Gene Summary

Gene:PDLIM4; PDZ and LIM domain 4
Aliases: RIL
Summary:This gene encodes a protein which may be involved in bone development. Mutations in this gene are associated with susceptibility to osteoporosis. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:PDZ and LIM domain protein 4
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
PDLIM4 is implicated in:
- protein binding
- zinc ion binding
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Transcription Factors
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Fibroblasts
  • Microfilament Proteins
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • LIM Domain Proteins
  • Epigenetics
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Binding Sites
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Promoter Regions
  • Chromosome 5
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Transcription Initiation Site
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Base Sequence
  • Breast Cancer
  • src-Family Kinases
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Estrogen Receptors
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Staging
  • DNA Methylation
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Adolescents
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Zinc Fingers
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Transcription
  • Gene Silencing
  • Young Adult
  • Transfection
  • Lung Cancer
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia
  • BRAF
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PDLIM4 (cancer-related)

Du J, He Y, Li P, et al.
IL-8 regulates the doxorubicin resistance of colorectal cancer cells via modulation of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1).
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2018; 81(6):1111-1119 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytokines play important roles in tumorigenesis and progression of cancer cells, while their functions in drug resistance remain to be illustrated. We successfully generated doxorubicin (Dox)-resistant CRC HCT-116 and SW480 cells (namely HCT-116/Dox and SW480/Dox, respectively). Cytokine expression analysis revealed that IL-8, while not FGF-2, EGF, TGF-β, IL-6, or IL-10, was significantly increased in Dox-resistant CRC cells as compared with their corresponding parental cells. Targeted inhibition of IL-8 via siRNAs or its inhibitor reparixin can increase the Dox sensitivity of HCT-116/Dox and SW480/Dox cells. The si-IL-8 can decrease the mRNA and protein expression of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1, encoded by ABCB1), while has no effect on the expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (ABCC1), in CRC Dox-resistant cells. IL-8 can increase the phosphorylation of p65 and then upregulate the binding between p65 and promoter of ABCB1. BAY 11-7082, the inhibitor of NF-κB, suppressed the recombination IL-8 (rIL-8) induced upregulation of ABCB1. It confirmed that NF-κB is involved in IL-8-induced upregulation of ABCB1. rIL-8 also increased the phosphorylation of IKK-β, which can further activate NF-κB, while specific inhibitor of IKK-β (ACHP) can reverse rIL-8-induced phosphorylation of p65 and upregulation of MDR1. These results suggested that IL-8 regulates the Dox resistance of CRC cells via modulation of MDR1 through IKK-β/p65 signals. The targeted inhibition of IL-8 might be an important potential approach to overcome the clinical Dox resistance in CRC patients.

Giraldo NA, Becht E, Vano Y, et al.
Tumor-Infiltrating and Peripheral Blood T-cell Immunophenotypes Predict Early Relapse in Localized Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(15):4416-4428 [PubMed] Related Publications

Bie Q, Zhang B, Sun C, et al.
IL-17B activated mesenchymal stem cells enhance proliferation and migration of gastric cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(12):18914-18923 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mesenchymal stem cells are important cells in tumor microenvironment. We have previously demonstrated that IL-17B/IL-17RB signal promoted progression of gastric cancer. In this study, we further explored the effect of IL-17B on mesenchymal stem cells in tumor microenvironment and its impact on the tumor progression. The results showed that IL-17B induced the expression of stemness-related genes Nanog, Sox2, and Oct4 in mesenchymal stem cells and enhanced its tumor-promoting effect. The supernatant from cultured mesenchymal stem cells after treating with exogenous rIL-17B promoted the proliferation and migration of MGC-803, therefor suggesting that rIL-17B might promote mesenchymal stem cells to produce soluble factors. In addition, rIL-17B also activated the NF-κΒ, STAT3, β-catenin pathway in mesenchymal stem cells. Our data revealed a new mechanism that IL-17B enhanced the progression of gastric cancer by activating mesenchymal stem cells.

Patai ÁV, Barták BK, Péterfia B, et al.
Comprehensive DNA Methylation and Mutation Analyses Reveal a Methylation Signature in Colorectal Sessile Serrated Adenomas.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2017; 23(3):589-594 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal sessile serrated adenomas (SSA) are hypothesized to be precursor lesions of an alternative, serrated pathway of colorectal cancer, abundant in genes with aberrant promoter DNA hypermethylation. In our present pilot study, we explored DNA methylation profiles and examined selected gene mutations in SSA. Biopsy samples from patients undergoing screening colonoscopy were obtained during endoscopic examination. After DNA isolation and quality analysis, SSAs (n = 4) and healthy controls (n = 5) were chosen for further analysis. DNA methylation status of 96 candidate genes was screened by q(RT)PCR using Methyl-Profiler PCR array system. Amplicons for 12 gene mutations were sequenced by GS Junior Instrument using ligated and barcoded adaptors. Analysis of DNA methylation revealed 9 hypermethylated genes in both normal and SSA samples. 12 genes (CALCA, DKK2, GALR2, OPCML, PCDH10, SFRP1, SFRP2, SLIT3, SST, TAC1, VIM, WIF1) were hypermethylated in all SSAs and 2 additional genes (BNC1 and PDLIM4) were hypermethylated in 3 out of 4 SSAs, but in none of the normal samples. 2 SSAs exhibited BRAF mutation and synchronous MLH1 hypermethylation and were microsatellite instable by immunohistochemical analysis. Our combined mutation and DNA methylation analysis revealed that there is a common DNA methylation signature present in pre-neoplastic SSAs. This study advocates for the use of DNA methylation as a potential biomarker for the detection of SSA; however, further investigation is needed to better characterize the molecular background of these newly recognized colorectal lesions.

