Gene Summary

Gene:KIT; KIT proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase
Aliases: PBT, SCFR, C-Kit, CD117, MASTC
Summary:This gene encodes the human homolog of the proto-oncogene c-kit. C-kit was first identified as the cellular homolog of the feline sarcoma viral oncogene v-kit. This protein is a type 3 transmembrane receptor for MGF (mast cell growth factor, also known as stem cell factor). Mutations in this gene are associated with gastrointestinal stromal tumors, mast cell disease, acute myelogenous lukemia, and piebaldism. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:mast/stem cell growth factor receptor Kit
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: KIT (cancer-related)

Yang J, Liu J, Chen Y, et al.
Association of CTLA-4 tagging polymorphisms and haplotypes with hepatocellular carcinoma risk: A case-control study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(29):e16266 [PubMed] Related Publications
It has been proposed that cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) may attenuate the T-cell activation threshold, thereby decreasing the antitumor response and conferring susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).In the present study, we selected CTLA-4 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and explored the relationship between these polymorphisms and susceptibility to HCC. A hospital-based case-control study, comprising 584 cases with HCC and 923 controls, was performed in an eastern Chinese Han population. CTLA-4 SNPs were genotyped using a custom-by-design 48-Plex SNPscan Kit.We found that the CTLA-4 rs3087243 G>A polymorphism might be associated with increased risk of HCC (GA vs GG: adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.85; P = .028 and AA/GA vs GG: adjusted OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.08-1.89; P = .012). After using Bonferroni correction, this association remained (P = .012 for the AA/GA vs GG genetic model). In addition, the power value was 0.904 in the AA/GA versus GG genetic model. Haplotype analysis showed that CTLA4 Crs16840252Ars231775Ars3087243Trs733618, Crs16840252Grs231775Ars3087243Trs733618, and other haplotypes might increase the risk of HCC risk (P = .018, <.001, and .017, respectively). However, we found that CTLA4 Trs16840252A rs231775Grs3087243Trs733618 decreased the risk of HCC (P = .020).Our results suggest that the CTLA-4 rs3087243 G>A polymorphism increases susceptibility to HCC in an eastern Chinese Han population. CTLA-4 haplotypes may influence the development of HCC. In the future, a population-based fine-mapping study with functional assessment should be performed to further determine these potential correlations.

Mo M, Liu S, Ma X, et al.
A liver-specific lncRNA, FAM99B, suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma progression through inhibition of cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(8):2027-2038 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence has shown that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development and progression. In this study, we aim to evaluate the expression of lncRNA FAM99B and its biological function in HCC.
METHODS: The expression level of FAM99B in HCC was assessed based on data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), verified using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). HCCLM3 was transfected with lentivirus containing full-length FAM99B to obtain stable overexpressing cell line. Cell Counting Kit 8, clone formation, and transwell assays were used to investigate the effects of FAM99B in HCC progression. In addition, Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and PANTHER pathway analyses were conducted to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms.
RESULTS: FAM99B was found to be downregulated in HCC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues based on TCGA, GEO, and qRT-PCR data. Our results revealed that downregulated FAM99B was significantly associated with vascular invasion, advanced histologic grade, and T stage. Kaplan-Meier analysis using TCGA data indicated that decreased FAM99B levels were significantly associated with poor overall survival in patients with HCC. Moreover, overexpression of FAM99B significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. Pathway analyses showed that the co-expressed genes of FAM99B mainly participated in the pathways "Metabolic pathways" and "Blood coagulation".
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that FAM99B may serve as a tumor suppressor in HCC and may provide a promising therapy target for patients with HCC.

