Gene Summary

Gene:KRT5; keratin 5
Aliases: K5, CK5, DDD, DDD1, EBS2, KRT5A
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. The type II cytokeratins consist of basic or neutral proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains coexpressed during differentiation of simple and stratified epithelial tissues. This type II cytokeratin is specifically expressed in the basal layer of the epidermis with family member KRT14. Mutations in these genes have been associated with a complex of diseases termed epidermolysis bullosa simplex. The type II cytokeratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q12-q13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:keratin, type II cytoskeletal 5
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (13)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Transcription Factors
  • Messenger RNA
  • Lung Cancer
  • Keratin-5
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Staging
  • Breast Cancer
  • Receptor, erbB-2
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Estrogen Receptors
  • Urothelium
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Promoter Regions
  • Chromosome 12
  • Trans-Activators
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Receptors, Progesterone
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • p53 Protein
  • ErbB Receptors
  • Cancer Stem Cells
  • Skin Cancer
  • MKI67
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Mutation
  • Keratins
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Epithelial Cells
  • Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • Phenotype
  • Keratin-6
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: KRT5 (cancer-related)

Zhao L, Shou H, Chen L, et al.
Effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on epigenetic modification in ovarian cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(6):3209-3218 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epigenetic modifications are closely related to oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on epigenetic modification in ovarian cancer cells. Cell proliferation, metastasis, invasion and apoptosis were respectively determined using Cell Counting Kit‑8 (CCK‑8), wound healing, Transwell and flow cytometric assays. Methylation levels were determined using methylation specific PCR (MSP). Related‑factor expression was detected by conducting real‑time‑qPCR (RT‑qPCR) and western blotting. The results revealed that cell proliferation was inhibited by ginsenoside Rg3 (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml) in a time‑dependent manner (12, 24 and 48 h). Ginsenoside Rg3 (50, 100 and 200 µg/ml) was selected to treat cells in various experiments. When ovarian cells were treated with ginsenoside Rg3, cell apoptosis was observed to be promoted, while cell metastasis and invasion were inhibited at 48 h. The results of the present study revealed that in the promoter regions of p53, p16 and hMLH1, the methylation levels decreased, while the mRNA and protein levels significantly increased. The activities of DNMTs and mRNA as well as protein levels of DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b were decreased by Rg3. The data also demonstrated that the mRNA and protein levels of acetyl‑H3 K14/K9 and acetyl‑H4 K12/K5/K16 were increased by Rg3. Hence, ginsenoside Rg3 inhibited ovarian cancer cell viability, migration and invasion as well as promoted cell apoptosis.

Jung M, Lee JH, Kim B, et al.
Transcriptional Analysis of Immunohistochemically Defined Subgroups of Non-Muscle-Invasive Papillary High-Grade Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for CK5/6 and CK20 was reported to be correlated with the prognosis of early urothelial carcinoma in a way contrary to that of advanced tumors for unknown reasons. We aimed to characterize the gene expression profiles of subgroups of non-muscle-invasive papillary high-grade upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) classified by CK5/6 and CK20 expression levels: group 1 (CK5/6-high/CK20-low), group 2 (CK5/6-high/CK20-high), and group 3 (CK5/6-low/CK20-high). Expression of group 3 was predictive of worse prognosis of non-muscle-invasive papillary high-grade UTUC. Transcriptional analysis revealed 308 differentially expressed genes across the subgroups. Functional analyses of the genes identified cell adhesion as a common process differentially enriched in group 3 compared to the other groups, which could explain its high-risk phenotype. Late cell cycle/proliferation signatures were also enriched in group 3 and in some of the other groups, which may be used as a prognostic biomarker complementary to CK5/6 and CK20. Group 2, characterized by low levels of genes associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase and tumor necrosis factor signaling pathways, was hypothesized to represent the least cancerous subtype considering its normal urothelium-like IHC pattern. This study would facilitate the application of easily accessible prognostic biomarkers in practice.

Hoggarth ZE, Osowski DB, Freeberg BA, et al.
The urothelial cell line UROtsa transformed by arsenite and cadmium display basal characteristics associated with muscle invasive urothelial cancers.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(12):e0207877 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Muscle invasive urothelial carcinomas are divided into various molecular subtypes with basal and luminal subtypes being the prominent ones. The basal muscle-invasive urothelial carcinomas are generally more aggressive at presentation and significantly enriched with squamous features. Our laboratory has developed an in-vitro model of urothelial cancer by transforming the immortalized cell line UROtsa with arsenite (As3+) and cadmium (Cd2+). In this study, we characterized the tumors formed by these transformed cell lines as more basal-like based on their gene expression patterns with increased expression of KRT1, KRT5, KRT6, KRT14, KRT16, KRT17 and CD44. In addition, histological examination of these tumor transplants showed squamous features enriched in basal muscle invasive urothelial carcinomas. The expression of these genes increased in the transformed cell lines as well as in the urospheres, which are putative cancer initiating cells/stem cells derived from the cell lines. There was also increased expression of these genes in the urospheres derived from the parent UROtsa cell line. Thus, our data shows that the As3+ and Cd2+-transformed cell lines and their derived tumor transplants have gene expression profiles similar to the basal subtype of muscle invasive bladder carcinomas with tumors having enriched squamous features. The increased expression of basal markers in the urospheres suggests that stem cells may be involved in the development of squamous differentiation seen in some of the muscle invasive bladder carcinomas.