Bie Q, Sun C, Gong A, et al.
Non-tumor tissue derived interleukin-17B activates IL-17RB/AKT/β-catenin pathway to enhance the stemness of gastric cancer.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:25447 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inflammation is a critical component involved in tumor progression. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) belongs to a relatively new family of cytokines that has been associated with the progression of cancers. However, the role of IL-17B/IL-17RB (IL-17 receptor B) signaling to stemness of gastric cancer remains unknown. Here, we confirmed that the expression of IL-17RB in gastric cancer tissues was significantly increased, that overexpression was associated with poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients, and that overexpression was positively correlated with some stemness markers. Interestingly, the expression of IL-17B was upregulated in patient serum rather than gastric tumor tissues. Furthermore, exogenous rIL-17B significantly promoted the stemness of gastric cancer cells depending on IL-17RB and induced the expression of IL-17RB. Simultaneously, the expression of phosphorylated AKT, GSK-3β, and β-catenin as well as the nuclear translocation of β-catenin were significantly increased in the MGC-803 cell in a dose-dependent manner, when treated with rIL-17B. The AKT inhibitor, LY294002, and the knockdown of AKT expression reversed the rIL-17B-induced upregulation of β-catenin and some stemness markers. Together, our results indicate that the IL-17B/IL-17RB signal can promote the growth and migration of tumor cells, and upregulate cell stemness through activating the AKT/β-catenin pathway in gastric cancer, suggesting that IL-17RB may be a novel target in human gastric cancer therapy.

Hira SK, Mondal I, Bhattacharya D, et al.
Downregulation of STAT3 phosphorylation enhances tumoricidal effect of IL-15-activated dendritic cell against doxorubicin-resistant lymphoma and leukemia via TNF-α.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2015; 67:1-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although disputed by some, increasing evidence suggests that TNF-α synergies with traditional chemotherapeutic drugs to exert a heightened antitumor effect. The present study investigated the antitumor efficacy of recombinant IL-15 in combination with the STAT3 inhibitor cucurbitacin-I in a doxorubicin-resistant murine lymphoma model. The significance of the work is to understand and design effective strategies in doxorubicin resistant lymphomas. TNF-α is downregulated in dendritic cells from mice with Dalton's lymphoma and shows an inverse relationship with disease progression. Doxorubicin-resistant DL cells have elevated levels of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 and increased phosphorylation of STAT3. These cells are refractory to dendritic cell derived TNF-α. Doxorubicin resistant Dalton's lymphoma is susceptible to dendritic cell derived TNF-α upon stimulation with the STAT3 inhibitor cucurbitacin-I, which downregulates STAT3 and other survival molecules. The combined treatment of low dose of cucurbitacin-I and rIL-15 is ineffective in mice with doxorubicin resistant Dalton's lymphoma, but a similar therapy prolongs the survival of mice transplanted with parental Dalton's lymphoma. Doxorubicin resistant Dalton's lymphoma responds to therapy with high doses of cucurbitacin-I and rIL-15. Dendritic cell derived from mice responded positively to the therapy and regained their tumoricidal properties with respect to growth inhibition and killing of DL tumor cells. Similar to DL, DC derived from CML patients are impaired in TNF-α expression and are unable to restrict the growth of drug-resistant lymphoma and leukemia cells. This combination approach could be used as a new therapeutic strategy for aggressive and highly metastatic doxorubicin resistant lymphoma.

Gatault S, Delbeke M, Driss V, et al.
IL-18 Is Involved in Eosinophil-Mediated Tumoricidal Activity against a Colon Carcinoma Cell Line by Upregulating LFA-1 and ICAM-1.
J Immunol. 2015; 195(5):2483-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes that are involved in innate and adaptive immune responses through the expression of various receptors and mediators. Previously, we showed that human eosinophils and T cells shared cytotoxic activities against tumor cells that involved the γ-δ TCR and cell-cell contact. In this study, we investigated the molecules involved in eosinophil-tumor cell interactions. Given the role of IL-18 in cell adhesion and in protecting against colon cancer, we evaluated its role in eosinophil-mediated cytotoxicity against Colo-205, a human colon carcinoma cell line. We found that human eosinophils exerted dose- and time-dependent tumoricidal activity against Colo-205 cells. Neutralization of IL-18 significantly reduced eosinophil-mediated Colo-205 apoptosis and inhibited cell-cell adhesion. Moreover, addition of rIL-18 led to upregulation of CD11a and ICAM-1 adhesion molecules, which were involved in the contact between eosinophils and Colo-205 cells. Our results indicated that IL-18 was involved in the eosinophil-mediated death of Colo-205 by facilitating contact between effector and target cells. These data underscored the involvement of an additional mediator in eosinophil-mediated antitumor cytotoxicity. Our findings support existing evidence that eosinophils could play a beneficial role in the context of colon cancer.

