Gene Summary

Gene:NUMB; NUMB endocytic adaptor protein
Aliases: S171, C14orf41, c14_5527
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene plays a role in the determination of cell fates during development. The encoded protein, whose degradation is induced in a proteasome-dependent manner by MDM2, is a membrane-bound protein that has been shown to associate with EPS15, LNX1, and NOTCH1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein numb homolog
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NUMB (cancer-related)

Li JY, Huang WX, Zhou X, et al.
Numb inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition via RBP-Jκ-dependent Notch1/PTEN/FAK signaling pathway in tongue cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):391 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Oral cancer has been estimated as the sixth most frequent solid cancer all over the world, in which tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is the most common type of oral cancers. However, the mechanism of TSCC metastasizing to lymph node and distant sites has not been completely understood.
METHODS: In this study, RT-qPCR method was used to detect the mRNA level of Numb, PTEN and Notch1 genes, as well as EMT-associated genes. Western blot assay was utilized to detect protein level of these genes. In addition, we determined cell proliferation by MTT assay and employed transwell invasion assay and wound healing assay to probe the abilities of invasion and migration, respectively. To investigate the role of PTEN, its inhibitor VO-Ohpic trihydrate was used to treat SCC-4 and CAL27 cells.
RESULTS: We found that Numb expression was downregulated in SCC-9 and CAL-27 cells compared to NHOK cells. Instead, Notch1 level in SCC-9 and CAL-27 cells were higher than that in NHOK cells. Furthermore, the results showed that Numb overexpression significantly suppressed proliferation, migration and invasion of SCC-9 and CAL-27 cells via regulating Notch1 signaling and EMT-related genes expression. By contrast, we observed that RBP-Jκ knockdown had an inhibitory role in proliferation, migration and invasion of SCC-9 and CAL-27 cells. In cells with Numb overexpression or RBP-Jκ knockdown, p-FAK and EMT-related genes were remarkably regulated.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide new mechanism of understanding the metastasis of TSCC and help develop therapeutic strategies for treating tongue cancer.

Tominaga K, Minato H, Murayama T, et al.
Semaphorin signaling via MICAL3 induces symmetric cell division to expand breast cancer stem-like cells.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019; 116(2):625-630 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are expanded in the CSC niche by increased frequency of symmetric cell divisions at the expense of asymmetric cell divisions. The symmetric division of CSCs is important for the malignant properties of cancer; however, underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely elusive. Here, we show a cytokine, semaphorin 3 (Sema3), produced from the CSC niche, induces symmetric divisions of CSCs to expand the CSC population. Our findings indicate that stimulation with Sema3 induced sphere formation in breast cancer cells through neuropilin 1 (NP1) receptor that was specifically expressed in breast CSCs (BCSCs). Knockdown of

Feng X, Zhang D, Li X, et al.
CXCL5, the upregulated chemokine in patients with uterine cervix cancer, in vivo and in vitro contributes to oncogenic potential of Hela uterine cervix cancer cells.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 107:1496-1504 [PubMed] Related Publications
CXCL5 is showed a surprisingly elevated profile and implicated in tumorigenesis in several tumors. However, the expression and function of CXCL5 in uterine cervix cancer (UCC) remain largely unknown. The current study aimed to elucidate the expression pattern of CXCL5 in human UCC tissues and Hela cervix cancer cell, as well as its functions in Hela cells. Our data showed that CXCL5 and its receptor CXCR2 were expressed by Hela uterine cervix cancer cells. CXCL5 was upregulated in UCC tissues, and its overexpression was positively correlated with age, but did not correlate with clinical stages and tumor infiltration. Exogenous administration of CXCL5 and CXCL5 overexpression contributed to proliferation and migration activities of Hela cells in vitro, consistent with this, CXCL5 overexpression also promoted growth of Hela cells in a nude mouse xenograft model. At the gene level, CXCL5 overexpression regulated the expression of tumor-related genes including ERK, p-ERK, AKT, p-AKT, DIABOL, NUMB, NDRG3 and CXCR2. Taken together, CXCL5 may contribute to a dominant role in UCC progression and sever as a potential molecular therapeutic target for UCC.

