Gene Summary

Gene:RAP1GDS1; Rap1 GTPase-GDP dissociation stimulator 1
Aliases: GDS1, SmgGDS
Summary:The smg GDP dissociation stimulator (smgGDS) protein is a stimulatory GDP/GTP exchange protein with GTPase activity (Riess et al., 1993 [PubMed 8262526]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:rap1 GTPase-GDP dissociation stimulator 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (4)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Trisomy
  • Up-Regulation
  • Adult T-Cell Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • rap1 GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Chromosome 11
  • siRNA
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Leukaemia
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Alternative Splicing
  • Adolescents
  • Karyotyping
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Breast Cancer
  • Chromosome 4
  • Signal Transduction
  • rhoC GTP-Binding Protein
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins
  • Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Cytogenetic Analysis
  • Translocation
  • Immunophenotyping
  • ras Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Transcription
  • Infant
  • FISH
  • Base Sequence
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Lung Cancer
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Protein Isoforms
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: RAP1GDS1 (cancer-related)

Bowler E, Porazinski S, Uzor S, et al.
Hypoxia leads to significant changes in alternative splicing and elevated expression of CLK splice factor kinases in PC3 prostate cancer cells.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):355 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests that one of the ways that cells adapt to hypoxia is through alternative splicing. The aim of this study was firstly to examine the effect of hypoxia on the alternative splicing of cancer associated genes using the prostate cancer cell line PC3 as a model. Secondly, the effect of hypoxia on the expression of several regulators of splicing was examined.
METHODS: PC3 cells were grown in 1% oxygen in a hypoxic chamber for 48 h, RNA extracted and sent for high throughput PCR analysis at the RNomics platform at the University of Sherbrooke, Canada. Genes whose exon inclusion rate PSI (ψ) changed significantly were identified, and their altered exon inclusion rates verified by RT-PCR in three cell lines. The expression of splice factors and splice factor kinases in response to hypoxia was examined by qPCR and western blotting. The splice factor kinase CLK1 was inhibited with the benzothiazole TG003.
RESULTS: In PC3 cells the exon inclusion rate PSI (ψ) was seen to change by > 25% in 12 cancer-associated genes; MBP, APAF1, PUF60, SYNE2, CDC42BPA, FGFR10P, BTN2A2, UTRN, RAP1GDS1, PTPN13, TTC23 and CASP9 (caspase 9). The expression of the splice factors SRSF1, SRSF2, SRSF3, SAM68, HuR, hnRNPA1, and of the splice factor kinases SRPK1 and CLK1 increased significantly in hypoxia. We also observed that the splice factor kinase CLK3, but not CLK2 and CLK4, was also induced in hypoxic DU145 prostate, HT29 colon and MCF7 breast cancer cell lines. Lastly, we show that the inhibition of CLK1 in PC3 cells with the benzothiazole TG003 increased expression of the anti-apoptotic isoform caspase 9b.
CONCLUSIONS: Significant changes in alternative splicing of cancer associated genes occur in prostate cancer cells in hypoxic conditions. The expression of several splice factors and splice factor kinases increases during hypoxia, in particular the Cdc-like splice factor kinases CLK1 and CLK3. We suggest that in hypoxia the elevated expression of these regulators of splicing helps cells adapt through alternative splicing of key cancer-associated genes. We suggest that the CLK splice factor kinases could be targeted in cancers in which hypoxia contributes to resistance to therapy.