Eckstein M, Wirtz RM, Gross-Weege M, et al.
mRNA-Expression of
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(11) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recently, muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) has been subclassified by gene expression profiling, with a substantial impact on therapy response and patient outcome. We tested whether these complex molecular subtypes of MIBC can be determined by mRNA detection of keratin 5 (

Jinesh GG, Flores ER, Brohl AS
Chromosome 19 miRNA cluster and CEBPB expression specifically mark and potentially drive triple negative breast cancers.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(10):e0206008 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are known to express low PGR, ESR1, and ERBB2, and high KRT5, KRT14, and KRT17. However, the reasons behind the increased expressions of KRT5, KRT14, KRT17 and decreased expressions of PGR, ESR1, and ERBB2 in TNBCs are not fully understood. Here we show that, expression of chromosome 19 miRNA cluster (C19MC) specifically marks human TNBCs. Low REST and high CEBPB correlate with expression of C19MC, KRT5, KRT14, and KRT17 and enhancers of these genes/cluster are regulated by CEBPB and REST binding sites. The C19MC miRNAs in turn can potentially target REST to offer a positive feedback loop, and might target PGR, ESR1, ERBB2, GATA3, SCUBE2, TFF3 mRNAs to contribute towards TNBC phenotype. Thus our study demonstrates that C19MC miRNA expression marks TNBCs and that C19MC miRNAs and CEBPB might together determine the TNBC marker expression pattern.

Nastały P, Filipska M, Morrissey C, et al.
ALDH1-positive intratumoral stromal cells indicate differentiated epithelial-like phenotype and good prognosis in prostate cancer.
Transl Res. 2019; 203:49-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) characterizes tumor-initiating cells in solid tumors; however, little is known about its expression in intratumoral stromal cells. Herein, we aimed to dissect its potential dual relevance in prostate cancer (PCa). ALDH1 expression was evaluated immunohistochemically in tumor and stromal cells in primary PCa and metastases. It was correlated to clinico-pathologic parameters, patients' outcome, and selected proteins (CK5/6, CK14, CK8/18, CK19, EpCAM, Ki-67, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and vimentin). ALDH1 protein was detected in tumor and stromal cells in 16% and 67% of 348 primary PCa, respectively. Tumor cell ALDH1 expression was associated with advanced T stage (P = 0.009), higher Gleason score (P = 0.016), shorter time to biochemical recurrence (TBR P = 0.010) and CK14 expression (P = 0.023). Stromal cell ALDH1 expression correlated to lower T stage (P = 0.008) and Gleason score (P = 0.016), N0 stage (P = 0.017), and longer TBR (P = 0.017). It occurred to be an independent predictor of good prognosis in the subgroup of d'Amico high-risk patients (multivariate analysis, P = 0.050). ALDH1-positive stromal cells were found in tumors characterized frequently by CK8/18 (P = 0.033) or EpCAM expression (P < 0.001) and rarely by epithelial-mesenchymal transition defined as CK8/18(-)vimentin(+) phenotype (P = 0.003). ALDH1-positive tumor and stromal cells were detected in 33% and 41% of hormone naive lymph node metastases (n = 63), 52% and 24% of castration resistant bone metastases, as well as 89% and 28% of castration resistant visceral metastases (n = 21), respectively. We have determined that contrary to tumor cell ALDH1, the presence of stromal ALDH1 is associated with epithelial phenotype of primary PCa, improved clinical outcome, and is less frequent in PCa metastases.

Xiao T, Xue J, Shi M, et al.
Circ008913, via miR-889 regulation of DAB2IP/ZEB1, is involved in the arsenite-induced acquisition of CSC-like properties by human keratinocytes in carcinogenesis.
Metallomics. 2018; 10(9):1328-1338 [PubMed] Related Publications
Arsenic is a known human carcinogen and the mechanisms underlying arsenic-induced tumorigenesis remain elusive. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are involved in the development of cancers, generally acting as sponges for microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, we screened the circRNA expression profiles of HaCaT cells, which are immortalized human keratinocytes, and arsenite-transformed HaCaT cells (T-HaCaT). The presence of has_circRNA-008913 (circ008913) was confirmed in HaCaT cells. Among the circRNAs down-regulated in T-HaCaT cells, circ008913 showed the greatest decrease and was chosen for further research. In HaCaT cells, arsenite induced increases of mRNA levels of the genes for cell-surface markers (k5 and CD34) of skin stem cells, decreases of DAB2IP, and increases of ZEB1. MicroRNA (miR)-889 suppressed the expression of DAB2IP and was involved in regulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Moreover, overexpression of circ008913 with pLCDH-circ008913 or transfection with an miR-889 inhibitor reduced the capacity of T-HaCaT cells for colony formation, invasion, migration, and the sizes of tumors in nude mice, effects that were reversed by co-transfection with an miR-889 mimic. These results suggest that, in HaCaT cells, arsenite decreases circ008913 levels, which act as a sponge for miR-889 and down-regulate the miR-889 target, DAB2IP, which, in turn, up-regulates ZEB1, increases mRNA levels of the cell-surface markers of skin stem cells, and is involved in arsenite-induced acquisition of CSC-like properties that lead to malignant transformation. The results also indicate that circ008913 functions as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) for miR-889, which is involved in the arsenite-induced acquisition of CSC-like properties by regulation of DAB2IP and elucidate a previously unknown mechanism between arsenite-induced acquisition of CSC-like properties and carcinogenesis.

Handoko L, Kaczkowski B, Hon CC, et al.
JQ1 affects BRD2-dependent and independent transcription regulation without disrupting H4-hyperacetylated chromatin states.
Epigenetics. 2018; 13(4):410-431 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) proteins are promising drug targets for cancer and immune diseases. However, BET inhibition effects have been studied more in the context of bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) than BRD2, and the BET protein association to histone H4-hyperacetylated chromatin is not understood at the genome-wide level. Here, we report transcription start site (TSS)-resolution integrative analyses of ChIP-seq and transcriptome profiles in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line H23. We show that di-acetylation at K5 and K8 of histone H4 (H4K5acK8ac) co-localizes with H3K27ac and BRD2 in the majority of active enhancers and promoters, where BRD2 has a stronger association with H4K5acK8ac than H3K27ac. Although BET inhibition by JQ1 led to complete reduction of BRD2 binding to chromatin, only local changes of H4K5acK8ac levels were observed, suggesting that recruitment of BRD2 does not influence global histone H4 hyperacetylation levels. This finding supports a model in which recruitment of BET proteins via histone H4 hyperacetylation is predominant over hyperacetylation of histone H4 by BET protein-associated acetyltransferases. In addition, we found that a remarkable number of BRD2-bound genes, including MYC and its downstream target genes, were transcriptionally upregulated upon JQ1 treatment. Using BRD2-enriched sites and transcriptional activity analysis, we identified candidate transcription factors potentially involved in the JQ1 response in BRD2-dependent and -independent manner.