Xiong HY, Ma TT, Wu BT, et al.
IL-12 regulates B7-H1 expression in ovarian cancer-associated macrophages by effects on NF-κB signalling.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(14):5767-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: B7-H1, a co-inhibitory molecule of the B7 family, is found aberrantly expressed in ovarian cancer cells and infiltrating macrophage/dendritic-like cells, and plays a critical role in immune evasion by ovarian cancer. IL-12, an inducer of Th1 cell development, exerts immunomodulatory effects on ovarian cancer. However, whether IL-12 regulates B7-H1 expression in human ovarian cancer associated-macrophages has not been clarified. Therefore, we investigated the effects of IL-12 on the expression of B7-H1 in ovarian cancer-associated macrophages and possible mechanisms.
METHODS: PMA induced THP-1-derived macrophages or human monocyte-derived macrophages were treated with recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12) or infected with adenovirus carrying human IL-12 gene (Ad-IL-12-GFP) for 24 h, then cocultured with the SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell line for another 24 h. Macrophages were collected for real-time PCR and Western blot to detect the expression of B7-H1, and activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Moreover, supernatants were collected to assay for IL-12, IFN-γ and IL-10 by ELISA. In addition, monocyte-derived macrophages treated with IFN-γ were cocultured with SKOV3 and determined for the expression of B7-H1. Furthermore, the expression of B7-H1 in monocyte-derived macrophages was also evaluated after blocking NF-κB signaling.
RESULTS: The expression of B7-H1 was significantly upregulated in monocyte-derived macrophages treated with rIL-12 or Ad-IL-12-GFP compared with the control groups (p<0.05), accompanied by a remarkable upregulation of IFN-γ (p<0.05), a marked downregulation of IL-10 (p<0.05) and activation of NF-κB signaling. However, the upregulation of B7- H1 was inhibited by blocking the NF-κB signaling pathway (p<0.05). Expression of B7-H1 was also increased (p<0.05) in monocyte-derived macrophages treated with IFN-γ and cocultured with SKOV3. By contrast, the expression of B7-H1 in THP-1-derived macrophages was significantly decreased when treated in the same way as monocyte-derived macrophages (p<0.05), and IL-10 was also significantly decreased but IFN-γ was almost absent.
CONCLUSIONS: IL-12 upregulates the expression of B7-H1 in monocyte-derived macrophages, which is possible though inducing the secretion of IFN-γ and further activating the NF-κB signal pathway. However, IL-12 downregulates the expression of B7-H1 in THP-1-derived macrophages, associated with a lack of IFN-γ and inhibition of expression of IL-10.

Li S, Wang W, Zhang N, et al.
IL-1β mediates MCP-1 induction by Wnt5a in gastric cancer cells.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:480 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Both Wnt5a overexpression and macrophage infiltration have been implicated in inflammation and cancer. The aim of this study is to reveal the involvement of Wnt5a in macrophage recruitment in gastric cancer.
METHODS: mRNA expression in gastric cancer tissues and cells was investigated by real-time PCR. Protein secretion by gastric cancer cells was determined by ELISA. PcDNA3.1-Wnt5a expression vector and Wnt5a siRNA vector were used to overexpress and silence Wnt5a expression in gastric cells, respectively. Macrophage migration was analyzed by transwell, and macrophage cytoskeleton was stained with FITC-phalloidin.
RESULTS: Wnt5a was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues, and correlated with monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β), respectively. In gastric cancer cells, Wnt5a induced MCP-1 expression, which was mediated by IL-1β. Conditioned medium from gastric cancer cells transfected with Wnt5a stimulated macrophage chemotaxis and cytoskeletal changes via MCP-1, which were suppressed by recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist (rIL-1Ra).
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that Wnt5a is involved in macrophage recruitment by upregulating MCP-1, and IL-1Ra may be used to inhibit macrophage recruitment in gastric cancer.

Chen N, Lu K, Li P, et al.
Overexpression of IL-9 induced by STAT6 activation promotes the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(5):2319-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common leukemia in adults, but its pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Recently, extensive evidence suggests that the malignant cells of CLL patients secrete a range of cytoprotective cytokines including interleukin-4 (IL-4). IL-4 induced the rapid phosphorylation(p) and activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-6 transcription factor in CLL cells in vitro. Interleukin-9 (IL-9) is not expressed by Th2 and Th9 cells in the absence of STAT6 expression. To elucidate whether there was a function link between IL-9 and STAT6 in CLL, MEC-1 cells were analyzed using RT-PCR, and western blot. Interestingly, when added with recombinant human IL-4 (rIL-4) in culturing MEC-1 cells, expressions of p-STAT6 and IL-9 in MEC-1 cells increased at a time-dependent manner and their expressions could be inhibited by STAT6 inhibitor. Our data indicated that the upregulation of IL-9 induced by pSTAT6 may be involved in the pathogenesis of CLL.

Li Y, Qian J, Lin J, et al.
Reduced expression of PDLIM4 gene correlates with good prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2013; 21(5):1111-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study was aimed to investigate the expression pattern of gene PDLIM4 (PDZ and LIM domain 4) and analyze its clinical correlation with the patients suffered from acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The expression pattern of PDLIM4 in AML was detected by using EvaGreen real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR). The results showed that the PDLIM4 transcript significantly decreased in 94 AML patients, compared with 21 controls (P < 0.01). The decrease of PDLIM4 transcript was found in 42 (45%) AML patients. PDLIM4 low-expression occurred among the subtypes of M1/M2/M3 more frequently than that in M4/M5/M6 (56% vs 20%, P < 0.01). AML patients with PDLIM4 low-expression had an overall survival (OS) higher than that in AML patients without PDLIM4 low-expression (P < 0.05). Analysis with receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) displayed that PDLIM4 expression possesses the diagnostic value to differentiate AML from controls, with ROC curve area of 0.865 (95% CI: 0.801-0.930). It is concluded that reduced PDLIM4 expression is a common and favorable event for the good prognosis in AML, and can be used as a potential diagnostic biomarker of cancer.