Gonyo P, Bergom C, Brandt AC, et al.
SmgGDS is a transient nucleolar protein that protects cells from nucleolar stress and promotes the cell cycle by regulating DREAM complex gene expression.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(50):6873-6883 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The chaperone protein and guanine nucleotide exchange factor SmgGDS (RAP1GDS1) is a key promoter of cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. SmgGDS undergoes nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, suggesting that it has both cytoplasmic and nuclear functions that promote cancer. Previous studies indicate that SmgGDS binds cytoplasmic small GTPases and promotes their trafficking to the plasma membrane. In contrast, little is known about the functions of SmgGDS in the nucleus, or how these nuclear functions might benefit cancer cells. Here we show unique nuclear localization and regulation of gene transcription pathways by SmgGDS. Strikingly, SmgGDS depletion significantly reduces expression of over 600 gene products that are targets of the DREAM complex, which is a transcription factor complex that regulates expression of proteins controlling the cell cycle. The cell cycle regulators E2F1, MYC, MYBL2 (B-Myb) and FOXM1 are among the DREAM targets that are diminished by SmgGDS depletion. E2F1 is well known to promote G1 cell cycle progression, and the loss of E2F1 in SmgGDS-depleted cells provides an explanation for previous reports that SmgGDS depletion characteristically causes a G1 cell cycle arrest. We show that SmgGDS localizes in nucleoli, and that RNAi-mediated depletion of SmgGDS in cancer cells disrupts nucleolar morphology, signifying nucleolar stress. We show that nucleolar SmgGDS interacts with the RNA polymerase I transcription factor upstream binding factor (UBF). The RNAi-mediated depletion of UBF diminishes nucleolar localization of SmgGDS and promotes proteasome-mediated degradation of SmgGDS, indicating that nucleolar sequestration of SmgGDS by UBF stabilizes SmgGDS protein. The ability of SmgGDS to interact with UBF and localize in the nucleolus is diminished by expressing DiRas1 or DiRas2, which are small GTPases that bind SmgGDS and act as tumor suppressors. Taken together, our results support a novel nuclear role for SmgGDS in protecting malignant cells from nucleolar stress, thus promoting cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis.

Bergom C, Hauser AD, Rymaszewski A, et al.
The Tumor-suppressive Small GTPase DiRas1 Binds the Noncanonical Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor SmgGDS and Antagonizes SmgGDS Interactions with Oncogenic Small GTPases.
J Biol Chem. 2016; 291(12):6534-45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The small GTPase DiRas1 has tumor-suppressive activities, unlike the oncogenic properties more common to small GTPases such as K-Ras and RhoA. Although DiRas1 has been found to be a tumor suppressor in gliomas and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, the mechanisms by which it inhibits malignant phenotypes have not been fully determined. In this study, we demonstrate that DiRas1 binds to SmgGDS, a protein that promotes the activation of several oncogenic GTPases. In silico docking studies predict that DiRas1 binds to SmgGDS in a manner similar to other small GTPases. SmgGDS is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for RhoA, but we report here that SmgGDS does not mediate GDP/GTP exchange on DiRas1. Intriguingly, DiRas1 acts similarly to a dominant-negative small GTPase, binding to SmgGDS and inhibiting SmgGDS binding to other small GTPases, including K-Ras4B, RhoA, and Rap1A. DiRas1 is expressed in normal breast tissue, but its expression is decreased in most breast cancers, similar to its family member DiRas3 (ARHI). DiRas1 inhibits RhoA- and SmgGDS-mediated NF-κB transcriptional activity in HEK293T cells. We also report that DiRas1 suppresses basal NF-κB activation in breast cancer and glioblastoma cell lines. Taken together, our data support a model in which DiRas1 expression inhibits malignant features of cancers in part by nonproductively binding to SmgGDS and inhibiting the binding of other small GTPases to SmgGDS.

Berg TJ, Gastonguay AJ, Lorimer EL, et al.
Splice variants of SmgGDS control small GTPase prenylation and membrane localization.
J Biol Chem. 2010; 285(46):35255-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ras and Rho small GTPases possessing a C-terminal polybasic region (PBR) are vital signaling proteins whose misregulation can lead to cancer. Signaling by these proteins depends on their ability to bind guanine nucleotides and their prenylation with a geranylgeranyl or farnesyl isoprenoid moiety and subsequent trafficking to cellular membranes. There is little previous evidence that cellular signals can restrain nonprenylated GTPases from entering the prenylation pathway, leading to the general belief that PBR-possessing GTPases are prenylated as soon as they are synthesized. Here, we present evidence that challenges this belief. We demonstrate that insertion of the dominant negative mutation to inhibit GDP/GTP exchange diminishes prenylation of Rap1A and RhoA, enhances prenylation of Rac1, and does not detectably alter prenylation of K-Ras. Our results indicate that the entrance and passage of these small GTPases through the prenylation pathway is regulated by two splice variants of SmgGDS, a protein that has been reported to promote GDP/GTP exchange by PBR-possessing GTPases and to be up-regulated in several forms of cancer. We show that the previously characterized 558-residue SmgGDS splice variant (SmgGDS-558) selectively associates with prenylated small GTPases and facilitates trafficking of Rap1A to the plasma membrane, whereas the less well characterized 607-residue SmgGDS splice variant (SmgGDS-607) associates with nonprenylated GTPases and regulates the entry of Rap1A, RhoA, and Rac1 into the prenylation pathway. These results indicate that guanine nucleotide exchange and interactions with SmgGDS splice variants can regulate the entrance and passage of PBR-possessing small GTPases through the prenylation pathway.