Suster D, Pihan G, Mackinnon AC, Suster S
Poorly Differentiated Nonkeratinizing Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Thymus: Clinicopathologic and Molecular Genetic Study of 25 Cases.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2018; 42(9):1224-1236 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thymic carcinoma represents a rare and poorly understood type of thymic epithelial neoplasm that has been the subject of much controversy. Poorly differentiated nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, also known as lymphoepithelioma-like thymic carcinoma, is a rare variant of thymic carcinoma that has not been adequately characterized in the literature. The clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular features of 25 cases are reported. The patients were 19 men and 6 women, ranging in age from 20 to 85 years (mean: 60 y). The tumors presented clinically as anterior mediastinal masses with chest pain and shortness of breath or were found incidentally on imaging studies. Tumor size ranged from 2.0 to 13.5 cm in greatest diameter. Most of the tumors were small, well-circumscribed and confined to the mediastinum. Five cases presented with large, bulky, and infiltrative masses. Histologically, the hallmark of these tumors was a neoplastic proliferation of large, round to oval cells with vesicular nuclei, prominent eosinophilic nucleoli, and scant cytoplasm. Two histologic growth patterns were identified: tumors with a heavy lymphoplasmacytic stroma (lymphoepithelioma-like pattern), and tumors showing abundant desmoplastic stroma (desmoplastic pattern). Immunohistochemical stains showed strong positivity of the tumor cells for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, CK5/6, CK18, MOC31, p16, p40, and p63. MIB-1 showed on average 35% nuclear positivity. CD117 was positive in 21/25 cases and CD5 in 20/25 cases. Epstein-Barr encoded RNA in situ hybridization was positive in only 1 case. Electron microscopy in 4 cases showed primitive round to oval cells with prominent nucleoli, scant cytoplasm and immature cell junctions. Molecular features were studied by next-generation sequencing using high quality sequence data obtained from 18 patients. Variants with allele frequency between 5% and 45% and quality scores >50 were classified as somatic. A total of 16/18 cases had one or more somatic variants of unknown significance. One case showed an IDH1 p. R132C mutation, also of unknown significance. No "actionable" genes amenable to currently available targeted therapies were identified in this cohort. Clinical follow-up was obtained in 20 patients; 14 patients were alive and well with no evidence of disease between 1.5 and 16 years after diagnosis (median survival: 4 y; mean: 5.5 y). Most survivors had relatively small tumors (<5 cm. diameter), were in stage I and II at diagnosis and showed clear surgical margins. Five patients died of their tumors with metastases to bone, brain, chest wall, lungs and lymph nodes; all were in advanced stages and showed positive margins. Prognosis for these tumors appears to be correlated with the staging and status of the margins at the time of initial surgery.

Sagara Y, Takada M, Ohi Y, et al.
Effectiveness of neo-adjuvant systemic therapy with trastuzumab for basal HER2 type breast cancer: results from retrospective cohort study of Japan Breast Cancer Research Group (JBCRG)-C03.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2018; 171(3):675-683 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: While human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) target therapies have significantly improved the prognosis of patients with HER2-enriched breast cancer, differing clinical benefits and gene expression analyses suggest a divergent HER2 subgroup. We aimed to investigate whether the basal HER2 subtype of breast cancer has distinguished characteristics.
METHODS: We performed a substudy by using data from a retrospective multi-institutional cohort of JBCRG-C03. Between 2001 and 2011, we identified 184 eligible patients who received concurrent neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with trastuzumab for hormone receptor-negative and HER2-positive breast cancer. We defined basal HER2 subtype breast cancer as HER2-positive, ER/PgR-negative, and basal markers (EGFR, CK14 or CK5/6) positive by immunohistochemistrical evaluation. The pathologic complete response (pCR) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were compared between the two subtypes.
RESULTS: A total of 127 (69.0%) patients achieved pCR after NAC and 29 (15.8%) patients experienced events of DFS within a 42 month median follow-up period (interquartile range 26-58 months). Although the basal HER2 subtype was related with poor DFS (3 year DFS: non-basal HER2, 95.0%; basal HER2, 86.9%; adjusted HR 3.4; 95% CI 1.2-14.5), neither the subtype (pCR: non-basal HER2, 75%; basal HER2, 66.7%; adjusted OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.27-1.28) nor the degree of expression of basal markers was significantly related with the pCR rate.
CONCLUSION: Basal HER2 phenotype showed poor DFS, but equivalent pCR rate after concurrent neo-adjuvant chemotherapy with trastuzumab. A different treatment approach to basal-HER2 type is needed even for cases that achieved adequate clinical response after NAC.

Ge Y, Zhu J, Wang X, et al.
Mapping dynamic histone modification patterns during arsenic-induced malignant transformation of human bladder cells.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2018; 355:164-173 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
Arsenic is a known potent risk factor for bladder cancer. Increasing evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations, e.g., DNA methylation and histones posttranslational modifications (PTMs), contribute to arsenic carcinogenesis. Our previous studies have demonstrated that exposure of human urothelial cells (UROtsa cells) to monomethylarsonous acid (MMA