de Tayrac M, Saikali S, Aubry M, et al.
Prognostic significance of EDN/RB, HJURP, p60/CAF-1 and PDLI4, four new markers in high-grade gliomas.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e73332 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have highlighted the heterogeneity of gliomas and demonstrated that molecular and genetic analysis could help in their classification and in the design of treatment protocols. In a previous study we have identified a 4-gene signature highly correlated with survival of glioma patients. The aim of this study is to confirm and extend these findings by investigating the expression of these genes at the protein level and their association with outcome of patients with high grade gliomas.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunohistochemical staining for EDN/RB, HJURP, p60/CAF-1 and PDLI4 was studied on archive materials from 96 patients (64 glioblastomas and 32 grade III gliomas). The levels of all four proteins differed significantly between grade III and grade IV tumours. The levels of the EDN/RB, HJURP and p60/CAF-1 proteins were strongly associated with overall survival (p<0.001, p<0.001 and p=0.002, respectively), whereas the one of PDLI4 was not (P=0.11). A risk criterion defined as high levels of at least two of the EDN/RB, HJURP and p60/CAF-1 proteins accurately predicted the prognosis of patients. Multivariate analysis confirmed that this criterion was an independent negative prognostic marker (hazard ratio = 2.225; 95% CI, 1.248 to 3.966, p=0.007).
CONCLUSIONS: The expression of the EDN/RB, HJURP, p60/CAF-1 and PDLI4 proteins is disrupted in high grade gliomas and increases in the levels of these proteins are closely linked to tumour aggressiveness and poor outcome.

Zheng T, Hong X, Wang J, et al.
Gankyrin promotes tumor growth and metastasis through activation of IL-6/STAT3 signaling in human cholangiocarcinoma.
Hepatology. 2014; 59(3):935-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Although gankyrin is involved in the tumorigenicity and metastasis of some malignancies, the role of gankyrin in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is unclear. In this study we investigated the expression of gankyrin in human CCA tissues and cell lines. The effects of gankyrin on CCA tumor growth and metastasis were determined both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that gankyrin was overexpressed in CCA tissues and cell lines. Gankyrin expression was associated with CCA histological differentiation, TNM stage, and metastasis. The multivariate Cox analysis revealed that gankyrin was an independent prognostic indicator for overall survival. Gankyrin overexpression promoted CCA cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, while gankyrin knockdown inhibited CCA tumor growth, metastasis, and induced Rb-dependent senescence and G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Gankyrin increased the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and promoted the nuclear translocation of p-STAT3. Suppression of STAT3 signaling by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or STAT3 inhibitor interfered with gankyrin-mediated carcinogenesis and metastasis, while interleukin (IL)-6, a known upstream activator of STAT3, could restore the proliferation and migration of gankyrin-silenced CCA cells. The IL-6 level was decreased by gankyrin knockdown, while increased by gankyrin overexpression. Gankyrin regulated IL-6 expression by way of facilitating the phosphorylation of Rb; meanwhile, rIL-6 treatment increased the expression of gankyrin, suggesting that IL-6 was regulated by a positive feedback loop involving gankyrin in CCA. In the xenograft experiments, gankyrin overexpression accelerated tumor formation and increased tumor weight, whereas gankyrin knockdown showed the opposite effects. The in vivo spontaneous metastasis assay revealed that gankyrin promoted CCA metastasis through IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.
CONCLUSION: Gankyrin is crucial for CCA carcinogenesis and metastasis by activating IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway through down-regulating Rb protein.

Purwar R, Schlapbach C, Xiao S, et al.
Robust tumor immunity to melanoma mediated by interleukin-9-producing T cells.
Nat Med. 2012; 18(8):1248-53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Interleukin-9 (IL-9) is a T cell cytokine that acts through a γC-family receptor on target cells and is associated with inflammation and allergy. We determined that T cells from mice deficient in the T helper type 17 (T(H)17) pathway genes encoding retinoid-related orphan receptor γ (ROR-γ) and IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) produced abundant IL-9, and we found substantial growth inhibition of B16F10 melanoma in these mice. IL-9-blocking antibodies reversed this tumor growth inhibition and enhanced tumor growth in wild-type (WT) mice. Il9r(-/-) mice showed accelerated tumor growth, and administration of recombinant IL-9 (rIL-9) to tumor-bearing WT and Rag1(-/-) mice inhibited melanoma as well as lung carcinoma growth. Adoptive transfer of tumor-antigen-specific T(H)9 cells into both WT and Rag1(-/-) mice suppressed melanoma growth; this effect was abrogated by treatment with neutralizing antibodies to IL-9. Exogenous rIL-9 inhibited tumor growth in Rag1(-/-) mice but not in mast-cell-deficient mice, suggesting that the targets of IL-9 in this setting include mast cells but not T or B cells. In addition, we found higher numbers of T(H)9 cells in normal human skin and blood compared to metastatic lesions of subjects with progressive stage IV melanoma. These results suggest a role for IL-9 in tumor immunity and offer insight into potential therapeutic strategies.

Sun Y
Therapeutic effect of recombinant plasmid-encoded human interleukin-12 in tumor-bearing mice.
Mol Med Rep. 2012; 6(3):645-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of gene therapy using a recombinant plasmid encoding human interleukin-12 (rIL-12, pcDNA6-p70) on transplanted tumors in mice. Tumor-bearing mice were transplanted with sarcoma‑180 (S-180) cells and randomly divided into three groups of 10 mice with each group receiving a separate treatment. Following this, pcDNA6-p70 (dissolved in purified water; 100 µg/mouse), cyclophosphamide (dissolved in 0.9% saline; 40 mg/kg) or 0.9% saline (100 µl/mouse) was directly injected into the tumors on the 4th, 7th, 10th, 14th and 17th days following transplantation of the S-180 cells. Mice survival time was monitored and surviving mice were sacrificed on the 21st day. In addition to survival time, tumor volume, NK cell activity, spleen lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ production were investigated. The mice were also monitored for any adverse effects regarding the administration of pcDNA6-p70. Our results demonstrated that pcDNA6-p70 prolongs the survival time of tumor-bearing mice, decreases tumor size (P<0.01) and increases the proliferative response of spleen cells, the activity of NK cells and the serum level of IFN-γ. There were no significant adverse effects caused by the administration of pcDNA6-p70. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that gene therapy using the rIL-12 plasmid exerts a therapeutic effect in tumor models by triggering antitumor cellular immunity.