Yang Q, Li J, Hu Y, et al.
MiR-218-5p Suppresses the Killing Effect of Natural Killer Cell to Lung Adenocarcinoma by Targeting SHMT1.
Yonsei Med J. 2019; 60(6):500-508 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Lung adenocarcinoma (LA) is one of the major types of lung cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in regulating responses of natural killer (NK) cells to cancer malignancy. However, the mechanism of miR-218-5p involved in the killing effect of NK cells to LA cells remains poorly understood.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of miR-218-5p was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Serine hydroxymethyl transferase 1 (SHMT1) level was detected by qRT-PCR or western blots. Cytokines production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were detected by ELISA. The killing effect of NK cells to LA cells was investigated using lactate dehydrogenase cytotoxicity assay kit. The interaction of miR-218-5p and SHMT1 was probed by luciferase activity assay. Xenograft model was established to investigate the killing effect of NK cells
RESULTS: miR-218-5p was enhanced and SHMT1 was inhibited in NK cells of LA patients, whereas stimulation of interleukin-2 (IL-2) reversed their abundances. Addition of miR-218-5p reduced IL-2-induced cytokines expression and cytotoxicity in NK-92 against LA cells. Moreover, SHMT1 was negatively regulated by miR-218-5p and attenuated miR-218-5p-mediated effect on cytotoxicity, IFN-γ and TNF-α secretion in IL-2-activated NK cells. In addition, miR-218-5p exhaustion inhibited tumor growth by promoting killing effect of NK cells.
CONCLUSION: miR-218-5p suppresses the killing effect of NK cells to LA cells by targeting SHMT1, providing a potential target for LA treatment by ameliorating NK cells function.

Xu L, Zhang M, Xu M
Primary hepatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor with right adrenal gland invasion: A case report and systematic literature review.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(20):e15482 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors that mainly occur in the gastrointestinal tract. The GISTs that are sporadically reported in extra-gastrointestinal regions are named as extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGISTs). However, the primary EGISTs that originate from the liver are rare.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 64-year-old female presenting with right upper abdominal pain and thirsty for more than 20 days.
DIAGNOSIS: A diagnosis of a 15 × 14 × 7 cm liver mass located in the posterior right lobe of liver and spread to the right adrenal gland was confirmed. Pathological results showed that the tumor was mainly composed of epithelial cells and tested positive for CD117 and SDHB (succinate dehydrogenase complex iron sulfur subunit B). The gene mutational analyses for c-Kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha exons revealed negative results. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of murine double minute 2 produced negative fluorescence results which distinguished it from dedifferentiated liposarcomas. The postoperative gastroduodenal and colorectal endoscopy did not find any neoplastic lesions. To this end, the diagnosis of primary hepatic EGIST of wild type nature was confirmed.
INTERVENTIONS: The patient received right hepatectomy and adrenalectomy, no postoperative chemotherapy was administered.
OUTCOMES: The patient died 11 months after surgery due to tumor metastasis.
CONCLUSION: Primary hepatic EGIST is a rare and complicated disease of liver, a multidisciplinary team is necessary in diagnosis and treatment of primary hepatic EGIST.

Gao S, Wang J, Tian S, Luo J
miR‑9 depletion suppresses the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells by targeting p16.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(6):1921-1932 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a common primary malignancy in adolescents and children. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) can regulate the progression of OS. Herein, we explored the target genes and effects of miR‑9 in OS. Cell growth, colony formation and cell cycle were respectively examined using a cell counting kit‑8 (CCK‑8), crystal violet staining and flow cytometry. The target gene of miR‑9 was predicted according to the website. Luciferase activity was examined using a dual luciferase reporter gene assay kit. The corresponding factors levels were analyzed by carrying out reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR (RT‑qPCR) and western blot analysis. A mouse model of OS was also established and the volume and weight of the tumors of the mice with OS were measured. The levels of p16 in the mice with OS were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The data revealed a high expression of miR‑9 and a low expression of p16 in the OS tissue. p16 was found to be the target gene for miR‑9 in OS. miR‑9 depletion decreased the proliferation and colony formation of Saos‑2 cells by arresting the cells at the G1 phase, accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin A, cyclin D1 and c‑Myc expression levels. Moreover, miR‑9 depletion inhibited the phosphorylation of p38, c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK). In vivo, miR‑9 depletion decreased the tumor volume and weight and increased p16 expression in the mouse tumor tissues. Nevertheless, p16 silencing reversed the suppressive effects of miR‑9 inhibitors on OS cells. On the whole, the findings of this study substantiate that miR‑9 depletion suppresses cell proliferation by targeting p16 in OS and by mediating the activation of the ERK/p38/JNK pathway.