Yang Z, Zhang R, Ge Y, et al.
Somatic FGFR3 Mutations Distinguish a Subgroup of Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancers with Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 35:198-203 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
The administration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) preceding radical cystectomy benefits overall survival for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). However, the relationship between the genetic profiling of MIBC and NAC response remains unclear. Here, a mutation panel of six cancer-associated genes (TSC1, FGFR3, TERT, TP53, PIK3CA and ERBB2) and an immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel containing eight bladder cancer (BC) biomarkers (EGFR, RRM1, PD-L1, BRCA1, TUBB3, ERCC, ERCC1, aberrantly glycosylated integrin α3β1 (AG) and CK5/6) were developed. BC samples from patients who showed a pathologic response (n = 39) and non-response (n = 13) were applied to the panel analysis. ERBB2, FGFR3 and PIK3CA exclusively altered in the responders group (19/39, 48.7%), in which FGFR3 mutations were significantly enriched in patients with a response in the cohort (14/39, 35.9%; P = 0.01). Additionally, strong expression of ERCC1 was associated with a pathologic response (P = 0.01). However, positive lymph node metastasis (P < 0.01) and lymph-vascular invasion (LVI) (P = 0.03) were correlated with a non-response. Overall, the data show that FGFR3 mutations and elevated expression of ERCC1 in MIBCs are potential predictive biomarkers of the response to NAC.

Harbhajanka A, Chahar S, Miskimen K, et al.
Clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular correlation of neural crest transcription factor SOX10 expression in triple-negative breast carcinoma.
Hum Pathol. 2018; 80:163-169 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transcription factor SOX10 mediates the differentiation of neural crest-derived cells, and SOX10 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used primarily for the diagnosis of melanoma. SOX10 expression has been previously documented in benign breast myoepithelial cells. However there is limited literature on its expression in triple-negative breast carcinoma (TNBC). The aim was to study the clinical, pathologic and molecular profiles of SOX10+ tumors in TNBC. Tissue microarrays of TNBC were evaluated for SOX10 expression in 48 cases. SOX10 expression was correlated with clinical and pathologic features such as age, grade, and stage. Gene expression was analyzed on RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens with Affymetrix 2.0 HTA. Co-expression of SOX10 with androgen receptor (AR), WT1, gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), mammaglobin, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), CK5/6 and GATA transcription factor 3 (GATA3) were also assessed. The mean age was 59.38 (range, 28-90 years). Overall, 37.5% cases (18/48) were SOX10+. There was no association between SOX10 expression and age, grade or stage of patients; 6 of 10 (60%) cases of basal-like 1 (BL1), and 5 of 8 cases of unstable (UNS) molecular subtype were SOX10+. One of 5 basal-like-2 (BL2), 1 of 6 immunomodulatory (IM), 1 of 4 mesenchymal (M), 1 of 5 luminal androgen receptor (LAR) and 2 of 8 mesenchymal stem cell (MSL) showed lower frequencies of SOX10 expression. There was negative correlation between SOX10 and AR+ subtypes (P < .002). SOX10 was positively correlated with WT1 (P = .05). SOX10 did not show significant correlation with mammaglobin, GCDFP15, EGFR, CK5/6 and GATA3. SOX10 expression in the basal-like and unstable molecular subtypes supports the concept that these neoplasms show myoepithelial differentiation.

Zinnall U, Weyerer V, Compérat E, et al.
Micropapillary urothelial carcinoma: evaluation of HER2 status and immunohistochemical characterization of the molecular subtype.
Hum Pathol. 2018; 80:55-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Comprehensive molecular analyses of urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) have defined distinct subtypes with potential therapeutic implications. In this study, we focused on micropapillary urothelial carcinoma (MPUC), an aggressive, histomorphologically defined rare variant. Apart from genetic alterations shared with conventional UBC, alterations of the HER2 gene have been reported in higher frequencies. However, only small cohorts of MPUCs have been analyzed, and the real impact is still unclear. We collected a cohort of 94 MPUCs and immunohistochemically tested HER2, basal (CD44, CK5, EGFR, p63) and luminal (CD24, FOXA1, GATA3, CK20) markers to allocate MPUC to a molecular subtype. Additionally, HER2 amplification status was assigned by chromogenic in situ hybridization. Sanger sequencing of exon 4 and 8 was used to test for HER2 mutations. Kruskal-Wallis test was calculated to compare marker distribution between proportions of the MPUC component. HER2 2+/3+ staining scores were identified in 39.6% of 91 analyzed MPUCs and were not differentially distributed among the proportion of the MPUC component (P = .89). Additionally, CISH analysis revealed 30% of HER2-amplified tumors independently of the MPUC fraction. In 6/90 evaluable MPUCs, a p.S310F HER2 mutation was detected. Overexpression of luminal markers was observed in the majority of MPUC. Our investigations of the largest cohort of analyzed MPUC demonstrate that HER2 overexpression and amplifications are common genetic alterations and identification of overexpressed luminal markers allows subclassification to the luminal subtype. These findings highlight the need of histomorphological recognition of MPUC and analysis of HER2 status and the luminal molecular subtype for potential targeted therapeutic strategies.

Astvatsaturyan K, Yue Y, Walts AE, Bose S
Androgen receptor positive triple negative breast cancer: Clinicopathologic, prognostic, and predictive features.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0197827 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Overexpression of the androgen receptor (AR) characterizes a distinct molecular subset of triple negative breast carcinomas (TNBC). The role of AR as a prognostic/predictive biomarker in TNBC is controversial, but increasing evidence suggests that this subset may respond to therapeutic agents targeting AR. Evaluation of AR has not been standardized, and criteria for selection of patients for antiandrogen therapy remain controversial. In this study we determine the appropriate threshold of AR immunoreactivity to define AR positive (AR+) TNBC, describe the clinicopathologic features of AR+ TNBC, and discuss the utility of AR positivity as a prognostic and predictive marker in TNBC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: 135 invasive TNBC processed in accordance with ASCO/CAP guidelines, were immunostained for AR. Clinicopathologic features of AR+ TNBC were analyzed and compared to AR negative (AR-) TNBC. Patients' age, tumor size, tumor grade, lymph node status, proliferation rate, immunopositivity for EGFR, CK5/6, Ki-67, and disease free survival (DFS) were evaluated statistically.
RESULTS: A 1% cutpoint was confirmed as the appropriate threshold for AR positivity. Using this cutpoint 41% of 135 TNBC were AR+. AR+ TNBC occurred in older women, were larger, had lower mean proliferation rate and increased incidence of axillary metastasis than AR- TNBC. 76% of TNBC with apocrine morphology were AR+. A subset of AR+TNBC expressed basal markers (EGFR and CK5/6). A prognostic model was created.
SUMMARY: AR identifies a heterogeneous group of TNBC. Additional evaluation of EGFR expression allowed us to stratify TNBCs into 3 risk groups with significant differences in DFS and therapeutic implications: low-risk (AR+ EGFR-) which represents the LAR molecular subtype with the best prognosis and may benefit the most from anti-androgen therapies; high-risk (AR- EGFR+) which represents the basal molecular subtype with the worst prognosis and may benefit the most from chemotherapy regimens; intermediate-risk (AR+EGFR+ and AR-EGFR-) TNBC with an intermediate prognosis. Prospective trials are required to further validate this prognostic and predictive grouping.