Xu J, Shetty PB, Feng W, et al.
Methylation of HIN-1, RASSF1A, RIL and CDH13 in breast cancer is associated with clinical characteristics, but only RASSF1A methylation is associated with outcome.
BMC Cancer. 2012; 12:243 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aberrant promoter CpG island hypermethylation is associated with transcriptional silencing. Tumor suppressor genes are the key targets of hypermethylation in breast cancer and therefore may lead to malignancy by deregulation of cell growth and division. Our previous pilot study with pairs of malignant and normal breast tissues identified correlated methylation of two pairs of genes - HIN-1/RASSFIA and RIL/CDH13 - with expression of estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), and HER2 (HER2). To determine the impact of methylation on clinical outcome, we have conducted a larger study with breast cancers for which time to first recurrence and overall survival are known.
METHODS: Tumors from 193 patients with early stage breast cancer who received no adjuvant systemic therapy were used to analyze methylation levels of RIL, HIN-1, RASSF1A and CDH13 genes for associations with known predictive and prognostic factors and for impact on time to first recurrence and overall survival.
RESULTS: In this study, we found that ER was associated with RASSF1A methylation (p < 0.001) and HIN-1 methylation (p = 0.002). PR was associated with RIL methylation (p = 0.012), HIN-1 (p = 0.002), and RASSF1A methylation (p = 0.019). Tumor size was associated with RIL and CDH13 methylation (both p = 0.002), and S-phase was associated with RIL methylation (p = 0.036). Only RASSF1A was associated with worse time to first recurrence (p = 0.045) and worse overall survival (p = 0.016) after adjusting for age, tumor size, S-phase, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor.
CONCLUSIONS: Methylation of HIN-1, RASSF1A, RIL and CDH13 in breast cancers was associated with clinical characteristics, but only RASSF1A methylation was associated with time to first recurrence and overall survival. Our data suggest that RASSF1A methylation could be a potential prognostic biomarker.

Weiss GR, Grosh WW, Chianese-Bullock KA, et al.
Molecular insights on the peripheral and intratumoral effects of systemic high-dose rIL-2 (aldesleukin) administration for the treatment of metastatic melanoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(23):7440-50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: We have previously shown that within tumors, recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2, aldesleukin) consistently activates tumor-associated macrophages and upregulates IFN-stimulated genes while inducing minimal migration, activation, or proliferation of T cells. These effects are independent of tumor response to treatment. Here, we prospectively evaluated transcriptional alterations induced by rIL-2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and within melanoma metastases.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We evaluated gene expression changes by serially comparing pre- to posttreatment samples in 13 patients and also compared transcriptional differences among lesions displaying different responsiveness to therapy, focusing on 2 lesions decreasing in size and 2 remaining stable (responding lesions) compared with nonresponding ones.
RESULTS: As previously described, the effects of rIL-2 were dramatic within PBMCs, whereas effects within the tumor microenvironment were lesion specific and limited. However, distinct signatures specific to response could be observed in responding lesions pretreatment that were amplified following rIL-2 administration. These signatures match the functional profile observed in other human or experimental models in which immune-mediated tissue-specific destruction (TSD) occurs, underscoring common pathways leading to rejection. Moreover, the signatures observed in pretreatment lesions were qualitatively similar to those associated with TSD, underlining a determinism to immune responsiveness that depends upon the genetic background of the host or the intrinsic genetic makeup of individual tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first prospectively collected insight on global transcriptional events occurring during high-dose rIL-2 therapy in melanoma metastases responding to treatment.

Jelinek J, Gharibyan V, Estecio MR, et al.
Aberrant DNA methylation is associated with disease progression, resistance to imatinib and shortened survival in chronic myelogenous leukemia.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(7):e22110 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The epigenetic impact of DNA methylation in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is not completely understood. To elucidate its role we analyzed 120 patients with CML for methylation of promoter-associated CpG islands of 10 genes. Five genes were identified by DNA methylation screening in the K562 cell line and 3 genes in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. The CDKN2B gene was selected for its frequent methylation in myeloid malignancies and ABL1 as the target of BCR-ABL translocation. Thirty patients were imatinib-naïve (mostly treated by interferon-alpha before the imatinib era), 30 were imatinib-responsive, 50 were imatinib-resistant, and 10 were imatinib-intolerant. We quantified DNA methylation by bisulfite pyrosequencing. The average number of methylated genes was 4.5 per patient in the chronic phase, increasing significantly to 6.2 in the accelerated and 6.4 in the blastic phase. Higher numbers of methylated genes were also observed in patients resistant or intolerant to imatinib. These patients also showed almost exclusive methylation of a putative transporter OSCP1. Abnormal methylation of a Src suppressor gene PDLIM4 was associated with shortened survival independently of CML stage and imatinib responsiveness. We conclude that aberrant DNA methylation is associated with CML progression and that DNA methylation could be a marker associated with imatinib resistance. Finally, DNA methylation of PDLIM4 may help identify a subset of CML patients that would benefit from treatment with Src/Abl inhibitors.