Li H, Li F
Exosomes from BM-MSCs increase the population of CSCs via transfer of miR-142-3p.
Br J Cancer. 2018; 119(6):744-755 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are progenitor cells shown to migrate to the tumour and participate in the tumour microenvironment. BM-MSCs play important roles in tumour processes through the release of cytokines or exosomes; however, how BM-MSCs influence the stemness of CSCs in colon cancer cells remains poorly understood.
METHODS: We isolated exosomes from BM-MSCs and used these exosomes to treat colon cancer cells (HCT-116, HT-29 and SW-480). We compared stemness traits of colon CSCs by cell surface marker (CD133 and Lgr5) and functional assays, such as chemoresistance, colony formation, cell adhesion, invasion and tumour-formation assay. We performed a microRNA array to investigate the differences in exosomal microRNA expression between colon cancer cells, BM-MSCs and co-cultured cells and performed functional and molecular analysis of the gene targets.
RESULTS: In this study, we found that BM-MSC-derived exosomes contained distinct microRNAs, including miR-142-3p, which in turn increased the population of CSCs in colon cancer cells. Depriving miR-142-3p from BM-MSC-derived exosomes clearly decreased the population of colon CSCs. Mechanistically, Numb was found to be the target gene of miR-142-3p, and miR-142-3p promoted the Notch signalling pathway by downregulating Numb.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that BM-MSC-derived exosomes promote colon cancer stem cell-like traits via miR-142-3p.

Zhang C, Kang Y, Ma R, et al.
Expression of Numb and Gli1 in malignant pleural mesothelioma and their clinical significance.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2018 Jul-Sep; 14(5):970-976 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aim of Study: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly lethal and refractory to multimodal treatment tumor. Numb is considered as a tumor suppressor playing critical roles in determining cell fate and has been shown to target the oncogenic transcription factor Gli1 for Itch-dependent ubiquitination, resulting in suppression of the oncogenic sonic hedgehog signaling in medulloblastoma. This study was designed to analysis the role of Numb and Gli1 in MPM.
Materials and Methods: Tissues of 61 MPM patients and 22 normal pleura as control were investigated. Numb and Gli1 expression were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The associations with clinical and pathological parameters of the two markers were statistically analyzed, and the correlation between them was also demonstrated.
Results: The expression levels of Numb with nuclear Gli1 exhibited a significant inverse correlation (r = -0.361 P < 0.05). In addition, Numb has an inverse correlation with ki-67 labeling index (P < 0.05), and nuclear Gli1 was found in associated with the tumor International Mesothelioma Interest Group-stage (P < 0.05). The overall survival was influenced by the expression of Numb (P < 0.05) and histological subtype (P < 0.05), further regression analysis showed that only histological subtype has a prognostic influence on survival (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: The results provide new evidence of Numb and Gli1 on the clinical characteristics of MPM, which may be helpful in clinical diagnosis and targeted therapy. Further research with larger sample size is needed.

Ni W, Luo L, Zuo P, et al.
lncRNA GHET1 down-regulation suppresses the cell activities of glioma.
Cancer Biomark. 2018; 23(1):9-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as new modulators in cancer origination and progression. The previous study found lncRNA gastric carcinoma highly expressed transcript 1 (GHET1) was significantly up-regulation in the gastric cancer. In our present study, we studied the GHET1 expression in glioma and its effects to biological activities of glioma in vitro and vivo studies. In the clinical analysis, the results were shown that lncRNA GHET1 was significantly up-regulation and the Numb protein expression was significantly down-regulation in glioma tissues. In vitro and vivo studies, the results were shown that lncRNA GHET1 knock-down had effects to inhibit biological activities by regulation Numb and down-stream genes P53 and MMP2/9. The results suggested that GHET1 is a novel tumor oncogene by Numb in glioma. LncRNA GHET1 may serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for glioma.

Lan L, Liu H, Smith AR, et al.
Natural product derivative Gossypolone inhibits Musashi family of RNA-binding proteins.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):809 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The Musashi (MSI) family of RNA-binding proteins is best known for the role in post-transcriptional regulation of target mRNAs. Elevated MSI1 levels in a variety of human cancer are associated with up-regulation of Notch/Wnt signaling. MSI1 binds to and negatively regulates translation of Numb and APC (adenomatous polyposis coli), negative regulators of Notch and Wnt signaling respectively.
METHODS: Previously, we have shown that the natural product (-)-gossypol as the first known small molecule inhibitor of MSI1 that down-regulates Notch/Wnt signaling and inhibits tumor xenograft growth in vivo. Using a fluorescence polarization (FP) competition assay, we identified gossypolone (Gn) with a > 20-fold increase in Ki value compared to (-)-gossypol. We validated Gn binding to MSI1 using surface plasmon resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance, and cellular thermal shift assay, and tested the effects of Gn on colon cancer cells and colon cancer DLD-1 xenografts in nude mice.
RESULTS: In colon cancer cells, Gn reduced Notch/Wnt signaling and induced apoptosis. Compared to (-)-gossypol, the same concentration of Gn is less active in all the cell assays tested. To increase Gn bioavailability, we used PEGylated liposomes in our in vivo studies. Gn-lip via tail vein injection inhibited the growth of human colon cancer DLD-1 xenografts in nude mice, as compared to the untreated control (P < 0.01, n = 10).
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that PEGylation improved the bioavailability of Gn as well as achieved tumor-targeted delivery and controlled release of Gn, which enhanced its overall biocompatibility and drug efficacy in vivo. This provides proof of concept for the development of Gn-lip as a molecular therapy for colon cancer with MSI1/MSI2 overexpression.