Wang Z, Li F, Quan Y, Shen J
Avicularin ameliorates human hepatocellular carcinoma via the regulation of NF‑κB/COX‑2/PPAR‑γ activities.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(6):5417-5423 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become a global public health problem. Therefore, the development of novel and effective therapeutic agents for the treatment of HCC is considered an emergency. Avicularin, a bio‑active flavonoid from plants, has been reported to exhibit diverse pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of avicularin in HCC and the underlying mechanism of action. Huh7 cells were treated with avicularin in a concentration‑dependent manner, and the cell proliferation was examined using a 3‑(4, 5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑2, 5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay kit. The cell migration and invasion abilities were detected using wounding‑healing assays and Transwell assays. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to investigate the cell cycle distribution and cell apoptosis. The activity of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB (p65), cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2) and peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ (PPAR‑γ) were measured by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses, respectively. The results indicated that avicularin treatment markedly decreased cell proliferation concentration‑dependently in HCC, and inhibited cell migration and invasion in Huh7 cells. It was also found that the treatment of avicularin markedly inhibited the G0/G1‑phase cells and decreased the accumulation of S‑phase cells in the cell cycle and induced cell apoptosis. In addition, it was confirmed that the anticancer efficacy of avicularin in HCC was dependent on the regulation of NF‑κB (p65), COX‑2 and PPAR‑γ activities. In conclusion, the findings suggested that avicularin serves an antineoplastic role in HCC and may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of HCC.

Jiang D, Wang X, Wang Y, et al.
Mutation in BRAF and SMAD4 associated with resistance to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy in locally advanced rectal cancer.
Virchows Arch. 2019; 475(1):39-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our study was done in order to identify novel molecular markers to predict which locally advanced rectal cancers (LARCs) might be resistant to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT). Seventy-four patients with LARCs treated with nCRT were collected. Pathological evaluation after nCRT was performed according to the tumor regression grading (TRG) system. Next-generation sequencing kit including 279 exons of 59 genes was performed on Illumina Miseq Platform. Sanger sequencing was performed to confirm some mutations. Four of the tumors (4/74, 5.4%) had BRAF mutation, which presented in one TRG 2 tumor and three TRG 3 tumors but was not observed in TRG 0-1 tumors. Higher mutational frequency of BRAF gene in TRG 3 tumors (3/12, 25%) was found in comparison with the TRG 0-2 tumors (1/62, 1.6%; p = 0.012). Eight tumors (8/74, 10.8%) harbored SMAD4 mutations, which was mutated across all TRG groups. However, SMAD4 mutated more in TRG 3 tumors (4/12, 33.3%) compared with that in TRG 0-2 tumors (4/62, 6.5%; p = 0.020). The patients with BRAF-mutated LARCs had shorter progression-free survival (PFS) (p = 0.045) and shorter overall survival (OS) (p = 0.000) than the BRAF wild-type (WT) ones. The patients with SMAD4-mutated tumors had shorter PFS than the WT cases (p = 0.008). BRAF and SMAD4 genetic mutations might be important molecular markers to predict resistance to nCRT and poor prognosis in LARCs. More cases are needed to confirm these findings in the near future.