Zhi H, Yang XJ, Kuhnmuench J, et al.
SmgGDS is up-regulated in prostate carcinoma and promotes tumour phenotypes in prostate cancer cells.
J Pathol. 2009; 217(3):389-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
SmgGDS is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor with the unique ability to activate multiple small GTPases, implicating it in cancer development and progression. Here, we investigated the role of SmgGDS in prostate cancer by studying the expression of SmgGDS in benign and malignant prostatic tissues. We also probed SmgGDS function in three prostate carcinoma cell lines using small interfering RNA (siRNA). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that SmgGDS levels were elevated in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), prostate carcinoma, and metastatic prostate carcinoma. In addition, expression of SmgGDS positively correlated with that of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a protein believed to promote the development of prostate carcinoma. Reduction of SmgGDS expression in prostate carcinoma cells inhibited proliferation and migration, irrespective of androgen receptor status. These effects were accompanied by a reduction in COX-2 expression and in activity of NF-kappaB, a known regulator of COX-2. Taken together, these findings suggest that SmgGDS promotes the development and progression of prostate cancer, possibly associated with NF-kappaB-dependent up-regulation of COX-2.

Panagopoulos I, Kerndrup G, Carlsen N, et al.
Fusion of NUP98 and the SET binding protein 1 (SETBP1) gene in a paediatric acute T cell lymphoblastic leukaemia with t(11;18)(p15;q12).
Br J Haematol. 2007; 136(2):294-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Three NUP98 chimaeras have previously been reported in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL): NUP98/ADD3, NUP98/CCDC28A, and NUP98/RAP1GDS1. We report a T-ALL with t(11;18)(p15;q12) resulting in a novel NUP98 fusion. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation showed NUP98 and SET binding protein 1(SETBP1) fusion signals; other analyses showed that exon 12 of NUP98 was fused in-frame with exon 5 of SETBP1. Nested polymerase chain reaction did not amplify the reciprocal SETBP1/NUP98, suggesting that NUP98/SETBP1 transcript is pathogenetically important. SETBP1 has previously not been implicated in leukaemias; however, it encodes a protein that specifically interacts with SET, fused to NUP214 in a case of acute undifferentiated leukaemia.

Romana SP, Radford-Weiss I, Ben Abdelali R, et al.
NUP98 rearrangements in hematopoietic malignancies: a study of the Groupe Francophone de Cytogénétique Hématologique.
Leukemia. 2006; 20(4):696-706 [PubMed] Related Publications
The NUP98 gene is fused with 19 different partner genes in various human hematopoietic malignancies. In order to gain additional clinico-hematological data and to identify new partners of NUP98, the Groupe Francophone de Cytogénétique Hématologique (GFCH) collected cases of hematological malignancies where a 11p15 rearrangement was detected. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed that 35% of these patients (23/66) carried a rearrangement of the NUP98 locus. Genes of the HOXA cluster and the nuclear-receptor set domain (NSD) genes were frequently fused to NUP98, mainly in de novo myeloid malignancies whereas the DDX10 and TOP1 genes were equally rearranged in de novo and in therapy-related myeloid proliferations. Involvement of ADD3 and C6ORF80 genes were detected, respectively, in myeloid disorders and in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), whereas the RAP1GDS1 gene was fused to NUP98 in T-ALL. Three new chromosomal breakpoints: 3q22.1, 7p15 (in a localization distinct from the HOXA locus) and Xq28 were detected in rearrangements with the NUP98 gene locus. The present study as well as a review of the 73 cases previously reported in the literature allowed us to delineate some chromosomal, clinical and molecular features of patients carrying a NUP98 gene rearrangements.