Saha SK, Kim K, Yang GM, et al.
Cytokeratin 19
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(5) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/09/2019 Related Publications
Cytokeratin 19 (

Ke H, Zhao L, Zhang H, et al.
Loss of TDP43 inhibits progression of triple-negative breast cancer in coordination with SRSF3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(15):E3426-E3435 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/09/2019 Related Publications
Aberrant alternative splicing has been highlighted as a potential hallmark of cancer. Here, we identify TDP43 (TAR DNA-binding protein 43) as an important splicing regulator responsible for the unique splicing profile in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Clinical data demonstrate that TDP43 is highly expressed in TNBC with poor prognosis. Knockdown of TDP43 inhibits tumor progression, including proliferation and metastasis, and overexpression of TDP43 promotes proliferation and malignancy of mammary epithelial cells. Deep sequencing analysis and functional experiments indicate that TDP43 alters most splicing events with splicing factor SRSF3 (serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3), in the regulation of TNBC progression. The TDP43/SRSF3 complex controls specific splicing events, including downstream genes

Chou CH, Tu HF, Kao SY, et al.
Targeting of miR-31/96/182 to the Numb gene during head and neck oncogenesis.
Head Neck. 2018; 40(4):808-817 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). This study investigates whether miR-31, miR-96, and miR-182 are involved in targeting Numb during HNSCC.
METHODS: The expression of miR-31/96/182 in tumor tissues was analyzed. Reporter assay, knockdown, expression, and oncogenic analysis were carried out in cell lines.
RESULTS: Upregulation of miR-31/96/182 was detected in tumor tissues. In addition, advanced tumors showed higher expression levels of these miRNAs. The expression of these miRNAs was upregulated after treatment with areca ingredients (P < .01 or P < .001). These miRNAs directly targeted the 3' untranslated region (UTR) sequence of the Numb gene. An increased migration and invasion of HNSCC cells was associated with the exogenous expression of miR-31/96/182 (P < .01 or P < .001), and this was reverted by expression of Numb.
CONCLUSION: This study provides new evidence demonstrating that there is frequent and concordant upregulation of miR-31, miR-96, and miR-182 during HNSCC and these miRNAs co-target Numb.

Stypulkowski E, Asangani IA, Witze ES
The depalmitoylase APT1 directs the asymmetric partitioning of Notch and Wnt signaling during cell division.
Sci Signal. 2018; 11(511) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/09/2019 Related Publications
Asymmetric cell division results in two distinctly fated daughter cells. A molecular hallmark of asymmetric division is the unequal partitioning of cell fate determinants. We have previously established that growth factor signaling promotes protein depalmitoylation to foster polarized protein localization, which, in turn, drives migration and metastasis. We report protein palmitoylation as a key mechanism for the asymmetric partitioning of the cell fate determinants Numb and β-catenin through the activity of the depalmitoylating enzyme APT1. Using point mutations, we showed that specific palmitoylated residues on Numb were required for its asymmetric localization. By live-cell imaging, we showed that reciprocal interactions between APT1 and the Rho family GTPase CDC42 promoted the asymmetric localization of Numb and β-catenin to the plasma membrane. This, in turn, restricted Notch- or Wnt-responsive transcriptional activity to one daughter cell. Moreover, we showed that altering APT1 abundance changed the transcriptional signatures of MDA-MB-231 triple receptor-negative breast cancer cells, similar to changes in Notch and β-catenin-mediated Wnt signaling. We also showed that loss of APT1 depleted a specific subpopulation of tumorigenic cells in colony formation assays. Together, our findings suggest that APT1-mediated depalmitoylation is a major mechanism of asymmetric cell division that maintains Notch- and Wnt-associated protein dynamics, gene expression, and cellular functions.