Zhang L, Hu C, Zheng X, et al.
Oncocytic Schneiderian papilloma-associated adenocarcinoma and KRAS mutation: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(23):e11025 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
RATIONALE: Oncocytic Schneiderian papillomas (OSP) are an uncommon type of sinonasal papillomas that arise from the Schneiderian epithelium, accounting for only 6% of all sinonasal papillomas. Malignancies arising in OSP are rare and are almost always described as in situ or invasive squamous cell carcinoma, although mucoepidermoid, small cell carcinoma and sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma have also been reported. To our knowledge, only 18 such instances have been reported in the medical literature.
PATIENT CONCERNS: Here, we report the case of an 81-year-old man presenting with a left sinonasal neoplasm, who had undergone 4 operations. The first postoperative pathology revealed a benign nasal polyp. The following several postoperative pathology revealed a novel, human papillomavirus-negative adenocarcinoma with increasing malignant features with each recurrence arising in an OSP. In addition, the most recent recurrences were associated with metastasis of cervical lymph nodes. And after the operation, the patient refused adjuvant radiotherapy. On 6-month follow-up after the last operation, the patient developed an in situ tumor recurrence 1 month after the fourth operation and refused to undergo surgery again.
DIAGNOSIS: Immunohistochemistry for Ki67, CK7, CK5/6, P53, and P63 showed a progression of malignancy. HPV assay presented the 21 most prevalent HPV types were negative. In addition, KRAS gene exon 2 G12C presented mutation in the OSP-associated adenocarcinoma.
INTERVENTIONS: During the whole course of the patient's disease, we performed four nasal endoscopic operations. And after the last operation, the patient refused adjuvant radiotherapy and KRAS-targeted therapy.
OUTCOMES: We are the first to describe adenocarcinoma arising in an OSP. To our surprise, from the first benign neoplasm to the second OSP-associated adenocarcinoma, it went through a long period of 10 years. However, after the adenocarcinogenesis, the differentiation of tumor became worse with the shorter interval of each recurrence.
LESSONS: Therefore, for elderly patients with unilateral nasal polyps, long-term follow-up is necessary. Once OSP turns into malignant, radical resection should be performed as much as possible to reduce the irritability of tumors.

Alsadoun N, MacGrogan G, Truntzer C, et al.
Solid papillary carcinoma with reverse polarity of the breast harbors specific morphologic, immunohistochemical and molecular profile in comparison with other benign or malignant papillary lesions of the breast: a comparative study of 9 additional cases.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(9):1367-1380 [PubMed] Related Publications
Solid papillary carcinoma with reverse polarity is a rare breast cancer of favorable prognosis that can be difficult to diagnose. We report here nine additional cases of this tumor, and we describe its morphologic, immunohistochemical and molecular profile in comparison to other types of papillary and micropapillary lesions of the breast that are intraductal papilloma with usual ductal hyperplasia, encapsulated papillary carcinoma, solid papillary carcinoma and invasive micropapillary carcinoma. We studied nine cases of this special papillary tumor and six of each other types mentioned above. We found that solid papillary carcinoma with reverse polarity harbor specific morphologic features as cuboid or tall cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasms located at the basal pole giving the impression of reverse nuclear polarity. Nuclei were sometimes grooved. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the lack of myoepithelial cells, as in encapsulated papillary carcinoma and solid papillary carcinoma, questioning their invasive nature. Seven of nine solid papillary carcinoma with reverse polarity showed a low Ki67 proliferative index (Ki67 <5%). They showed expression of CK5/6 as in intraductal papilloma with usual ductal hyperplasia. They showed expression of calretinin and a low or lack of hormonal receptor (HR) expression that were not observed in other breast tumors studied. By whole-exome analysis, seven of nine solid papillary carcinomas with reverse polarity (78%) harbored a hotspot mutation in IDH2 (R172) that was totally absent in other groups. Six of nine tumors (67%) also harbored PRUNE2 mutation, including the two IDH2 wild-type cases. We also demonstrated for the first time in this breast tumor, immunostaining with a specific antibody IDH1/2 mutant R132/R172 (7/9) that can highlight IDH2 mutation. Moreover, transcriptomic analysis showed that proteoglycan pathway was significantly enriched. Our findings support the fact that solid papillary carcinoma with reverse polarity is a singular breast neoplasm that can be distinguished from other papillary breast tumors.