van Zutven LJ, Onen E, Velthuizen SC, et al.
Identification of NUP98 abnormalities in acute leukemia: JARID1A (12p13) as a new partner gene.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2006; 45(5):437-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosome rearrangements are found in many acute leukemias. As a result, genes at the breakpoints can be disrupted, forming fusion genes. One of the genes involved in several chromosome aberrations in hematological malignancies is NUP98 (11p15). As NUP98 is close to the 11p telomere, small translocations might easily be missed. Using a NUP98-specific split-signal fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probe combination, we analyzed 84 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or myelodysplastic syndrome with either normal karyotypes or 11p abnormalities to investigate whether there are unidentified 11p15 rearrangements. Neither NUP98 translocations nor deletions were identified in cases with normal karyotypes, indicating these aberrations may be very rare in this group. However, NUP98 deletions were observed in four cases with unbalanced 11p aberrations, indicating that the breakpoint is centromeric of NUP98. Rearrangements of NUP98 were identified in two patients, both showing 11p abnormalities in the diagnostic karyotype: a t(4;11)(q1?3;p15) with expression of the NUP98-RAP1GDS1 fusion product detected in a 60-year-old woman with AML-M0, and an add(11)(p15) with a der(21)t(11;21)(p15;p13) observed cytogenetically in a 1-year-old boy with AML-M7. JARID1A was identified as the fusion partner of NUP98 using 3' RACE, RT-PCR, and FISH. JARID1A, at 12p13, codes for retinoblastoma binding protein 2, a protein implicated in transcriptional regulation. This is the first report of JARID1A as a partner gene in leukemia.

Kobzev YN, Martinez-Climent J, Lee S, et al.
Analysis of translocations that involve the NUP98 gene in patients with 11p15 chromosomal rearrangements.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2004; 41(4):339-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
The NUP98 gene has been reported to be fused with at least 15 partner genes in leukemias with 11p15 translocations. We report the results of screening of cases with cytogenetically documented rearrangements of 11p15 and the subsequent identification of involvement of NUP98 and its partner genes. We identified 49 samples from 46 hematology patients with 11p15 (including a few with 11p14) abnormalities, and using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we found that NUP98 was disrupted in 7 cases. With the use of gene-specific FISH probes, in 6 cases, we identified the partner genes, which were PRRX1 (PMX1; in 2 cases), HOXD13, RAP1GDS1, HOXC13, and TOP1. In the 3 cases for which RNA was available, RT-PCR was performed, which confirmed the FISH results and identified the location of the breakpoints in patient cDNA. Our data confirm the previous findings that NUP98 is a recurrent target in various types of leukemia.

Sun W, Zhang K, Zhang X, et al.
Identification of differentially expressed genes in human lung squamous cell carcinoma using suppression subtractive hybridization.
Cancer Lett. 2004; 212(1):83-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths. Over the past decade, much has been known about the molecular changes associated with lung carcinogenesis; however, our understanding to lung tumorigenesis is still incomplete. To identify genes that are differentially expressed in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung, we compared the expression profiles between primarily cultured SCC tumor cells and bronchial epithelial cells derived from morphologically normal bronchial epithelium of the same patient. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), two cDNA libraries containing up- and down-regulated genes in the tumor cells were constructed, named as LCTP and LCBP. The two libraries comprise 258 known genes and 133 unknown genes in total. The known up-regulated genes in the library LCTP represented a variety of functional groups; including metabolism-, cell adhesion and migration-, signal transduction-, and anti-apoptosis-related genes. Using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, seven genes chosen randomly from the LCTP were analyzed in the tumor tissue paired with its corresponding adjacent normal lung tissue derived from 16 cases of the SCC. Among them, the IQGAP1, RAP1GDS1, PAICS, MLF1, and MARK1 genes showed a consistent expression pattern with that of the SSH analysis. Identification and further characterization of these genes may allow a better understanding of lung carcinogenesis.