Shao C, Chien SJ, Farah E, et al.
Plk1 phosphorylation of Numb leads to impaired DNA damage response.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(6):810-820 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/09/2019 Related Publications
Although Numb is well-recognized as a cell-fate determinant in stem/progenitor cells, accumulating evidence supports that Numb also has a critical role in adult tissues and cancers, in particular, in the context of regulation of tumor suppressor p53. Herein, we identified Numb as a novel substrate of Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1). Of significance, we showed that Plk1-mediated phosphorylation of Numb leads to its enhanced proteasomal degradation and impaired Numb/p53 pathway, thus providing another mechanism how Plk1 antagonizes p53 during DNA damage response. In addition, the novel phosphorylation event identified by us further supports the notion that post-translational modifications of Numb uncouple Numb from p53 and lead to p53 destabilization. Finally, our data generated from both human cancer cell lines and mouse xenograft model showed that cancer cells carrying the unphosphorylated form of Numb by Plk1 are more sensitive to doxorubicin, a classical chemotherapeutic drug. Therefore, our work may provide future strategies for improving the efficacy of chemotherapy by targeting Numb phosphorylation by Plk1.

Guo Y, Zhang K, Cheng C, et al.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(21):6744-6756 [PubMed] Related Publications

Tsuber V, Kadamov Y, Brautigam L, et al.
Mutations in Cancer Cause Gain of Cysteine, Histidine, and Tryptophan at the Expense of a Net Loss of Arginine on the Proteome Level.
Biomolecules. 2017; 7(3) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/09/2019 Related Publications
Accumulation of somatic mutations is critical for the transition of a normal cell to become cancerous. Mutations cause amino acid substitutions that change properties of proteins. However, it has not been studied as to what extent the composition and accordingly chemical properties of the cell proteome is altered as a result of the increased mutation load in cancer. Here, we analyzed data on amino acid substitutions caused by mutations in about 2000 protein coding genes from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia that contains information on nucleotide and amino acid alterations in 782 cancer cell lines, and validated the analysis with information on amino acid substitutions for the same set of proteins in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC; v78) in circa 18,000 tumor samples. We found that nonsynonymous single nucleotide substitutions in the analyzed proteome subset ultimately result in a net gain of cysteine, histidine, and tryptophan at the expense of a net loss of arginine

Huang H, Liao W, Zhu X, et al.
Knockdown of long noncoding RNA GHET1 inhibits cell activation of gastric cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 92:562-568 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of lncRNA GHET1 in developing of Gastric Cancer.
METHODS: Collecting the 20 gastric cancer patients and evaluated the pathological of adjacent and tumor tissues by HE stating. We analyzed the protein expression of Numb in gastric cancer (GC) tissues by using IHC and the gene expression of Numb and GHET1 in adjacent and GC tissues by RT-PCR. The AGS cells were divided into 3 groups: Control (Co), NC and shRNA groups. Measuring the cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, invasion and migration abilities by MTT, flow cytometry, transwell and wound healing assays. We analyzed the relative signaling pathway by WB assay.
RESULTS: In the clinical analyzing, compared with adjacent tissues, the pathological was significantly changed in tumor tissues, the GHET1 gene and protein expressions were significantly increased in the GC tissues. In the cell experiment, down-regulation of GHET1 had suppressed the cell proliferation, invasion and migration activities and enhanced the cell apoptosis and G1 phase. We found that knockdown of GHET1 dramatically increased E-cadherin, while reducing fibronectin and vimentin.
CONCLUSION: lncRNA GHET1 promoted AGS cells activations, and the results were shown that GHET1 dysregulation might be involved in the occurrence and development of gastric cancer. These results suggested that GHET1 might be a molecular marker for the progression of gastric cancer and a molecular target for targeted therapy.

Sun J, Wang K, Teng J, et al.
Numb had anti-tumor effects in prostatic cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 92:108-115 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The aim of this study was to explain the Numb anti-cancer effects in the prostatic cancer.
METHODS: Collecting the 20 prostatic cancer patients and analyzing the correlation between Numb and Glease score. Transfection Numb into DU-145 and PC-3 cells, measuring the proliferation rate of difference groups by MTT assay, evaluating the cell apoptosis and cell cycle of difference group by Flow cytometry; measuring the invasion and migration abilities by transwell and wound healing assays. In the nude mice experiment, establish prostatic cancer nude mouse subcutaneous planting tumor model by DU-145 cells, Injection the Numb from tail vein. Evaluating the tumor volume and weight.
RESULTS: The Numb protein expression was decreased with Glease score increasing. The proliferation rate of Numb groups were significantly decreased compared with NC groups (P<0.05, respectively). The apoptosis and G1 phase rates of Numb groups were significantly enhanced compared with NC groups (P<0.05, respectively). The invasion and migration abilities of Numb group cells were significantly weaken compared with NC groups (P<0.05, respectively). In the WB assay, The relative proteins (Numb, P53, Cyclin D1, Rac1, MMP-2 and MMP-9) expression were significantly differences between NC and Numb groups (P<0.05, respectively). In the vivo experiment, the tumor volume and weight of Numb group was significantly lighter than NC group (P<0.05, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Overexpression Numb had anti-cancer effects to prostatic cancer in vitro and vivo experiments, the mechanism might be P53/Cyclin D1 and Rac1/MMP-2/-9 signaling pathway.

