive prostate cancer.

Sang M, Zhang J, Li B, Chen Y
TRAIL-CM4 fusion protein shows in vitro antibacterial activity and a stronger antitumor activity than solo TRAIL protein.
Protein Expr Purif. 2016; 122:82-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
A TRAIL-CM4 fusion protein in soluble form with tumor selective apoptosis and antibacterial functions was expressed in the Escherichia coli expression system and isolated through dialysis refolding and histidine-tag Nickel-affinity purification. Fresh Jurkat cells were treated with the TRAIL-CM4 fusion protein. Trypan blue staining and MTT analyses showed that, similar to a TRAIL positive control, Jurkat cell proliferation was significantly inhibited. Flow cytometry analyses using Annexin V-fluorescein revealed that Jurkat cells treated with the TRAIL-CM4 fusion protein exhibited increased apoptosis. Laser confocal microscopy showed that APB-CM4 and the fusion protein TRAIL-CM4 can bind to Jurkat cell membranes and initiate their destruction. ABP-CM4 enhances the antitumor activity of TRAIL by targeting and damaging the tumor cell membrane. In antibacterial experiments, agar well diffusion and bacterial growth inhibition curve assays revealed concentration-dependent TRAIL-CM4 antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli K12D31. The expressed TRAIL-CM4 fusion protein exhibited enhanced antitumor and antibacterial activities. Fusion protein expression allowed the two different proteins to function in combination.

Demark-Wahnefried W, Nix JW, Hunter GR, et al.
Feasibility outcomes of a presurgical randomized controlled trial exploring the impact of caloric restriction and increased physical activity versus a wait-list control on tumor characteristics and circulating biomarkers in men electing prostatectomy for prostate cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with tumor aggressiveness and disease-specific mortality for more than 15 defined malignancies, including prostate cancer. Preclinical studies suggest that weight loss from caloric restriction and increased physical activity may suppress hormonal, energy-sensing, and inflammatory factors that drive neoplastic progression; however, exact mechanisms are yet to be determined, and experiments in humans are limited.
METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial among 40 overweight or obese, newly-diagnosed prostate cancer patients who elected prostatectomy to explore feasibility of a presurgical weight loss intervention that promoted a weight loss of roughly one kg. week(-1) via caloric restriction and physical activity, as well as to assess effects on tumor biology and circulating biomarkers. Measures of feasibility (accrual, retention, adherence, and safety) were primary endpoints. Exploratory aims were directed at the intervention's effect on tumor proliferation (Ki-67) and other tumor markers (activated caspase-3, insulin and androgen receptors, VEGF, TNFβ, NFκB, and 4E-BP1), circulating biomarkers (PSA, insulin, glucose, VEGF, TNFβ, leptin, SHBG, and testosterone), lymphocytic gene expression of corresponding factors and cellular bioenergetics in neutrophils, and effects on the gut microbiome. Consenting patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either: 1) weight loss via a healthful, guidelines-based diet and exercise regimen; or 2) a wait-list control. While biological testing is currently ongoing, this paper details our methods and feasibility outcomes.
RESULTS: The accrual target was met after screening 101 cases (enrollment rate: 39.6%). Other outcomes included a retention rate of 85%, excellent adherence (95%), and no serious reported adverse events. No significant differences by age, race, or weight status were noted between enrollees vs. non-enrollees. The most common reasons for non-participation were "too busy" (30%), medical exclusions (21%), and "distance" (16%).
CONCLUSIONS: Presurgical trials offer a means to study the impact of diet and exercise interventions directly on tumor tissue, and other host factors that are feasible and safe, though modifications are needed to conduct trials within an abbreviated period of time and via distance medicine-based approaches. Pre-surgical trials are critical to elucidate the impact of lifestyle interventions on specific mechanisms that mediate carcinogenesis and which can be used subsequently as therapeutic targets.

