Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (4)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: SETD1B (cancer-related)
The SET domain‑containing 1B (SETD1B) gene is involved in multiple biological processes, including tumor development and progression. However, the role of SETD1B in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is largely unexplored. The present study, examined the expression of SETD1B in patients with HCC and assessed its clinical significance. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis results revealed that the expression levels of SETD1B mRNA and protein were significantly increased in HCC tumor tissues compared with the adjacent normal tissues. In addition, an analysis of the patient clinical factors indicated that increased levels of SETD1B expression were associated with tumor size, clinical stage and liver cirrhosis. Patients with HCC with decreased levels of SETD1B expression exhibited longer survival times compared with those with increased levels of SETD1B expression. In addition, Cox's regression analysis results implied that the upregulation of SETD1B was an independent prognostic marker in patients with HCC. Taken together, the results demonstrated that SETD1B is essential in the progression of HCC and may be used as a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target in HCC.
Branford S, Wang P, Yeung DT, et al.Integrative genomic analysis reveals cancer-associated mutations at diagnosis of CML in patients with high-risk disease.
Blood. 2018; 132(9):948-961 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Genomic events associated with poor outcome in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are poorly understood. We performed whole-exome sequencing, copy-number variation, and/or RNA sequencing for 65 patients to discover mutations at diagnosis and blast crisis (BC). Forty-six patients with chronic-phase disease with the extremes of outcome were studied at diagnosis. Cancer gene variants were detected in 15 (56%) of 27 patients with subsequent BC or poor outcome and in 3 (16%) of 19 optimal responders (
Kumar A, Kumari N, Rai A, et al.Expression and clinical significance of COMPASS family of histone methyltransferases in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Gene. 2018; 674:31-36 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The regulation of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation code is indispensable for the cell as any disturbance in this has been associated with many pathologic conditions, like cancer. The SET domain-containing lysine methyltransferase 2 (KMT2) family of histone methyltransferases was the first to be identified as writers of H3K4 methylation. In mammals, seven members of the KMT2 family are responsible for carrying out the bulk of H3K4 methylation. Recent studies documented alterations in various histone methylases in human cancer, which were associated with therapeutic and prognostic potential. Notwithstanding, no report has documented the role of KMT2 family of histone methyltransferases in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Therefore, we examined the expression profile of all the seven KMT2 family members of histone methyltransferases in ccRCC with the aim to establish their role as prognostic or therapeutic targets. Real-time PCR was employed to study the expression of KMT2 family genes using specific primers in 50 cases of ccRCC. The mRNA levels were correlated with stage, grade, and metastasis of the tumor. Among seven genes, KMT2G was significantly up-regulated in higher stages of the tumor as compared to low stage tumors (p = 0.017). Similarly, KMT2G levels were higher in the metastatic tumor (p = 0.027). Additionally, some of the KMT2G target genes were found to be up-regulated in metastatic tumors as compared to non-metastatic. ROC curve indicated KMT2G as a good marker for discriminating metastatic tumors from non-metastatic tumors (AUC = 0.738). Thus, we conclude that KMT2G histone methyltransferase could be a good prognostic marker for ccRCC. Additionally, KMT2G can also serve as a therapeutic target for ccRCC.
Mutations and translocations within the COMPASS (complex of proteins associated with Set1) family of histone lysine methyltransferases are associated with a large number of human diseases, including cancer. Here we report that SET1B/COMPASS, which is essential for cell survival, surprisingly has a cytoplasmic variant. SET1B, but not its SET domain, is critical for maintaining cell viability, indicating a novel catalytic-independent role of SET1B/COMPASS. Loss of SET1B or its unique cytoplasmic-interacting protein, BOD1, leads to up-regulation of expression of numerous genes modulating fatty acid metabolism, including
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Histone H3, lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation is one chromatin modification that defines distinct regulatory states of euchromatin. Mammals express six main histone methyltransferase (HMT) enzymes that modify H3K4 by monomethylation, dimethylation or trimethylation. Recent studies examine roles of some of these HMTs and their cofactors in hematopoiesis and leukemia. We discuss these emerging studies together with prior embryonic stem data, revealing how these enzymes function.