Lian W, Zhang L, Yang L, Chen W
AP-2α reverses vincristine-induced multidrug resistance of SGC7901 gastric cancer cells by inhibiting the Notch pathway.
Apoptosis. 2017; 22(7):933-941 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a major clinical obstacle in the treatment of gastric cancer (GC) since it causes tumor recurrence and metastasis. The transcription factor activator protein-2α (AP-2α) has been implicated in drug-resistance in breast cancer; however, its effects on MDR of gastric cancer are far from understood. In this study, we aimed to explore the effects of AP-2α on the MDR in gastric cancer cells selected by vincristine (VCR). Decreased AP-2α levels were markedly detected by RT-PCR and Western blot in gastric cancer cell lines (BGC-823, SGC-7901, AGS, MKN-45) compared with that in the gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1). Furthermore, we found that the expression of AP-2α in SGC7901/VCR or SGC7901/adriamycin (ADR) cells was lower than in SGC7901 cells. Thus, a vector overexpressing AP-2α was constructed and used to perform AP-2α gain-of-function studies in SGC7901/VCR cells. The decreased IC50 values of the anti-cancer drugs in sensitive and resistant cells after transfect with pcDNA3.1/AP-2α were determined in SGC7901/VCR cells by MTT assay. Moreover, flow cytometry analysis indicated that overexpressed AP-2α induced cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase and promoted cell apoptosis of VCR-selected SGC7901/VCR cells. RT-PCR and Western blot demonstrated that overexpressed AP-2α can significantly induce the down-regulation of Notch1, Hes-1, P-gp and MRP1 in SGC7901/VCR cells. Similar effects can be observed when Numb (Notch inhibitor) was introduced. In addition, the intracellular ADR accumulation was markedly detected in AP-2α overexpressed or Numb cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that AP-2α can reverse the MDR of gastric cancer cells, which may be realized by inhibiting the Notch signaling pathway.

Sheng W, Dong M, Chen C, et al.
Cooperation of Musashi-2, Numb, MDM2, and P53 in drug resistance and malignant biology of pancreatic cancer.
FASEB J. 2017; 31(6):2429-2438 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our earlier work showed that Musashi (MSI)-2 promoted the development of pancreatic cancer (PC) by down-regulating Numb, which prevented murine double-minute (MDM)-2-mediated p53 ubiquitin degradation. Thus, we investigate the relationship among MSI2, Numb, MDM2, and p53 in PC

Garcia-Heredia JM, Lucena-Cacace A, Verdugo-Sivianes EM, et al.
The Cargo Protein MAP17 (PDZK1IP1) Regulates the Cancer Stem Cell Pool Activating the Notch Pathway by Abducting NUMB.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(14):3871-3883 [PubMed] Related Publications

Kudinov AE, Karanicolas J, Golemis EA, Boumber Y
Musashi RNA-Binding Proteins as Cancer Drivers and Novel Therapeutic Targets.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(9):2143-2153 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/09/2019 Related Publications
Aberrant gene expression that drives human cancer can arise from epigenetic dysregulation. Although much attention has focused on altered activity of transcription factors and chromatin-modulating proteins, proteins that act posttranscriptionally can potently affect expression of oncogenic signaling proteins. The RNA-binding proteins (RBP) Musashi-1 (MSI1) and Musashi-2 (MSI2) are emerging as regulators of multiple critical biological processes relevant to cancer initiation, progression, and drug resistance. Following identification of Musashi as a regulator of progenitor cell identity in

Nwaeburu CC, Abukiwan A, Zhao Z, Herr I
Quercetin-induced miR-200b-3p regulates the mode of self-renewing divisions in pancreatic cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2017; 16(1):23 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells are suggested to contribute to the extremely poor prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and dysregulation of symmetric and asymmetric stem cell division may be involved. Anticancer benefits of phytochemicals like the polyphenol quercetin, present in many fruits, nuts and vegetables, could be expedited by microRNAs, which orchestrate cell-fate decisions and tissue homeostasis. The mechanisms regulating the division mode of cancer stem cells in relation to phytochemical-induced microRNAs are poorly understood.
METHODS: Patient-derived pancreas tissue and 3 established pancreatic cancer cell lines were examined by immunofluorescence and time-lapse microscopy, microRNA microarray analysis, bioinformatics and computational analysis, qRT-PCR, Western blot analysis, self-renewal and differentiation assays.
RESULTS: We show that symmetric and asymmetric division occurred in patient tissues and in vitro, whereas symmetric divisions were more extensive. By microarray analysis, bioinformatics prediction and qRT-PCR, we identified and validated quercetin-induced microRNAs involved in Notch signaling/cell-fate determination. Further computational analysis distinguished miR-200b-3p as strong candidate for cell-fate determinant. Mechanistically, miR-200b-3p switched symmetric to asymmetric cell division by reversing the Notch/Numb ratio, inhibition of the self-renewal and activation of the potential to differentiate to adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes. Low miR-200b-3p levels fostered Notch signaling and promoted daughter cells to become symmetric while high miR-200b-3p levels lessened Notch signaling and promoted daughter cells to become asymmetric.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide a better understanding of the cross talk between phytochemicals, microRNAs and Notch signaling in the regulation of self-renewing cancer stem cell divisions.