Chu Y, Chen Y, Li M, et al.
Six1 regulates leukemia stem cell maintenance in acute myeloid leukemia.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(7):2200-2210 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Molecular genetic changes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) play crucial roles in leukemogenesis, including recurrent chromosome translocations, epigenetic/spliceosome mutations and transcription factor aberrations. Six1, a transcription factor of the Sine oculis homeobox (Six) family, has been shown to transform normal hematopoietic progenitors into leukemia in cooperation with Eya. However, the specific role and the underlying mechanism of Six1 in leukemia maintenance remain unexplored. Here, we showed increased expression of SIX1 in AML patients and murine leukemia stem cells (c-Kit

Theiss L, Contreras CM
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors of the Stomach and Esophagus.
Surg Clin North Am. 2019; 99(3):543-553 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) arise anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly as a result of c-kit or PDGFRA proto-oncogene mutations. Surgical resection is an important component of treatment. However, molecular profiling of GISTs has provided many insights into adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy options. Imatinib, the most frequently studied medical therapy, has been shown in numerous studies to provide benefit to patients in both the neoadjuvant and adjuvant setting. Interval imaging is an important component of the treatment of GISTs and national surveillance recommendations should be followed.

Zhang C, Wang W, Lin J, et al.
lncRNA CCAT1 promotes bladder cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion.
Int Braz J Urol. 2019 May-Jun; 45(3):549-559 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To study the expression patterns of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) colon cancer-associated transcript 1 (CCAT1) and the changes in cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion induced by silencing CCAT1 in bladder cancer cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression levels of CCAT1 were determined using realtime quantitative polymerase chain reaction in cancerous tissues and paired normal tissues from 34 patients with bladder cancer. The relationship between clinical characteristics and CCAT1 expression was analyzed. And then we conducted cell experiments. Bladder urothelial carcinoma cell lines T24 and 5637 cells were transfected with CCAT1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) or scramble siRNA. Cell proliferation and apoptosis changes were determined using a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and a fl ow cytometry assay. Migration and invasion changes were measured using a wound healing assay and a trans-well assay. microRNAs (miRNAs) were predicted by Starbase 2.0, and their differential expression levels were studied.
RESULTS: CCAT1 was signifi cantly upregulated in bladder cancer (P < 0.05). CCAT1 upregulation was positively related to tumor stage (P = 0.004), tumor grade (P = 0.001) and tumor size (P = 0.042). Cell proliferation, migration and invasion were promoted by abnormally expressed CCAT1. miRNAs miR-181b-5p, miR-152-3p, miR-24-3p, miR-148a-3p and miR-490-3p were potentially related to the aforementioned functions of CCAT1.
CONCLUSION: CCAT1 plays an oncogenic role in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. In addition, CCAT1 may be a potential therapeutic target in this cancer.

Hu S, Liao Y, Zheng J, et al.
In Silico Integration Approach Reveals Key MicroRNAs and Their Target Genes in Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma.
Biomed Res Int. 2019; 2019:2725192 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To better understand the molecular mechanism for the pathogenesis of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), this study aimed at identifying key miRNAs and their target genes associated with FTC, as well as analyzing their interactions. Based on the gene microarray data GSE82208 and microRNA dataset GSE62054, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and microRNAs (DEMs) were obtained using R and SAM software. The common DEMs from R and SAM were fed to three different bioinformatic tools, TargetScan, miRDB, and miRTarBase, respectively, to predict their biological targets. With DEGs intersected with target genes of DEMs, the gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were performed through the DAVID database. Then a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed by STRING. Finally, the module analysis for PPI network was performed by MCODE and BiNGO. A total of nine DEMs were identified, and their function might work through regulating hub genes in the PPI network especially KIT and EGFR. KEGG analysis showed that intersection genes were enriched in the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and microRNAs in cancer. In conclusion, the study of miRNA-mRNA network would offer molecular support for differential diagnosis between malignant FTC and benign FTA, providing new insights into the potential targets for follicular thyroid carcinoma diagnosis and treatment.