RECENT FINDINGS: Murine models have been employed to conditionally or constitutively knockout HMTs (MLL1/KMT2A, MLL2/KMT2B, MLL3/KMT2C, MLL4/KMT2D, SETD1A/KMT2F and SETD1B/KMT2G) as well as specific domains or partners of these enzymes in normal hematopoietic populations and in the context of hematologic malignancies. These studies demonstrate that global or gene-specific changes in H3K4 modification levels can be attributed to particular enzymes in particular tissues.
SUMMARY: Loss-of-function studies indicate largely nonoverlapping roles of the six H3K4 HMTs. These roles are not all necessarily due to differences in enzymatic activity and are not always accompanied by large global changes in histone modification. Both gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutations in hematologic malignancy are restricted to MLL1 and MLL3/MLL4, but emerging data indicate that SETD1A/SETD1B and MLL2 can be critical in leukemia as well.
García-Sanz P, Triviño JC, Mota A, et al.Chromatin remodelling and DNA repair genes are frequently mutated in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2017; 140(7):1551-1563 [PubMed
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In developed countries, endometrial carcinoma is the most common cancer that affects the female genital tract. Endometrial carcinoma is divided into two main histological types, type I or endometrioid and type II or non-endometrioid, each of which have characteristic, although not exclusive, molecular alterations and mutational profiles. Nevertheless, information about the implication and relevance of some of these genes in this disease is lacking. We sought here to identify new recurrently mutated genes in endometrioid cancers that play a role in tumourigenesis and that influence the clinical outcome. We focused on low-grade, non-ultramutated tumours as these tumours have a worse prognosis than the ultramutated POLE-positive endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (EECs). We performed exome-sequencing of 11 EECs with matched normal tissue and subsequently validated 15 candidate genes in 76 samples. For the first time, we show that mutations in chromatin remodelling-related genes (KMT2D, KMT2C, SETD1B and BCOR) and in DNA-repair-related genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD50 and CHD4) are frequent in this subtype of endometrial cancer. The alterations to these genes occurred with frequencies ranging from 35.5% for KMT2D to 10.5% for BRCA1 and BCOR, with some showing a tendency toward co-occurrence (RAD50-KMT2D and RAD50-SETD1B). All these genes harboured specific mutational hotspots. In addition, the mutational status of KMT2C, KMT2D and SETD1B helps to predict the degree of myometrial invasion, a critical prognostic feature. These results highlight the possible implication of these genes in this disease, creating opportunities for new therapeutic approaches.
Choi YJ, Oh HR, Choi MR, et al.Frameshift mutation of a histone methylation-related gene SETD1B and its regional heterogeneity in gastric and colorectal cancers with high microsatellite instability.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(8):1674-81 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Histone methyltransferase (HMT), which catalyzes a histone methylation, is frequently altered in cancers at mutation and expression levels. The aims of this study were to explore whether SETD1B, SETDB2, and SETD2, SET domain-containing HMT genes, are mutated and expressionally altered in gastric (GC) and colorectal cancers (CRC). In a public database, we found that SETD1B, SETDB2, and SETD2 had mononucleotide repeats in coding sequences that might be mutation targets in cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI). We analyzed the mutations in 76 GCs and 93 CRCs and found SETD1B (38.7% of GC and 35.6% of CRC with high MSI [MSI-H]), SETDB2 (11.1% of CRC with MSI-H), and SETD2 frameshift mutations (6.7% of CRC with MSI-H). These mutations were not found in stable MSI/low MSI. In addition, we analyzed intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) of SETD1B mutation in 6 CRCs and found that 2 CRCs harbored regional ITH of SETD1B. We also analyzed SETD1B expression in GC and CRC by immunohistochemistry. Loss of SETD1B expression was identified in 15% to 55% of the GC and CRC with respect to the MSI status. Of note, the loss of expression was more common in those with SETD1B mutations than those with wild-type SETD1B. We identified alterations of SET domain-containing HMT at various levels (frameshift mutations, genetic ITH, and expression loss), which together might play a role in tumorigenesis of GC and CRC with MSI-H. Our data suggest that mutation analysis in multiple regions is needed for a better evaluation of mutation status in CRC with MSI-H.