Wang G, Xiao L, Zhang M, et al.
Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of 81 cases.
Hum Pathol. 2018; 79:57-65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
Small cell carcinoma (SmCC) of the bladder is a rare disease. We retrospectively studied a large series of bladder SmCC from a single institution. The patients included 69 men and 12 women with a mean age of 68 years. Most bladder SmCCs were presented at advanced stage, with tumors invading the muscularis propria and beyond (n = 77). SmCC was pure in 27 cases and mixed with other histologic types in 54 cases, including urothelial carcinoma (UC) (n = 32), UC in situ (n = 26), glandular (n = 14), micropapillary (n = 4), sarcomatoid (n = 4), squamous (n = 3), and plasmacytoid (n = 1) features. Most SmCCs expressed neuroendocrine markers synaptophysin (41/56), chromogranin (26/55), and CD56 (39/41); however, they did not express UC luminal markers CK20 (0/17), GATA3 (1/30), and uroplakin II (1/22). Some SmCCs showed focal expression of CK5/6 (9/25), a marker for the basal molecular subtype. Furthermore, expression of the retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) gene protein was lost in most of the bladder SmCCs (2/23). The patients' survival was significantly associated with cancer stage but did not show a significant difference between mixed and pure SmCCs. Compared with conventional UC at similar stages, SmCC had a worse prognosis only when patients developed metastatic diseases. In conclusion, bladder SmCC is an aggressive disease that is frequently present at an advanced stage. A fraction of SmCCs show a basal molecular subtype, which may underlie its good response to chemotherapy. Inactivation of the RB1 gene may be implicated in the oncogenesis of bladder SmCC.

Kündig P, Giesen C, Jackson H, et al.
Limited utility of tissue micro-arrays in detecting intra-tumoral heterogeneity in stem cell characteristics and tumor progression markers in breast cancer.
J Transl Med. 2018; 16(1):118 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Intra-tumoral heterogeneity has been recently addressed in different types of cancer, including breast cancer. A concept describing the origin of intra-tumoral heterogeneity is the cancer stem-cell hypothesis, proposing the existence of cancer stem cells that can self-renew limitlessly and therefore lead to tumor progression. Clonal evolution in accumulated single cell genomic alterations is a further possible explanation in carcinogenesis. In this study, we addressed the question whether intra-tumoral heterogeneity can be reliably detected in tissue-micro-arrays in breast cancer by comparing expression levels of conventional predictive/prognostic tumor markers, tumor progression markers and stem cell markers between central and peripheral tumor areas.
METHODS: We analyzed immunohistochemical expression and/or gene amplification status of conventional prognostic tumor markers (ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6), tumor progression markers (PTEN, PIK3CA, p53, Ki-67) and stem cell markers (mTOR, SOX2, SOX9, SOX10, SLUG, CD44, CD24, TWIST) in 372 tissue-micro-array samples from 72 breast cancer patients. Expression levels were compared between central and peripheral tumor tissue areas and were correlated to histopathological grading. 15 selected cases additionally underwent RNA sequencing for transcriptome analysis.
RESULTS: No significant difference in any of the analyzed between central and peripheral tumor areas was seen with any of the analyzed methods/or results that showed difference. Except mTOR, PIK3CA and SOX9 (nuclear) protein expression, all markers correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with histopathological grading both in central and peripheral areas.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that intra-tumoral heterogeneity of stem-cell and tumor-progression markers cannot be reliably addressed in tissue-micro-array samples in breast cancer. However, most markers correlated strongly with histopathological grading confirming prognostic information as expression profiles were independent on the site of the biopsy was taken.

Uva P, Cossu-Rocca P, Loi F, et al.
miRNA-135b Contributes to
Int J Med Sci. 2018; 15(6):536-548 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
The clinical and genetic heterogeneity of Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) and the lack of unambiguous molecular targets contribute to the inadequacy of current therapeutic options for these variants. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of small highly conserved regulatory endogenous non-coding RNA, which can alter the expression of genes encoding proteins and may play a role in the dysregulation of cellular pathways. Our goal was to improve the knowledge of the molecular pathogenesis of TNBC subgroups analyzing the miRNA expression profile, and to identify new prognostic and predictive biomarkers. We conducted a human miRNome analysis by TaqMan Low Density Array comparing different TNBC subtypes, defined by immunohistochemical basal markers EGFR and CK5/6. RT-qPCR confirmed differential expression of microRNAs. To inspect the function of the selected targets we perform Gene Ontology and KEGG enrichment analysis. We identified a single miRNA signature given by miR-135b expression level, which was strictly related to TNBC with basal-like phenotype. miR-135b target analysis revealed a role in the TGF-beta, WNT and ERBB pathways. A significant positive correlation was identified between neoplastic proliferative index and miR-135b expression. These findings confirm the oncogenic roles of miR-135b in the pathogenesis of TNBC expressing basal markers. A potential negative prognostic role of miR-135b overexpression might be related to the positive correlation with high proliferative index. Our study implies potential clinical applications: miR-135b could be a potential therapeutic target in basal-like TNBCs.

Huang C, Zhang Z, Chen L, et al.
Acetylation within the N- and C-Terminal Domains of Src Regulates Distinct Roles of STAT3-Mediated Tumorigenesis.
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(11):2825-2838 [PubMed] Related Publications
Posttranslational modifications of mammalian c-Src N-terminal and C-terminal domains regulate distinct functions. Myristoylation of G

Manach Q, Cussenot O, Rouprêt M, et al.
Analysis of bladder cancer subtypes in neurogenic bladder tumors.
Can J Urol. 2018; 25(1):9161-9167 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: To establish if the validated tumor biomarkers of luminal and basal bladder cancers in non neuro-urological patients are applicable to a neuro-urological population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrieved bladder cancer samples from neuro-urological patients (n = 20) and non-neurological controls (n = 40). The expression of GATA3 and CK5/6 was analyzed using immunohistochemistry of microarray tissue sections. We also assessed the correlation between previous biomarker expression, gender, age, tumor stage (non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC)/muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC)), squamous-cell differentiation and basal/luminal subtypes using Pearson's correlation coefficient (r).
RESULTS: Mean age at diagnosis of bladder cancer in neuro-urological patients was 53.2 years (min 41-max 73). MIBC was found in 13 neuro-urological patients (65%). The luminal subtype was identified in 7 samples (35%, all urothelial differentiation). The basal subtype was found in 13 samples (65%): 12 squamous-cell and 1 sarcomatoid differentiation. GATA3 and CK5/6 were expressed in 6 (30%) neuro-urological patients. A significant positive correlation was found between GATA3 expression and the luminal subtype (p = 0.00001, r = 0.5676). This was not the case with the neuro-urological status (r = -0.307). A poor correlation was found between CK5/6 expression and the neuro-urological status (r = 0.471 and -0.471), squamous-cell differentiation (r = 0.092), tumor stage NMIBC/MIBC (r = -0.118 and 0.118) and basal/luminal subtypes (r = -0.157 and 0.194).
CONCLUSION: In summary, the expression of GATA3 and CK5/6 could not differentiate the different subtypes of bladder cancer in neuro-urological patients. This implies that their specific histopathological signature is distinct from non neuro-urological patients. Additional pathways may be involved to explain their urothelial carcinogenesis mechanism.