Vasiljević N, Wu K, Brentnall AR, et al.
Absolute quantitation of DNA methylation of 28 candidate genes in prostate cancer using pyrosequencing.
Dis Markers. 2011; 30(4):151-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant DNA methylation plays a pivotal role in carcinogenesis and its mapping is likely to provide biomarkers for improved diagnostic and risk assessment in prostate cancer (PCa). We quantified and compared absolute methylation levels among 28 candidate genes in 48 PCa and 29 benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) samples using the pyrosequencing (PSQ) method to identify genes with diagnostic and prognostic potential. RARB, HIN1, BCL2, GSTP1, CCND2, EGFR5, APC, RASSF1A, MDR1, NKX2-5, CDH13, DPYS, PTGS2, EDNRB, MAL, PDLIM4, HLAa, ESR1 and TIG1 were highly methylated in PCa compared to BPH (p < 0.001), while SERPINB5, CDH1, TWIST1, DAPK1, THRB, MCAM, SLIT2, CDKN2a and SFN were not. RARB methylation above 21% completely distinguished PCa Separation based on methylation level of SFN, SLIT2 and SERPINB5 distinguished low and high Gleason score cancers, e.g. SFN and SERPINB5 together correctly classified 81% and 77% of high and low Gleason score cancers respectively. Several genes including CDH1 previously reported as methylation markers in PCa were not confirmed in our study. Increasing age was positively associated with gene methylation (p < 0.0001).Accurate quantitative measurement of gene methylation in PCa appears promising and further validation of genes like RARB, HIN1, BCL2, APC and GSTP1 is warranted for diagnostic potential and SFN, SLIT2 and SERPINB5 for prognostic potential.

de Tayrac M, Aubry M, Saïkali S, et al.
A 4-gene signature associated with clinical outcome in high-grade gliomas.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(2):317-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Gene expression studies provide molecular insights improving the classification of patients with high-grade gliomas. We have developed a risk estimation strategy based on a combined analysis of gene expression data to search for robust biomarkers associated with outcome in these tumors.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed a meta-analysis using 3 publicly available malignant gliomas microarray data sets (267 patients) to define the genes related to both glioma malignancy and patient outcome. These biomarkers were used to construct a risk-score equation based on a Cox proportional hazards model on a subset of 144 patients. External validations were performed on microarray data (59 patients) and on RT-qPCR data (194 patients). The risk-score model performances (discrimination and calibration) were evaluated and compared with that of clinical risk factors, MGMT promoter methylation status, and IDH1 mutational status.
RESULTS: This interstudy cross-validation approach allowed the identification of a 4-gene signature highly correlated to survival (CHAF1B, PDLIM4, EDNRB, and HJURP), from which an optimal survival model was built (P < 0.001 in training and validation sets). Multivariate analysis showed that the 4-gene risk score was strongly and independently associated with survival (hazard ratio = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.26-0.81; P = 0.007). Performance estimations indicated that this score added beyond standard clinical parameters and beyond both the MGMT methylation status and the IDH1 mutational status in terms of discrimination (C statistics, 0.827 versus 0.835; P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: The 4-gene signature provides an independent risk score strongly associated with outcome of patients with high-grade gliomas.

Feng W, Orlandi R, Zhao N, et al.
Tumor suppressor genes are frequently methylated in lymph node metastases of breast cancers.
BMC Cancer. 2010; 10:378 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Metastasis represents a major adverse step in the progression of breast carcinoma. Lymph node invasion is the most relevant prognostic factor; however little is known on the molecular events associated with lymph node metastasis process. This study is to investigate the status and role of methylation in lymph node metastatic tumors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bisulfite pyrosequencing is used to screen 6 putative tumor suppressor genes (HIN-1, RASSF1A, RIL, CDH13, RARbeta2 and E-cadherin) in 38 pairs of primary breast tumors and lymph node metastases.
RESULTS: We found that HIN-1, CDH13, RIL, RASSF1A and RARbeta2 were frequently methylated both in primary and metastatic tissues (range: 55.3% approximately 89.5%). E-cadherin was not frequently methylated in either setting (range: 18.4% approximately 23.7%). The methylation status of HIN-1, CDH13, RIL, and RARbeta2 in lymph nodes metastasis were correlated with that in primary tumors. The Pearson correlation values ranged from 0.624 to 0.472 (p values < 0.01 to 0.001). Interestingly, we observed an association between HIN-1 methylation and hormone status in metastatic lymph nodes. Hypermethylation of HIN-1 in metastasis lymph nodes was significantly associated with expression of ER (odds ratio, 1.070; P = 0.024) and with PR (odds ratio, 1.046; P = 0.026).
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is extended from primary to metastatic tumors during tumor progression.

Morris MR, Ricketts C, Gentle D, et al.
Identification of candidate tumour suppressor genes frequently methylated in renal cell carcinoma.
Oncogene. 2010; 29(14):2104-17 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Promoter region hyermethylation and transcriptional silencing is a frequent cause of tumour suppressor gene (TSG) inactivation in many types of human cancers. Functional epigenetic studies, in which gene expression is induced by treatment with demethylating agents, may identify novel genes with tumour-specific methylation. We used high-density gene expression microarrays in a functional epigenetic study of 11 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines. Twenty-eight genes were then selected for analysis of promoter methylation status in cell lines and primary RCC. Eight genes (BNC1, PDLIM4, RPRM, CST6, SFRP1, GREM1, COL14A1 and COL15A1) showed frequent (>30% of RCC tested) tumour-specific promoter region methylation. Hypermethylation was associated with transcriptional silencing. Re-expression of BNC1, CST6, RPRM and SFRP1 suppressed the growth of RCC cell lines and RNA interference knock-down of BNC1, SFRP1 and COL14A1 increased the growth of RCC cell lines. Methylation of BNC1 or COL14A1 was associated with a poorer prognosis independent of tumour size, stage or grade. The identification of these epigenetically inactivated candidate RCC TSGs can provide insights into renal tumourigenesis and a basis for developing novel therapies and biomarkers for prognosis and detection.