Ding L, Zhang H
Circ-ATP8A2 promotes cell proliferation and invasion as a ceRNA to target EGFR by sponging miR-433 in cervical cancer.
Gene. 2019; 705:103-108 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer (CC), a common gynecological carcinoma, is a serious threat to women's health. The dysregulation of circular RNAs (circRNAs) is associated with the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. Therefore, we explored the role of circ-ATP8A2 in CC cell development and progression. Circ-ATP8A2 profiles in CC specimens and cells were detected using real-time PCR. In addition, cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB), flow cytometric, and Transwell experiments were carried out on HeLa and SW756 cells to determine cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. Furthermore, the mechanism of circ-ATP8A2 was explored by dual-luciferase reporter system. Circ-ATP8A2 was significantly enhanced in CC specimens and cells. Knockdown of circ-ATP8A2 inhibited cell proliferation, migratory and invasive capacities and increased apoptotic cells. Ectopically expressed circ-ATP8A2 induced the opposite effects. For the mechanism exploration, circ-ATP8A2 sponges miR-433 to release its suppression on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression at post-transcriptional level. What's more, circ-ATP8A2 could promote cell progression by miR-433/EGFR axis in CC cells. Collectively, this work might offer a potential treatment target for CC. ABBREVIATIONS.

Lee J, Lee EH, Park HY, et al.
Efficacy of an RNA-based multigene assay with core needle biopsy samples for risk evaluation in hormone-positive early breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):388 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gene expression profiling provides key information for prognosis of breast cancer to establish treatment strategy. However, the genetic assessment should be available before induction of treatment to be useful for clinical practice. To evaluate the reliability of using needle biopsy samples for gene assays, we compared gene-expression profiling results between core needle biopsy (CNB) samples and surgical specimens in breast cancer.
METHODS: Thirty-one paired, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded CNB and surgical specimen samples were selected from patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Total RNA was extracted from the samples and the risk classifications based on GenesWell BCT scores were compared.
RESULTS: The BCT scores correlated between CNB samples and surgical specimens of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer (Pearson r = 0.66). The overall concordance rate of risk classification (high/low risk) was 83.9%. However, when the breast cancer does not contain intratumoral microcalcification, the concordance rate increased as 92.0%. And, when the breast cancer formed a solitary nodule (non-multifocal), the concordance rate increased up to 95.8%.
CONCLUSION: Risk classification using the GenesWell BCT multigene kit with CNB samples could be considered reliable, when the breast cancer is a solitary nodule without intratumoral microcalcification. Such genetic profiling results should be helpful for establishing a treatment plan for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer before treatment induction.

Zhang L, Hu J, Li J, et al.
Long noncoding RNA LINC-PINT inhibits non-small cell lung cancer progression through sponging miR-218-5p/PDCD4.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2019; 47(1):1595-1602 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long noncoding RNA, long intergenic non-protein-coding RNA p53-induced transcript (LINC-PINT) was showed to be involved in cancer development. However, the biological effect of LINC-PINT on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate the role and underlying mechanism of LINC-PINT in NSCLC. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the level of LINC-PINT in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), flow cytometry, migration and transwell invasion assays were used to investigate cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell migration and invasion, respectively. The targets of LINC-PINT were verified by both luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation assay. Tumour xenografts were used to reveal the effect of LINC-PINT on tumourigenesis in vivo. We observed that LINC-PINT expression increased in both NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Function assays exhibited that LINC-PINT reduced NSCLC cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell migration and invasion in vitro. We also indicated that LINC-PINT mediated inhibitory effect on cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell migration and invasion by miR-208a-3p/programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) in NSCLC cells. These findings indicated that LINC-PINT functions as a tumour-suppressor that exerts important regulatory roles in NSCLC progression by sponging miR-208a-3p/PDCD4.