Lallous N, Volik SV, Awrey S, et al.
Functional analysis of androgen receptor mutations that confer anti-androgen resistance identified in circulating cell-free DNA from prostate cancer patients.
Genome Biol. 2016; 17:10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The androgen receptor (AR) is a pivotal drug target for the treatment of prostate cancer, including its lethal castration-resistant (CRPC) form. All current non-steroidal AR antagonists, such as hydroxyflutamide, bicalutamide, and enzalutamide, target the androgen binding site of the receptor, competing with endogenous androgenic steroids. Several AR mutations in this binding site have been associated with poor prognosis and resistance to conventional prostate cancer drugs. In order to develop an effective CRPC therapy, it is crucial to understand the effects of these mutations on the functionality of the AR and its ability to interact with endogenous steroids and conventional AR inhibitors.
RESULTS: We previously utilized circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) sequencing technology to examine the AR gene for the presence of mutations in CRPC patients. By modifying our sequencing and data analysis approaches, we identify four additional single AR mutations and five mutation combinations associated with CRPC. Importantly, we conduct experimental functionalization of all the AR mutations identified by the current and previous cfDNA sequencing to reveal novel gain-of-function scenarios. Finally, we evaluate the effect of a novel class of AR inhibitors targeting the binding function 3 (BF3) site on the activity of CRPC-associated AR mutants.
CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrates the feasibility of a prognostic and/or diagnostic platform combining the direct identification of AR mutants from patients' serum, and the functional characterization of these mutants in order to provide personalized recommendations regarding the best future therapy.

Shaikh N, Dadachanji R, Meherji P, et al.
Polymorphisms and haplotypes of insulin-like factor 3 gene are associated with risk of polycystic ovary syndrome in Indian women.
Gene. 2016; 577(2):180-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3), secreted by the ovarian theca cells is involved in androgen production, follicular growth and oocyte maturation. Both androgens and INSL3 levels are reported to be elevated in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), indicating that INSL3 could contribute to PCOS etiology. This case-control association study explored the impact of INSL3 polymorphisms on PCOS susceptibility and its related traits.
METHODS: Genotyping of exonic polymorphisms of INSL3 was performed in controls (n=333) and PCOS (n=405) women. Phenotyping (clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters) was carried out in 205 controls and 301 PCOS women. Genotype, haplotype and genotype-phenotype associations were determined using statistical tests.
RESULTS: Three polymorphisms in exon 1-rs2286663 (G/A), rs1047233 (A/G), and rs6523 (A/G), and one in exon 3-rs1003887 (G/A), were present in our study subjects. The frequencies of rs6523 and AGAG haplotype were significantly increased in PCOS women. The rs6523 polymorphism showed significant association with increased cholesterol and HDL-C levels in PCOS women while in controls with decreased FBS, Bio-T and FAI, and increased SHBG levels. Significant association of, rs1047233 polymorphism with improved androgen related parameters in controls, rs2286663 polymorphism with decreased QUICKI in PCOS and rs1003887 polymorphism with increased insulin levels and HOMA-IR in controls were observed.
CONCLUSIONS: The rs6523 polymorphism and AGAG haplotype of INSL3 showed significant association with increased risk of PCOS. Additionally, INSL3 polymorphisms influenced metabolic and hyperandrogenemia related parameters in both controls and PCOS women. This is the first study to suggest that INSL3 may be a genetic predisposition factor in PCOS pathophysiology.

Abu-Hijleh TM, Gammoh E, Al-Busaidi AS, et al.
Common Variants in the Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) Gene Influence SHBG Levels in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
Ann Nutr Metab. 2016; 68(1):66-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Decreased sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). SHBG polymorphisms associated with reduced SHBG production were tested for their association with PCOS, but with inconclusive results. We tested whether altered SHBG levels and SHBG variants were associated with PCOS.
METHODS: The study subjects included 242 women with PCOS and 238 control women. SHBG genotyping was done by real-time PCR.
RESULTS: Higher minor allele frequency of rs13894, rs858521 and rs727428 was seen in PCOS cases, and significant differences in rs858521 and rs727428 genotypes distribution were seen between PCOS cases and controls. Multivariate regression analysis confirmed the association of only rs727428 with PCOS. Though it was not statistically significant, serum SHBG levels were reduced according to rs727428 genotypes in PCOS cases than in controls. Carriage of rs727428 minor allele was associated with significant increases in free/bioactive testosterone in PCOS cases. Seven-locus (rs9898876-rs13894-rs858521-rs1799941-rs6257-rs6259-rs727428) haploview analysis showed increased frequency of GCCGTGA, GTCGTGA and GTCATGG, and reduced frequency of GTCGTGG haplotypes in PCOS cases than in controls, thus conferring disease susceptibility and protective nature to these haplotypes, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Specific SHBG variants affecting serum SHBG levels and SHBG haplotypes are associated with PCOS, suggesting the role for SHBG as PCOS candidate gene.

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