Liu Z, Luo C, Yang W, et al.
Increased Numb protein expression predicts poor clinical outcomes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2018; 19(1):34-41 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/09/2019 Related Publications
Numb is a protein whose asymmetric segregation during cell division determines cell fate and has numerous functions relevant to multiple fields of study, including developmental neurobiology and cancer biology. Little is known about the role of Numb in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the predominant histological esophageal carcinoma in Asian populations. In this study, we focused on the expression and biologic functions of Numb in the context of ESCC. From analysis of tissue microarrays with 212 patients, it was found that Numb was significantly upregulated in ESCC tissues compared with corresponding non-cancerous tissues. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis suggests that higher expression of Numb was significantly associated with a high tumor recurrence (p = 0.015) and poor overall post-surgical survival (p = 0.016). Using multiple Cox regression, the expression of Numb was determined to be an independent predictor of poor prognosis. When siRNA was used to knockdown Numb in ESCC cell lines, there was a consistent increase in caspase-3 dependent apoptosis and inhibition of cellular proliferation, as well as downregulation of expression of the cancer stem cell markers Oct-4, SOX-2 and Nanog. In addition, downregulated Numb expression was not significantly associated with the migration of ESCC cells. These results indicate that Numb acts as an oncoprotein and has potential as a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in ESCC patients.

Iguchi T, Nambara S, Masuda T, et al.
miR-146a Polymorphism (rs2910164) Predicts Colorectal Cancer Patients' Susceptibility to Liver Metastasis.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(11):e0165912 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/09/2019 Related Publications
miR-146a plays important roles in cancer as it directly targets NUMB, an inhibitor of Notch signaling. miR-146a is reportedly regulated by a G>C polymorphism (SNP; rs2910164). This polymorphism affects various cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the clinical significance of miR-146a polymorphism in CRC remains unclear. A total of 59 patients with CRC were divided into 2 groups: a CC/CG genotype (n = 32) and a GG genotype (n = 27), based on the miR-146a polymorphism. cDNA microarray analysis was performed using 59 clinical samples. Significantly enriched gene sets in each genotype were extracted using GSEA. We also investigated the association between miR-146a polymorphism and miR-146a, NUMB expression or migratory response in CRC cell lines. The CC/CG genotype was associated with significantly more synchronous liver metastasis (p = 0.007). A heat map of the two genotypes showed that the expression profiles were clearly stratified. GSEA indicated that Notch signaling and JAK/STAT3 signaling were significantly associated with the CC/CG genotype (p = 0.004 and p = 0.023, respectively). CRC cell lines with the pre-miR-146a/C revealed significantly higher miR-146a expression (p = 0.034) and higher NUMB expression and chemotactic activity. In CRC, miR-146a polymorphism is involved in liver metastasis. Identification of this polymorphism could be useful to identify patients with a high risk of liver metastasis in CRC.

Cheng G, He J, Zhang L, et al.
HIC1 modulates uveal melanoma progression by activating lncRNA-numb.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12779-12789 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular cancer in adults. Although the diagnosis modality of primary UM was improved significantly, there are currently no effective therapies for metastatic UM. Hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1) is frequently deleted or epigenetically silenced in various human cancers. However, the role and mechanism of HIC1 in UM is still unclear. In this study, we found that HIC1 acted as a tumor suppressor and that its expression was downregulated in UM. Functional studies demonstrated that ectopic expression of HIC1 in UM cells inhibited cell proliferation and invasion. Moreover, through long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) microarray and real-time PCR, we found that expression of lncRNA-numb was activated by HIC1 in UM. The results provide evidence that lncRNA-numb is a newly proposed tumor suppressor that is involved in HIC1-induced phenotypes. Taken together, our studies of UM reveal a critical role of HIC1 in the regulation of tumorigenesis, at least partly through its downstream target, lncRNA-numb, and provide a potential therapeutic target for UM.