Patil S, Sankpal UT, Hurtado M, et al.
Combination of clotam and vincristine enhances anti-proliferative effect in medulloblastoma cells.
Gene. 2019; 705:67-76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/10/2019 Related Publications
Medulloblastoma (MB) is characterized by highly invasive embryonal neuro-epithelial tumors that metastasize via cerebrospinal fluid. MB is difficult to treat and the chemotherapy is associated with significant toxicities and potential long-term disabilities. Previously, we showed that small molecule, clotam (tolfenamic acid: TA) inhibited MB cell proliferation and tumor growth in mice by targeting, survivin. Overexpression of survivin is associated with aggressiveness and poor prognosis in several cancers, including MB. The aim of this study was to test combination treatment involving Vincristine® (VCR), a standard chemotherapeutic drug for MB and TA against MB cells. DAOY and D283 MB cells were treated with 10 μg/mL TA or VCR (DAOY: 2 ng/mL; D283: 1 ng/mL) or combination (TA + VCR). These optimized doses were lower than individual IC

Liu P, Li X, Guo X, et al.
Circular RNA DOCK1 promotes bladder carcinoma progression via modulating circDOCK1/hsa-miR-132-3p/Sox5 signalling pathway.
Cell Prolif. 2019; 52(4):e12614 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To reveal the role of circular RNA (circRNA) DOCK1 (circDOCK1) as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target and its competing endogenous RNA mechanism in bladder carcinoma (BC).
METHODS: The next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology was introduced to screen the circRNA expression profiles of BC using microarray. qPCR and Western blots assay were employed to measure the gene expression in different groups. Cell counting kit-8, EdU and transwell assays were applied to detect the cell viability, proliferation and migration potential, respectively. Luciferase reporter assay was used to test the binds between hsa-miR-132-3p/Sox5. Xenografted tumour growth of nude mice was performed to test the role of circDOCK1 in vivo.
RESULTS: CircDOCK1 was upregulated in BC tissues and cell lines. Repression of circDOCK1 reduced cell viability, inhibited cell proliferation and curbed the cell migration potential of BC cell. CircDOCK1 played its role via regulation of circDOCK1/hsa-miR-132-3p/Sox5 pathway in BC cells. Suppression circDOCK1 inhibited the tumour growth in vivo.
CONCLUSION: In this study, we revealed that circDOCK1 affected the progression of BC via modulation of circDOCK1/hsa-miR-132-3p/Sox5 pathway both in vitro and in vivo and providing a potential biomarker and therapeutic targets for BC.

Xue YM, Cheng HC, Wang JH, et al.
Cytosine 5-hydroxymethylation regulated kit gene expression in acute myeloid leukemia.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2019 Mar-Apr; 33(2):345-353 [PubMed] Related Publications
5-methyl cytosine (5mC) can be oxidized to 5-hydroxymethyl cytosine (5hmC) under the action of TET protein family, and 5hmC plays important roles in the pathogenesis of various tumors including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we evaluated the role of 5mC and 5hmC levels in HL60 AML cells and bone marrow samples from AML patients for KIT gene expression to analyze 5hmC level in AML pathogenesis. Results showed that the expression and 5hmC level increased significantly of the KIT gene but the change of its 5mC level was not obvious after being treated by decitabine (DAC) in HL60 cells. IDH1 and IDH2 expression increased followed by increased KIT 5hmC level. In AML patients with IDH1 or IDH2 mutation, KIT expression and 5hmC were much lower than in those without mutation. The study indicated that the expression of KIT gene was regulated by 5hmC level in HL60 cells, and the 5hmC level was regulated by IDH1 and IDH2.