Song Y, Li L, Ou Y, et al.Identification of genomic alterations in oesophageal squamous cell cancer.
Nature. 2014; 509(7498):91-5 [PubMed
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Oesophageal cancer is one of the most aggressive cancers and is the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Approximately 70% of global oesophageal cancer cases occur in China, with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) being the histopathological form in the vast majority of cases (>90%). Currently, there are limited clinical approaches for the early diagnosis and treatment of ESCC, resulting in a 10% five-year survival rate for patients. However, the full repertoire of genomic events leading to the pathogenesis of ESCC remains unclear. Here we describe a comprehensive genomic analysis of 158 ESCC cases, as part of the International Cancer Genome Consortium research project. We conducted whole-genome sequencing in 17 ESCC cases and whole-exome sequencing in 71 cases, of which 53 cases, plus an additional 70 ESCC cases not used in the whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing, were subjected to array comparative genomic hybridization analysis. We identified eight significantly mutated genes, of which six are well known tumour-associated genes (TP53, RB1, CDKN2A, PIK3CA, NOTCH1, NFE2L2), and two have not previously been described in ESCC (ADAM29 and FAM135B). Notably, FAM135B is identified as a novel cancer-implicated gene as assayed for its ability to promote malignancy of ESCC cells. Additionally, MIR548K, a microRNA encoded in the amplified 11q13.3-13.4 region, is characterized as a novel oncogene, and functional assays demonstrate that MIR548K enhances malignant phenotypes of ESCC cells. Moreover, we have found that several important histone regulator genes (MLL2 (also called KMT2D), ASH1L, MLL3 (KMT2C), SETD1B, CREBBP and EP300) are frequently altered in ESCC. Pathway assessment reveals that somatic aberrations are mainly involved in the Wnt, cell cycle and Notch pathways. Genomic analyses suggest that ESCC and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma share some common pathogenic mechanisms, and ESCC development is associated with alcohol drinking. This study has explored novel biological markers and tumorigenic pathways that would greatly improve therapeutic strategies for ESCC.
Tiziana Storlazzi C, Pieri L, Paoli C, et al.Complex karyotype in a polycythemia vera patient with a novel SETD1B/GTF2H3 fusion gene.
Am J Hematol. 2014; 89(4):438-42 [PubMed
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The patient had been diagnosed with polycythemia vera (PV) in 1999, at the age of 61, according to the criteria of the Polycythemia Vera Study Group (PVSG) on the basis of the increased red cell mass by isotope determination, normal oxygen saturation, low plasma erythropoietin level, presence of endogenous erythroid colonies (EEC), and splenomegaly. Histopathology of bone marrow biopsy was also consistent with polycythemia vera with no evidence of increased reticulin fibrosis. A karyotype analysis was not performed at that time. He had been treated initially with phlebotomies and then with hydroxyurea with the aim to obtain a better control of hematocrit; he was under low-dose aspirin. In 2009, 10 years after the diagnosis, while the patient was still being treated with hydroxyurea and phlebotomies, he noticed worsening of general conditions and fatigue, and the appearance of night sweats; he also reported that his spleen volume had increased rapidly in the past few months. He complained of severe pruritus especially after (but not limited to) a shower. He was referred to our center for further evaluation. At presentation, his blood counts were as follows: hemoglobin 157 g/L, hematocrit 54.7%, leukocytes 13.1 × 10⁹ /L, platelets 238 × 10⁹ /L, LDH 856 U/L (normal upper limit, 250 U/L). Blood film examination showed neutrophilia (8.9 × 10⁹ /L) but immature myeloid cells and nucleated erythroblasts were absent. The spleen was 14 cm below the left costal margin, the liver was at 4 cm below the right costal margin. He was found to harbor the JAK2V617F mutation with an allele burden of 85% and the circulating CD34⁺ cell count was 14 × 10⁶ /L. A bone marrow biopsy showed the presence of hyperplasia of myeloid and erythroid lineages, increased number of scattered megakarocytes without overt morphologic abnormalities; reticulin fibrosis was grade 1 according to the European classification. On these basis, we considered the patient as presenting the features of PV according to the 2008 WHO classification of myeloid neoplasms associated with grade 1 reticulin fibrosis.