Sajadimajd S, Yazdanparast R
Sensitizing effect of juglone is mediated by down regulation of Notch1 signaling pathway in trastuzumab-resistant SKBR3 cells.
Apoptosis. 2017; 22(1):135-144 [PubMed] Related Publications
Trastuzumab (Herceptin) monoclonal antibody directed against HER2 receptor has been administered as a treatment for metastatic HER2 positive breast cancer. The problematic issue in treatment of HER2 positive breast cancer cells is commonly the induction of resistance to trastuzumab which might be due to modulation of some vital signaling elements such as Notch1 and Pin1. In this study, we were aimed to investigate whether the cross talk between pin1 and Notch1 has a role in this event. Our results indicated that the expression level of Pin1 in resistant SKBR3 cells increased by about twofold relative to sensitive SKBR3 cells. Besides, Pin1 inhibition via juglone reduced the extent of proliferation, colony formation and migration capacity of resistant SKBR3 cells. In addition, despite a feed forward loop between Notch1 and Pin1 in sensitive SKBR3 cells, inhibition of Notch1 cleavage in resistant SKBR3 cells did not affect pin1 level whereas pin1 inhibition by juglone reduced the level of Hes1, p-Akt and increased the cellular content of Numb. Therefore, we concluded that pin1 inhibition could be considered as a promising sensitizing strategy to weaken trastuzumab resistance.

Bi YL, Min M, Shen W, Liu Y
Numb/Notch signaling pathway modulation enhances human pancreatic cancer cell radiosensitivity.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):15145-15155 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study aims to evaluate whether repression of the Numb/Notch signaling pathway affects the radiosensitivity of human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Different doses of X-rays (0, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Gy) were applied to the PANC-1, SW1990, and MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cell lines, and the Numb/Notch pathway inhibitor DAPT was added at different doses (0, 1, 3, and 5 μmol/l). MTT assay, colony formation assay, flow cytometry, scratch assay, and Transwell experiments were performed, and qRT-PCR and Western blot were conducted for the detection of Numb expression. Tumorigenicity assay in nude mice was carried out to verify the influence of blocker of the Numb/Notch signaling pathway on the radiosensitivity of xenograft tumors. The MTT assay, colony formation assay and flow cytometry experiments revealed that proliferation decreased as radiation dose increased. The viability of PANC-1 cells at 5 Gy, SW 1990 cells at 4 Gy and 5 Gy, and MIA PaCa-2 cells at 2-5 Gy was significantly lower than that of non-irradiated cells (all P < 0.05). The migration and invasion assays indicated that the PANC-1 cell line was least radiosensitive, while the MIA PaCa-2 cell line was the most radiosensitive. Numb expression significantly increased with increasing radiation dose, whereas the expression of Hes1, Notch1, and Hes5 significantly decreased compared to non-irradiated cells (P < 0.05). Compared to untreated control cells, DAPT dose dependently increased Numb expression and inhibited Notch1, Hes1, and Hes5 expressions at 2 Gy (P < 0.05). Subcutaneous tumorigenicity assay in nude mice demonstrated that DAPT increased the radiosensitivity of PANC-1, SW 1990, and MIA PaCa-2 cells. These findings suggest that Numb/Notch signaling in pancreatic cancer cells is associated with X-ray radiation and that inhibition of the Numb/Notch signaling pathway can enhance radiosensitivity, suggesting that inhibition of the Numb/Notch signaling pathway may serve as a potential target for clinical improvement of the radiosensitivity of pancreatic cancer.

García-Heredia JM, Verdugo Sivianes EM, Lucena-Cacace A, et al.
Numb-like (NumbL) downregulation increases tumorigenicity, cancer stem cell-like properties and resistance to chemotherapy.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(39):63611-63628 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/09/2019 Related Publications
NumbL, or Numb-like, is a close homologue of Numb, and is part of an evolutionary conserved protein family implicated in some important cellular processes. Numb is a protein involved in cell development, in cell adhesion and migration, in asymmetric cell division, and in targeting proteins for endocytosis and ubiquitination. NumbL exhibits some overlapping functions with Numb, but its role in tumorigenesis is not fully known. Here we showed that the downregulation of NumbL alone is sufficient to increase NICD nuclear translocation and induce Notch pathway activation. Furthermore, NumbL downregulation increases epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell (CSC)-related gene transcripts and CSC-like phenotypes, including an increase in the CSC-like pool. These data suggest that NumbL can act independently as a tumor suppressor gene. Furthermore, an absence of NumbL induces chemoresistance in tumor cells. An analysis of human tumors indicates that NumbL is downregulated in a variable percentage of human tumors, with lower levels of this gene correlated with worse prognosis in colon, breast and lung tumors. Therefore, NumbL can act as an independent tumor suppressor inhibiting the Notch pathway and regulating the cancer stem cell pool.