Lahortiga I, Vizmanos JL, Agirre X, et al.
NUP98 is fused to adducin 3 in a patient with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and myeloid markers, with a new translocation t(10;11)(q25;p15).
Cancer Res. 2003; 63(12):3079-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
The nucleoporin 98 gene (NUP98) has been reported to be fused to 13 partner genes in hematological malignancies with 11p15 translocations. Twelve of them have been identified in patients with myeloid neoplasias and only 1, RAP1GDS1 (4q21), is fused with NUP98 in five patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Three of these patients coexpressed T and myeloid markers, suggesting the specific association of t(4;11)(q21;p15) with a subset of T-ALL originating from an early progenitor, which has the potential to express mature T-cell antigens as well as myeloid markers. We describe here a new NUP98 partner involved in a t(10;11)(q25;p15) in a patient with acute biphenotypic leukemia, showing coexpression of mature T and myeloid markers. The gene involved, located in 10q25, was identified as ADD3 using 3'-RACE. ADD3 codes for the ubiquitous expressed subunit gamma of the adducin protein, and it seems to play an important role in the skeletal organization of the cell membrane. Both NUP98-ADD3 and ADD3-NUP98 fusion transcripts are expressed in the patient. This is the second partner of NUP98 described in T-ALL. Adducin shares with the product of RAP1GDS1, and with all of the nonhomeobox NUP98 partners, the presence of a region with significant probability of adopting a coiled-coil conformation. This region is always retained in the fusion transcript with the NH(2) terminus FG repeats of NUP98, suggesting an important role in the mechanism of leukemogenesis.

Elia L, Mancini M, Moleti L, et al.
A multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction strategy for the diagnostic molecular screening of chimeric genes: a clinical evaluation on 170 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Haematologica. 2003; 88(3):275-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In the last few years molecular methods have allowed the identification of leukemia-associated genetic lesions, which may represent the most accurate predictors of clinical outcome. These considerations strengthen the need for rapid identification of the abnormalities. Our aim was to demonstrate whether a modified multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) system might be successfully used to screen a large number of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
DESIGN AND METHODS: In this study we adapted the multiplex RT-PCR assay, previously described by Pallisgaard et al., to detect all the most frequent genetic lesions with their characteristic splicing variants occurring in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, such as the MLL/AF4, MLL/ENL, BCR/ABL p190 (e1a2) and p210 (b2a2,b3a2) isoforms, E2A/PBX1, TEL/AML1, SIL/TAL1 and the novel NUP98/RAP1GDS1 transcript, recently described in a T-ALL leukemic subtype.
RESULTS: We used the multiplex RT-PCR assay to screen 170 ALL patients (70 children and 100 adults). PCR positivity was detected in 67 (39%) of the 170 ALL patients studied. The comparison between cytogenetic and molecular analyses showed complete correspondence between the two assays in all patients with an evaluable karyotype. Finally, the observed incidence of genetic lesions in our ALL patients was similar to the frequency usually reported both in children and in adults with ALL.
INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: These results show that, compared to single RT-PCR reactions, our multiplex RT-PCR system allows rapid, specific, simultaneous as well as a less expensive, laborious and time-consuming detection of the most frequent fusion transcripts in ALL patients. Therefore, it might be recommended for rapid diagnostic molecular screening of large numbers of patients, such as those enrolled in multicenter, co-operative studies. Furthermore, we have shown that multiplex RT-PCR is an open system that can easily be adapted to detect new leukemic genes.