Jeong MS, Hwang EY, Kim HT, et al.
Purification of caudal-related homeodomain transcription factor and its binding characterization.
J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009; 19(12):1557-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human CDX2 is known as a caudal-related homeodomain transcription factor that is expressed in the intestinal epithelium and is important in differentiation and maintenance of the intestinal epithelial cells. The caudal-related homeobox proteins bind DNA according to a helix-turn-helix structure, thereby increasing the structural stability of DNA. A cancer-tumor suppressor role for Cdx2 has been shown by a decrease in the level of the expression of Cdx2 in colorectal cancer but the mechanism of transcriptional regulation has not been examined at the molecular level. We developed a large-scale system for expression of the recombinant, novel CDX2, in the Escherichia coli. A highly purified and soluble CDX2 protein was obtained in E. coli strain BL21(DE3)RIL and a hexahistidine fusion system using Ni-NTA affinity column, anion exchange, and gel filtration chromatography. The identity and secondary structure of the purified CDX2 protein were confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS, Western blot, and a circular dichroism analyses. In addition, we studied the DNA binding activity of recombinant CDX2 by ELISA experiment and isolated human CDX2 binding proteins derived from rat cells by an immobilized GST-fusion method. Three CDX2-binding proteins were found in the gastric tissue, and those proteins were identified to the homeobox protein Hox-D8, LIM homeobox protein 6, and SMC1L1 protein.

Ho MY, Leu SJ, Sun GH, et al.
IL-27 directly restrains lung tumorigenicity by suppressing cyclooxygenase-2-mediated activities.
J Immunol. 2009; 183(10):6217-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene transfer of IL-27 to tumor cells has been proven to inhibit tumor growth in vivo by antiproliferation, antiangiogenesis, and stimulation of immunoprotection. To investigate the nonimmune mechanism of IL-27 that suppresses lung cancer growth, we have established a single-chain IL-27-transduced murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC-1) cell line (LLC-1/scIL-27) to evaluate its tumorigenic potential in vivo. Mice inoculated with LLC/scIL-27 displayed retardation of tumor growth. Production of IL-12, IFN-gamma, and cytotoxic T cell activity against LLC-1 was manifest in LLC/scIL-27-injected mice. Of note, LLC-1/scIL-27 exhibited decreased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and PGE(2). On the cellular level, the LLC/scIL-27 transfectants had reduced malignancy, including down-regulation of vimentin expression and reduction of cellular migration and invasion. The suppression of tumorigenesis by IL-27 on lung cancer cells was further confirmed by the treatment with rIL-27 on the murine LLC-1 and human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines. PGE(2)-induced vimentin expression, movement, and invasiveness were also suppressed by the treatment with rIL-27. Our data show that IL-27 not only suppresses expression of COX-2 and PGE(2) but also decreases the levels of vimentin and the abilities of cellular migration and invasion. Furthermore, inoculation of LLC/scIL-27 into immunodeficient NOD/SCID mice also exhibited reduced tumor growth. Our data indicate that IL-27-induced nonimmune responses can contribute to significant antitumor effects. Taken together, the results suggest that IL-27 may serve as an effective agent for lung cancer therapy in the future.

He M, Vanaja DK, Karnes RJ, Young CY
Epigenetic regulation of Myc on retinoic acid receptor beta and PDLIM4 in RWPE1 cells.
Prostate. 2009; 69(15):1643-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hypermethylation of CpG islands is a common epigenetic alteration associated with cancer. Tumor suppressor genes retinoic acid receptor beta (RARbeta) and PDLIM4 are hypermethylated and silenced in prostate cancer (PCa) tissues and PCa cell lines compared to normal prostate cells.
METHODS: In this study, a benign prostate epithelial cell line RWPE1 was used as a model to study the epigenetic regulation of Myc on the RARbeta and PDLIM4 promoters. Forced Myc overexpression inhibited the RARbeta and PDLIM4 expression.
RESULTS: Pyrosequencing study showed that Myc overexpression increased methylation in several CpG sites of both promoters. A DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine reversed the epigenetic alteration effect of Myc on both RARbeta and PDLIM4.
CONCLUSION: The epigenetic regulation of Myc may be related to its up-regulation of the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3a and DNMT3b.

Gelebart P, Zak Z, Anand M, et al.
Interleukin-21 effectively induces apoptosis in mantle cell lymphoma through a STAT1-dependent mechanism.
Leukemia. 2009; 23(10):1836-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin-21 (IL-21) has been recently shown to modulate the growth of specific types of B-cell neoplasm. Here, we studied the biological effects of IL-21 in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). All MCL cell lines and tumors examined expressed the IL-21 receptor. Addition of recombinant IL-21 (rIL-21) in vitro effectively induced STAT1 activation and apoptosis in MCL cells. As STAT1 is known to have tumor-suppressor functions, we hypothesized that STAT1 is important in mediating IL-21-induced apoptosis in MCL cells. In support of this hypothesis, inhibition of STAT1 expression using siRNA significantly decreased the apoptotic responses induced by IL-21. To further investigate the mechanism of IL-21-mediated apoptosis, we employed oligonucleotide arrays to evaluate changes in the expression of apoptosis-related genes induced by rIL-21; rIL-21 significantly upregulated three proapoptotic proteins (BIK, NIP3 and HARAKIRI) and downregulated two antiapoptotic proteins (BCL-2 and BCL-XL/S) as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Using an ELISA-based assay, we demonstrated that rIL-21 significantly decreased the DNA binding of nuclear factor-kappaB, a transcriptional factor known to be a survival signal for MCL cells. To conclude, IL-21 can effectively induce apoptosis in MCL via a STAT1-dependent pathway. Further understanding of IL-21-mediated apoptosis in MCL may be useful in designing novel therapeutic approaches for this disease.