Zhang J, Shao X, Sun H, et al.
NUMB negatively regulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of triple-negative breast cancer by antagonizing Notch signaling.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(38):61036-61053 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 11/09/2019 Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with higher rates of early relapse and metastasis, is frequently associated with aberrant activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Nonetheless, how EMT is initiated and regulated during TNBC progression is not well understood. Here, we report that NUMB is a negative regulator of EMT in both human mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells. Reduced NUMB expression was significantly associated with elevated EMT in TNBC. Conversely, overexpression of NUMB strongly attenuated the EMT program and metastasis of TNBC cell lines. Interestingly, we showed that NUMB employs different molecular mechanisms to regulate EMT. In normal mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells expressing wild-type p53, NUMB suppressed EMT by stabilizing p53. However, in TNBC cells, loss of NUMB facilitated the EMT program by activating Notch signaling. Consistent with these findings, low NUMB expression and high Notch activity were significantly correlated with the TNBC subtype in patients. Collectively, these findings reveal novel molecular mechanisms of NUMB in the regulation of breast tumor EMT, especially in TNBC.

Song SG, Yu HY, Ma YW, et al.
Inhibition on Numb/Notch signal pathway enhances radiosensitivity of lung cancer cell line H358.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13705-13719 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of the Numb/Notch signal pathway on the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cell line H358. MTT assay and colony forming assay were used to detect the effects of different doses of X-rays and MW167 on the in vitro proliferation of the lung cancer cell line H358. Flow cytometry was applied to evaluate the effects of X rays on the apoptosis of H358. Scratch assay and Transwell invasion assay were used to examine the effects of X-rays on the migration and invasion abilities of H358. The mRNA and protein expressions in the signal pathway were detected by real-time PCR and western blot. Assays in vitro confirmed the effects of the Numb/Notch pathway inhibitor on the radiosensitivity to lung cancer. MW167 enhanced the inhibiting effects of X-ray on the proliferation of H358 cell line. After the addition of MW167, the apoptosis rates significantly increased, but the invasion and migration abilities decreased significantly. Meanwhile, MW167 could dose-dependently promote the increase of expression of Numb, which is the upstream gene of the Numb/Notch signaling pathway, but inhibit the expression of and HES1. In vivo experiments revealed that cell proliferation was suppressed in the radiation, pathway inhibitor, and pathway inhibitor + radiation groups, and the pathway inhibitor + radiation group exhibited more active anti-tumor ability when compared with the blank group (all P < 0.05); Numb expression was up-regulated, but Notch1 and HES1 expressions were down-regulated in those three groups, and also, the pathway inhibitor + radiation group exhibited more significant alternation when compared with the blank group (all P < 0.05); cell apoptosis was promoted in those three groups, and the pathway inhibitor + radiation group showed more active apoptosis when compared with the blank group (all P < 0.05). Repression of the Numb/Notch pathway enhances the effects of radiotherapy on the radiosensitivity of the lung cancer cell line H358, and thus the Numb/Notch pathway may be a new target of radiotherapy for lung cancer.

Osathanon T, Nowwarote N, Pavasant P
Expression and influence of Notch signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
J Oral Sci. 2016; 58(2):283-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Notch signaling dysregulation plays an important role in altering cancer cell behaviors; however, its role in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate the role of Notch signaling related genes in human OSCC using a meta-analysis of Gene Expression Omnibus database (GEO-publicly available gene expression microarray data) and to examine the role of Notch signaling in OSCC behaviors. The meta-analysis included 13 GEO datasets and was performed by combining effect sizes in a random effect model. The results demonstrated that in OSCC dysregulated genes participated in the metabolic process and protein binding as determined by gene ontology analysis. Enriched pathway analysis demonstrated the majority of the dysregulated genes were involved in pathway categories as follow; pathway in cancers, small cell lung cancer, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and cell cycle progression. Interestingly, the enriched pathway analysis also demonstrated that OSCC samples exhibited an upregulation of genes in Notch signaling pathway, namely JAG1, JAG2, ADAM17, NCSTN, PSEN1, NCOR2, NUMB, DVL3, HDAC1, and HDAC2. Furthermore, Notch signaling inhibition by a γ-secretase inhibitor significantly decreased OSCC cell proliferation in vitro, corresponding with a decrease in C-FOS mRNA expression. The study demonstrated that Notch signaling is dysregulated in human OSCC and plays a role in cell proliferation. (J Oral Sci 58, 283-294, 2016).

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