Srivastava SS, Alam H, Patil SJ, et al.
Keratin 5/14‑mediated cell differentiation and transformation are regulated by TAp63 and Notch‑1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma‑derived cells.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(5):2393-2401 [PubMed] Related Publications
Keratins 5/14 (K5/14) are intermediate filament proteins expressed in the basal layer of stratified epithelial cells and are known targets of p63. Previous research in our laboratory showed that upon K5/14 downregulation in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)‑derived cells, there was an increase in intracellular Notch‑1 levels and differentiation markers such as involucrin, keratin 1 and a decrease in tumorigenic potential in vivo. However, the molecules involved in the K14 regulated cell differentiation and transformation are not known to date. In order to understand the possible role of TAp63, we downregulated TAp63 in a K14‑knockdown background. We observed that there was a decrease in the expression of Notch‑1. Expression levels of differentiation markers such as involucrin, K1, loricrin and filaggrin were also decreased. Furthermore, TAp63 downregulation led to an increase in invasion, migration and in vivo tumorigenic potential of these cells. We observed a decrease in β‑catenin signaling in K14‑downregulated cells. Notably, when TAp63 was downregulated in K14‑knockdown cells, there was increase in non‑phospho β‑catenin levels. Hence, this study indicates that TAp63 plays an important role in K14‑downregulated cells possibly by regulating the Notch‑1 expression. K14 regulates the expression of TAp63 which in turn regulates expression of Notch‑1. The present study is a step forward in our quest to understand the functional significance of molecules that regulate the process of differentiation and tumorigenesis in stratified epithelial cells.

Kjeldsen E, Nielsen CJF, Roy A, et al.
Characterization of Camptothecin-induced Genomic Changes in the Camptothecin-resistant T-ALL-derived Cell Line CPT-K5.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2018 Mar-Apr; 15(2):91-114 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
Acquisition of resistance to topoisomerase I (TOP1)-targeting camptothecin (CPT) derivatives is a major clinical problem. Little is known about the underlying chromosomal and genomic mechanisms. We characterized the CPT-K5 cell line expressing mutant CPT-resistant TOP1 and its parental T-cell derived acute lymphoblastic leukemia CPT-sensitive RPMI-8402 cell line by karyotyping and molecular genetic methods, including subtractive oligo-based array comparative genomic hybridization (soaCGH) analysis. Karyotyping revealed that CPT-K5 cells had acquired additional structural aberrations and a reduced modal chromosomal number compared to RPMI-8402. soaCGH analysis identified vast copy number alterations and >200 unbalanced DNA breakpoints distributed unevenly across the chromosomal complement in CPT-K5. In addition, the short tandem repeat alleles were found to be highly different between CPT-K5 and its parental cell line. We identified copy number alterations affecting genes important for maintaining genome integrity and reducing CPT-induced DNA damage. We show for the first time that short tandem repeats are targets for TOP1 cleavage, that can be differentially stimulated by CPT.

Constantinou C, Papadopoulos S, Karyda E, et al.
Expression and Clinical Significance of Claudin-7, PDL-1, PTEN, c-Kit, c-Met, c-Myc, ALK, CK5/6, CK17, p53, EGFR, Ki67, p63 in Triple-negative Breast Cancer-A Single Centre Prospective Observational Study.
In Vivo. 2018 Mar-Apr; 32(2):303-311 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: To explore the relationship between p53, p63, c-kit, Ki67, cMet, claudin7, CK5/6, CK17, AR, PTEN, EGFR, ALK, PDL-1 and c-MYC expression with the clinicopathological features of triple- negative breast cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed in 84 triple-negative breast cancer samples.
RESULTS: A statistically significant relationship between tumour grade and claudin-7 (p=0.004) and between protein p53 and positive lymph nodes (p=0.015) was found. High expression of claudin-7 (OR=65.8, 95%CI=4.35-995.19, p-value=0.003) and low expression of c-kit (OR=0.14, 95%CI=0.025-0.793, p-value=0.026) and protein p63 (OR=0.18 95%CI=0.035-0.978, p-value=0.047) was associated with higher tumour grade. Higher AR expression (OR=13.44, 95%CI=1.28-141.56, p-value=0.031) and lower expression of CK5/6 cytokeratins was found in patients with positive lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (OR=0.072, 95%CI=0.007-0.732, p-value=0.026). Only the cell proliferation index (Ki67) has been proven to be statistically significant for disease-free survival (p-value=0.0378), and overall survival (p-value=0.0186).
CONCLUSION: High expression of claudin-7 and low expression of c-kit and protein p63 are associated with higher tumour grade. AR and CK5/6 expression seem to be important in LVI.