Tellez CS, Shen L, Estécio MR, et al.
CpG island methylation profiling in human melanoma cell lines.
Melanoma Res. 2009; 19(3):146-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
A better understanding of key molecular changes during the pathogenesis of melanoma could impact strategies to reduce mortality from this cancer. Two epigenetic events involved in the pathogenesis of cancer are hypermethylation of tumor-suppressor gene promoters associated with transcriptional repression and hypomethylation associated with gene reexpression and genomic instability. We analyzed 16 melanoma cell lines for aberrant hypermethylation of 15 cancer-linked genes (ER alpha, MGMT, RAR beta 2, RIL, RASSF1A, PAX7, PGR beta, PAX2, NKX2-3, OLIG2, HAND1, ECAD, CDH13, MLH1, and p16) and hypomethylation of two genes (MAGEA1, maspin) and two repetitive sequences (LINE-1 and Alu) using pyrosequencing. We observed hypermethylation of ER alpha in 50% of the cell lines, MGMT (50%), RAR beta 2 (44%), RIL (88%), RASSF1A (69%), PAX7 (31%), PGR beta (56%), PAX2 (38%), NKX2-3 (63%), OLIG2 (63%), HAND1 (63%), ECAD (88%), CDH13 (44%), MLH1 (0%), and p16 (6%). In human melanoma cell lines, hypomethylation of MAGEA1 (44%), maspin (25%), LINE-1 (75%), and Alu (13%) is frequently observed. We analyzed a panel of cell lines for BRAF V600E and NRAS codon 61 mutations. In melanoma cell lines, the BRAF and NRAS mutations had no association with aberrant methylation. We found that the cumulative aberrant hypermethylation of the gene promoters was correlated with the level of global DNA methylation. We conclude that aberrant hypermethylation, is frequent in melanoma cell lines, directly correlated with global DNA methylation, and independent of BRAF and NRAS mutations.

Zhang Y, Tu Y, Zhao J, et al.
Reversion-induced LIM interaction with Src reveals a novel Src inactivation cycle.
J Cell Biol. 2009; 184(6):785-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant Src activation plays prominent roles in cancer progression. However, how Src is activated in cancer cells is largely unknown. Genetic Src-activating mutations are rare and, therefore, are insufficient to account for Src activation commonly found in human cancers. In this study, we show that reversion-induced LIM (RIL), which is frequently lost in colon and other cancers as a result of epigenetic silencing, suppresses Src activation. Mechanistically, RIL suppresses Src activation through interacting with Src and PTPL1, allowing PTPL1-dependent dephosphorylation of Src at the activation loop. Importantly, the binding of RIL to Src is drastically reduced upon Src inactivation. Our results reveal a novel Src inactivation cycle in which RIL preferentially recognizes active Src and facilitates PTPL1-mediated inactivation of Src. Inactivation of Src, in turn, promotes dissociation of RIL from Src, allowing the initiation of a new Src inactivation cycle. Epigenetic silencing of RIL breaks this Src inactivation cycle and thereby contributes to aberrant Src activation in human cancers.

Vanaja DK, Ehrich M, Van den Boom D, et al.
Hypermethylation of genes for diagnosis and risk stratification of prostate cancer.
Cancer Invest. 2009; 27(5):549-60 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To identify the relevant CpG sites as molecular markers, for the diagnosis and to distinguish the indolent and aggressive prostate tumors, we have determined the methylation status of 8 genes, including FLNC, EFS, ECRG4, RARB2, PITX2, GSTP1, PDLIM4, and KCNMA1 in 32 nonrecurrent, 32 recurrent primary prostate tumors, and 32 benign prostate tissues using EpiTYPER technology. Specific CpG site hypermethylation of RARB2 and GSTP1 CpG sites were useful for diagnosis of prostate cancer. Furthermore, CpG site hypermethylation of genes FLNC, EFS, ECRG4, PITX2, PDLIM4, and KCNMA1 were associated with prediction of biochemical, local, and systemic recurrence of prostate cancer.

Chen M, Sinha M, Luxon BA, et al.
Integrin alpha6beta4 controls the expression of genes associated with cell motility, invasion, and metastasis, including S100A4/metastasin.
J Biol Chem. 2009; 284(3):1484-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The integrin alpha6beta4 is associated with carcinoma progression by contributing to apoptosis resistance, invasion, and metastasis, due in part to the activation of select transcription factors. To identify genes regulated by the alpha6beta4 integrin, we compared gene expression profiles of MDA-MB-435 cells that stably express integrin alpha6beta4 (MDA/beta4) and vector-only-transfected cells (MDA/mock) using Affymetrix GeneChip analysis. Our results show that integrin alpha6beta4 altered the expression of 538 genes (p < 0.01). Of these genes, 36 are associated with pathways implicated in cell motility and metastasis, including S100A4/metastasin. S100A4 expression correlated well with integrin alpha6beta4 expression in established cell lines. Suppression of S100A4 by small interference RNA resulted in a reduced capacity of alpha6beta4-expressing cells to invade a reconstituted basement membrane in response to lysophosphatidic acid. Using small interference RNA, promoter analysis, and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate that S100A4 is regulated by NFAT5, thus identifying the first target of NFAT5 in cancer. In addition, several genes that are known to be regulated by DNA methylation were up-regulated dramatically by integrin alpha6beta4 expression, including S100A4, FST, PDLIM4, CAPG, and Nkx2.2. Notably, inhibition of DNA methyltransferases stimulated expression of these genes in cells lacking the alpha6beta4 integrin, whereas demethylase inhibitors suppressed expression in alpha6beta4 integrin-expressing cells. Alterations in DNA methylation were confirmed by bisulfate sequencing, thus suggesting that integrin alpha6beta4 signaling can lead to the demethylation of select promoters. In summary, our data suggest that integrin alpha6beta4 confers a motile and invasive phenotype to breast carcinoma cells by regulating proinvasive and prometastatic gene expression.

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