The Rbm15-Mkl1 fusion protein is associated with acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL), although little is known regarding the molecular mechanism(s) whereby this fusion protein contributes to leukemogenesis. Here, we show that both Rbm15 and the leukemogenic Rbm15-Mkl1 fusion protein interact with the Setd1b histone H3-Lys4 methyltransferase (also known as KMT2G). This interaction is direct and requires the Rbm15 SPOC domain and the Setd1b LSD motif. Over-expression of Rbm15-Mkl1 in the 6133 megakaryoblastic leukemia cell line, previously established by expression of the Rbm15-Mkl1 fusion protein in mice (Mercher et al.,  J. Clin. Invest. 119, 852-864), leads to decreased levels of endogenous Rbm15 and increased levels of endogenous Mkl1. These cells exhibit enhanced proliferation and cytokine-independent cell growth, which requires an intact Rbm15 SPOC domain that mediates interaction between the Rbm15-Mkl1 fusion protein and the Setd1b methyltransferase. These results reveal altered Setd1b complex function and consequent altered epigenetic regulation as a possible molecular mechanism that mediates the leukemogenic activity of the Rbm15-Mkl1 fusion protein in AMKL.
Mini-chromosome maintenance (Mcm) proteins are part of the replication-licensing complex that is loaded onto chromatin during the G1-phase of the cell cycle and required for initiation of DNA replication in the subsequent S-phase. Mcm proteins are typically loaded in excess of the number of locations that are used during S-phase. Nonetheless, partial depletion of Mcm proteins leads to cancers and stem cell deficiencies. Mcm2 deficient mice, on a 129Sv genetic background, display a high rate of thymic lymphoblastic lymphoma. Here array comparative genomic hybridization is used to characterize the genetic damage accruing in these tumors. The predominant events are deletions averaging less than 0.5 Mbp, considerably shorter than observed in prior studies using alternative mouse lymphoma models or human tumors. Such deletions facilitate identification of specific genes and pathways responsible for the tumors. Mutations in many genes that have been implicated in human lymphomas are recapitulated in this mouse model. These features, and the fact that the mutation underlying the accelerated genetic damage does not target a specific gene or pathway a priori, are valuable features of this mouse model for identification of tumor suppressor genes. Genes affected in all tumors include Pten, Tcfe2a, Mbd3 and Setd1b. Notch1 and additional genes are affected in subsets of tumors. The high frequency of relatively short deletions is consistent with elevated recombination between nearby stalled replication forks in Mcm2-deficient mice.
Ansari KI, Mandal SSMixed lineage leukemia: roles in gene expression, hormone signaling and mRNA processing.
FEBS J. 2010; 277(8):1790-804 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Mixed lineage leukemias (MLLs) are an evolutionarily conserved trithorax family of human genes that play critical roles in HOX gene regulation and embryonic development. MLL1 is well known to be rearranged in myeloid and lymphoid leukemias in children and adults. There are several MLL family proteins such as MLL1, MLL2, MLL3, MLL4, MLL5, Set1A and Set1B, and each possesses histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4)-specific methyltransferase activity and has critical roles in gene activation and epigenetics. Although MLLs are recognized as major regulators of gene activation, their mechanism of action, target genes and the distinct functions of different MLLs remain elusive. Recent studies demonstrate that besides H3K4 methylation and HOX gene regulation, MLLs have much wider roles in gene activation and regulate diverse other genes. Interestingly, several MLLs interact with nuclear receptors and have critical roles in steroid-hormone-mediated gene activation and signaling. In this minireview, we summarize recent advances in understanding the roles of MLLs in gene regulation and hormone signaling and highlight their potential roles in mRNA processing.