Takamatsu M, Sato Y, Muto M, et al.
Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of the bronchial glands: presentation of three cases and pathological comparisons with salivary gland counterparts and bronchial mucoepidermoid carcinomas.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(6):923-933 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of the bronchial glands is a very rare tumor. Since only five reports describing six tumors have been published to date, only a little is known about specific histologic findings and clinical features. Because of its rarity, hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma has not been described in the latest WHO classification of pulmonary tumors yet. Here we present three cases of bronchial hyalinizing clear cell carcinomas, confirmed by both fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and RT-PCR, focusing on histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics in a comparison with three cases of salivary gland origin. In addition, we compared immunohistochemical features with bronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma, a lesion that needs to be taken into account in differential diagnosis of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. All our bronchial hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma cases were surgically resected. Histologically, tumor cells showed clear to eosinophilic cytoplasm with hyalinizing stroma in various proportions, resembling those of salivary gland origin. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for CK7, CK5/6, p40, p63, and ATF1, while they were negative for TTF1, Napsin A, HMB45, and SOX10. The CK5/6 staining pattern varied in mucoepidermoid carcinomas, while that of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma was uniformly positive. FISH revealed EWSR1-ATF1 fusion, and RT-PCR with sequencing confirmed specificity of the chimeric gene for hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. Clinically, bronchial hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma was characterized by occurrence in the fourth to sixth decades, no link with smoking history, and a predilection for the right lung, in line with previous reports. In summary, our study confirmed that the bronchial hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma is a histologically and genetically identical tumor to that of salivary gland origin, and that gene rearrangement analysis can play a critical role in distinction from mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

Tabbò F, Nottegar A, Guerrera F, et al.
Cell of origin markers identify different prognostic subgroups of lung adenocarcinoma.
Hum Pathol. 2018; 75:167-178 [PubMed] Related Publications
Strong prognostic markers able to stratify lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) patients are lacking. We evaluated whether a six-immunohistochemical markers panel (TTF1, SP-A, Napsin A, MUC5AC, CDX2 and CK5), defining the putative neoplastic "cell of origin," allows to identify prognostic subgroups among lung ADC. We screened a large cohort of ADC specimens (2003-2013) from Torino Institutional Repository identifying: (i) marker positivity by immunohistochemistry, (ii) main morphological appearance by light microscopy, (iii) presence of "hotspot" mutations of candidate genes by Sequenom technology. To evaluate possible predictors of survival and time to recurrence, uni- and multivariable-adjusted comparisons were performed. We identified 4 different subgroups: "alveolar," "bronchiolar," "mixed" and "null type." Alveolar-differentiated ADC were more common in young (P=.065), female (P=.083) patients, frequently harboring EGFR-mutated (P=.003) tumors with acinar pattern (P<.001). Bronchiolar-differentiated ADC were more associated with mucinous and solid pattern (P<.001), higher degree of vascular invasion (P=.01) and KRAS gene mutations (P=.07). Bronchiolar, mixed, and null types were independent negative predictors for overall survival, and the latter two had a shorter time to recurrence. This "Cell of Origin" classifier is more predictable than morphology and genetics and is an independent predictor of survival on a multivariate analysis.

Allott EH, Geradts J, Cohen SM, et al.
Frequency of breast cancer subtypes among African American women in the AMBER consortium.
Breast Cancer Res. 2018; 20(1):12 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer subtype can be classified using standard clinical markers (estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)), supplemented with additional markers. However, automated biomarker scoring and classification schemes have not been standardized. The aim of this study was to optimize tumor classification using automated methods in order to describe subtype frequency in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) consortium.
METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), we quantified the expression of ER, PR, HER2, the proliferation marker Ki67, and two basal-like biomarkers, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and cytokeratin (CK)5/6, in 1381 invasive breast tumors from African American women. RNA-based (prediction analysis of microarray 50 (PAM50)) subtype, available for 574 (42%) cases, was used to optimize classification. Subtype frequency was calculated, and associations between subtype and tumor characteristics were estimated using logistic regression.
RESULTS: Relative to ER, PR and HER2 from medical records, central IHC staining and the addition of Ki67 or combined tumor grade improved accuracy for classifying PAM50-based luminal subtypes. Few triple negative cases (< 2%) lacked EGFR and CK5/6 expression, thereby providing little improvement in accuracy for identifying basal-like tumors. Relative to luminal A subtype, all other subtypes had higher combined grade and were larger, and ER-/HER2+ tumors were more often lymph node positive and late stage tumors. The frequency of basal-like tumors was 31%, exceeded only slightly by luminal A tumors (37%).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that automated IHC-based classification produces tumor subtype frequencies approximating those from PAM50-based classification and highlight high frequency of basal-like and low frequency of luminal A breast cancer in a large study of African American women.

Shea MP, O'Leary KA, Fakhraldeen SA, et al.
Antiestrogen Therapy Increases Plasticity and Cancer Stemness of Prolactin-Induced ERα
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(7):1672-1684 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
Although antiestrogen therapies are successful in many patients with estrogen receptor alpha-positive (ERα

Kim YJ, Sung M, Oh E, et al.
Engrailed 1 overexpression as a potential prognostic marker in quintuple-negative breast cancer.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2018; 19(4):335-345 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive breast cancer subtype characterized by poor patient prognosis and for which no targeted therapies are currently available. TNBC can be further categorized as either basal-like (BLBC) or quintuple-negative breast cancer (QNBC). In the present study, we aimed to identify novel molecular therapeutic targets for TNBC by analyzing the mRNA expression of TNBC-related genes in publicly available microarray data sets. We found that Engrailed 1 (EN1) was significantly overexpressed in TNBC. Using breast cancer cell lines, we found that EN1 was more highly expressed in TNBC than in other breast cancer subtypes. EN1 expression was analyzed in 199 TNBC paraffin-embedded tissue samples by immunohistochemistry. EN1 protein expression was positively associated with reduced overall survival (OS) rate in patients with QNBC, but not those with BLBC. The importance of EN1 expression in QNBC cell viability and tumorigenicity was evaluated using the QNBC cell lines, HCC38 and HCC1395. Based on our data, EN1 may promote the proliferation, migration, and multinucleation of QNBC cells, likely via the transcriptional activation of HDAC8, UTP11L, and ZIC3. We also demonstrated that actinomycin D effectively inhibits EN1 activity in QNBC cells. The results of the present study suggest that EN1 activity is highly clinically relevant to the survival prognosis of patients with QNBC and EN1 is a promising potential therapeutic target for future QNBC treatment.

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