Sakai K, Ohira T, Matsubayashi J, et al.
Performance of Oncomine Fusion Transcript kit for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung cancer specimens.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(6):2044-2049 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/10/2019 Related Publications
Gene fusions play an important role in the carcinogenesis of lung adenocarcinoma. The recent association of four oncogenic driver genes, ALK, ROS1, RET, and NTRK1, as lung tumor predictive biomarkers has increased the need for precision medicine. We used formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples of non-small cell lung cancer from 150 EGFR mutation-negative cases and 10 fusion status-known cases and compared the performance of the Oncomine Dx Fusion Transcript Test (ODxFT) with FISH break-apart for the detection of ALK, RET, and ROS1 fusion genes. RNA was extracted from the paraffin-embedded tissue samples with or without macrodissection under hematoxylin and eosin staining, and the ALK fusion gene was independently determined using these assays. Fusion detection analyses were successfully carried out using ODxFT in 150 cases, with only one invalid case. ALK fusion genes were detected at a frequency of 7.3% (11/150) in the lung cancer specimens. Concordance rate between the ODxFT and ALK-FISH analyses was 99.3% (148/149). Sensitivity and specificity were 91.7% and 99.3%, respectively. All the samples with a known fusion status were accurately matched between the two assays. Our results show a high concordance rate between the ODxFT and ALK-FISH analyses. ODxFT was thus validated as an effective method for detecting clinically significant ALK fusion genes in paraffin-embedded tissue samples.

Jiang R, Hu C, Li Q, et al.
Sodium new houttuyfonate suppresses metastasis in NSCLC cells through the Linc00668/miR-147a/slug axis.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):155 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: As most lung cancer patients present with invasive, metastatic disease, it is vital to investigate anti-metastatic treatments for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Houttuynia cordata is commonly used as a Chinese anticancer medicine in the clinic, and sodium new houttuyfonate (SNH), a main compound of this herb, has long been found to have antibiotic effects, although its anticancer effects have not been investigated. Here, we tried to address this lack of research from the perspective of the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) theory.
METHODS: The effects of SNH on NSCLC cells were analysed with Cell Counting Kit-8 assays and colony formation assays. In addition, transwell assays and wound healing assays were used to determine the effects of SNH on migration and invasion in NSCLC cells. The levels of key genes and proteins were examined by quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting, immunofluorescence staining and IHC staining. Through transcriptome screening and digital gene expression profiling, Linc00668 was identified to be regulated by SNH. Dual-luciferase reporter assays and RNA immunoprecipitation assays verified the binding efficiency between miR-147a and Linc00668 or Slug.
RESULTS: In the present study, SNH regulated NSCLC cells in multiple ways, the most prominent of which was suppressing the expression of Linc00668, which was indicated to promote migration and invasion in NSCLC cells. Functional studies demonstrated that Linc00668 acted as a ceRNA by sponging miR-147a to further regulate Slug mRNA levels, thereby influencing the progression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Consistently, the results of in vivo animal models showed that SNH depressed Linc00668 and suppressed the metastasis of NSCLC.
CONCLUSIONS: SNH suppressed metastasis of NSCLC cells and the mechanism may involve with the Linc00668/miR-147a/Slug axis.

Xu J, Wang Y, Li Z, et al.
Ultrasound-Targeted Microbubble Destruction (UTMD) Combined with Liposome Increases the Effectiveness of Suppressing Proliferation, Migration, Invasion, and Epithelial- Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) via Targeting Metadherin (MTDH) by ShRNA.
Med Sci Monit. 2019; 25:2640-2648 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND Reports show that ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) is a promising method of gene therapy, and metadherin (MTDH) is related to the development of breast cancer. Thus, we investigated the role of MTDH in breast cancer and compared the effect of suppressing MTDH by shRNA using liposome, UTMD, or the combination of these 2 methods. MATERIAL AND METHODS Graphing of survival curves of MTDH was analyzed by bioinformatics. UTMD was conducted using an ultrasonic therapeutic apparatus. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to measure cell viability. Migration and invasion rates were measured by wound healing test and Transwell invasion assay, respectively. The expression of MTDH, E-cadherin, metastasis-associated protein-1 (MTA-1), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 were measured by Western blot and qPCR. RESULTS The prognosis of breast cancer can be decreased by the high expression of MTDH, and elevated expression of MTDH was discovered in MCF-7, MCF-10A, and T47D cell lines. UTMD combined with liposome is most efficient in transfecting shRNA, clearly suppressing the expression of MTDH and thereby decreasing cell viability, migration, invasion rate, and epithelial- mesenchymal transition (EMT) processes in the MCF-7 cell line. CONCLUSIONS UTMD combined with liposome could be used as a more efficient way to transfect shRNA into cells to suppress the expression of MTDH and thus lead to the downregulation of proliferation, migration, and EMT processes of the MCF-7 cell line, showing the potential for use in gene therapy.