Panagopoulos I, Isaksson M, Billström R, et al.
Fusion of the NUP98 gene and the homeobox gene HOXC13 in acute myeloid leukemia with t(11;12)(p15;q13).
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2003; 36(1):107-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
The NUP98 gene at 11p15 is known to be fused to DDX10, HOXA9, HOXA11, HOXA13, HOXD11, HOXD13, LEDGF, NSD1, NSD3, PMX1, RAP1GDS1, and TOP1 in various hematologic malignancies. The common theme in all NUP98 chimeras is a transcript consisting of the 5' part of NUP98 and the 3' portion of the partner gene; however, apart from the frequent fusion to different homeobox genes, there is no apparent similarity among the other partners. We here report a de novo acute myeloid leukemia with a t(11;12)(p15;q13), resulting in a novel NUP98/HOXC13 fusion. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses, by the use of probes covering NUP98 and the HOXC gene cluster at 12q13, revealed a fusion signal at the der(11)t(11;12), indicating a NUP98/HOXC chimera, whereas no fusion was found on the der(12)t(11;12), suggesting that the translocation was accompanied by a deletion of the reciprocal fusion gene. Reverse transcription-PCR and sequence analyses showed that exon 16 (nucleotide 2290) of NUP98 was fused in-frame with exon 2 (nucleotide 852) of HOXC13. Neither the HOXC13/NUP98 transcript nor the normal HOXC13 was expressed. The present results, together with previous studies of NUP98/homeobox gene fusions, strongly indicate that NUP98/HOXC13 is of pathogenetic importance in t(11;12)-positive acute myeloid leukemia.

Cimino G, Sprovieri T, Rapanotti MC, et al.
Molecular evaluation of the NUP98/RAP1GDS1 gene frequency in adults with T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Haematologica. 2001; 86(4):436-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The NUP98/RAP1GDS1 (NRG) is a new fusion gene, originating from the t(4;11)(q21;p15) translocation, that characterizes a subset of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). In this study we analyzed 43 T-ALL patients for the expression of this new molecular marker using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) system, which is more sensitive and specific than cytogenetics alone, confirming that NRG-positive ALLs are infrequent, accounting for approximately 5% of cases.

Mecucci C, La Starza R, Negrini M, et al.
t(4;11)(q21;p15) translocation involving NUP98 and RAP1GDS1 genes: characterization of a new subset of T acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Br J Haematol. 2000; 109(4):788-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Two cases of T acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) with an identical t(4;11)(q21;p15) translocation were identified within a prospective study on the biological and clinical features of adult ALL patients enrolled into the therapeutic protocol ALL0496 of the GIMEMA Italian Group. In both cases, the molecular characterization showed an involvement of the NUP98 gene on 11p15 which rearranges with the RAP1GDS1 gene on 4q21. The morphological and immunological features of the leukaemic cells, as well as the clinical behaviour and response to induction therapy, were the same in both patients. Based on the available data, the t(4;11)(q21;p15) translocation involving the NUP98-RAP1GDS1 fusion gene emerges as a new highly specific genetic abnormality that characterizes a subset of T-ALL.

Hussey DJ, Nicola M, Moore S, et al.
The (4;11)(q21;p15) translocation fuses the NUP98 and RAP1GDS1 genes and is recurrent in T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia.
Blood. 1999; 94(6):2072-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
We determined the breakpoint genes of the translocation t(4;11)(q21;p15) that occurred in a case of adult T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (T-ALL). The chromosome 11 breakpoint was mapped to the region between D11S470 and D11S860. The nucleoporin 98 gene (NUP98), which is rearranged in several acute myeloid leukemia translocations, is located within this region. Analysis of somatic cell hybrids segregating the translocation chromosomes showed that the chromosome 11 breakpoint occurs within NUP98. The fusion partner of NUP98 was identified as the RAP1GDS1 gene using 3' RACE. RAP1GDS1 codes for smgGDS, a ubiquitously expressed guanine nucleotide exchange factor that stimulates the conversion of the inactive GDP-bound form of several ras family small GTPases to the active GTP-bound form. In the NUP98-RAP1GDS1 fusion transcript (abbreviated as NRG), the 5' end of the NUP98 gene is joined in frame to the coding region of the RAP1GDS1 gene. This joins the FG repeat-rich region of NUP98 to RAP1GDS1, which largely consists of tandem armadillo repeats. NRG fusion transcripts were detected in the leukemic cells of 2 other adult T-ALL patients. One of these patients had a variant translocation with a more 5' breakpoint in NUP98. This is the first report of an NUP98 translocation in lymphocytic leukemia and the first time that RAP1GDS1 has been implicated in any human malignancy.

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