Ma L, Wang H, Li Z, et al.
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 is highly expressed in glioma tissues and promotes invasion of glioblastoma cells.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2019; 15(2):358-364 [PubMed] Related Publications
Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate levels of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (CCL18) in human glioma tissues and effects of CCL18 on U251 glioma cells.
Materials and Methods: By using the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunochemically histological staining, we determined the mRNA and protein levels of CCL18 in tissues of 60 patients with World Health Organization (WHO) Grades II, III and IV glioma and the normal brain. Cultured U251 glioma cells were incubated with CCL18 and then subjected to transwell. The scratch wound-healing and cell count kit (CCK-8) assays were performed to detect the possible effects of CCL18 on the cell invasion, migration, and proliferation.
Results: In the tissues of the normal brain (n = 10), glioma Grade II (n = 26), III (n = 18), and IV (n = 16), CCL18 mRNA expression levels were 1.00 ± 0.09, 6.02 ± 1.26, 26.35 ± 3.98, and 112.21 ± 13.25 fold, respectively (P < 0.01); the percentage of CCL18-positive glioma cells was 0%, 58.8%, 70.0%, and 100% in the normal brain, glioma WHO Grade II, III, and IV, respectively (P < 0.01). Different concentrations of CCL18 (0, 5, and 10 ng/ml) enhanced the of U251 glioma cell invasion in 24 h transwell assays [from 43.5 ± 8.3 to 202.0 ± 18.5 and 279.7 ± 18.6 cells (P < 0.01)], increased the cell migration quantified by comparing the areas of the scratch (pixel) [at 12 h, 498.4 ± 75.3, 381.3 ± 21.4, and 347.7 ± 14.2; at 24 h, 299.5 ± 15.3, 284.6 ± 7.8, and 237.3 ± 20.6 (P < 0.05)], and significantly increased the cell growth in CCK-8 assay [from 1.000 ± 0.019-1.260 ± 0.094 and 2.070 ± 0.138 fold in CCL18, respectively (n = 20/each group) (P < 0.01)].
Conclusion: We have found that CCL18 is highly expressed in glioma tissues and enhances the invasion, migration, and proliferation of U251 glioma cells. Therefore, CCL18 may be a potential biomarker for detecting and grading human glioma.

Hu C, Cheng X, MingYu Q, et al.
The effects of microRNA-1224-5p on hepatocellular carcinoma tumor endothelial cells.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2019; 15(2):329-335 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of microRNA-1224-5p (miR-1224-5p) on tumor endothelial cells (TECs) of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Subjects and Methods: Oligonucleotides were chemically synthesized and transfected into TECs using Lipofectamine 2000. TECs were divided into three groups, namely a control (CON) group without transfection, a negative control (NC) group transfected with negative control oligonucleotides and green fluorescent protein (GFP), and a micro-up (MU) group transfected with miR-1224-5p mimic and GFP. The expression of miR-1224-5p was quantified via quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The proliferation of TECs was detected using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the optical density value at 490 nm was measured after every 24 h. Apoptosis was detected via flow cytometry using a 7-aminoactinomycin/APC Annexin V kit. The migration and invasion of TECs were detected using transwell assay. The tube formation ability was evaluated using the tube formation assay.
Results: Oligonucleotides were successfully transduced into TECs, and the expression of miR-1224-5p was specifically upregulated. The results of qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of miR-1224-5p was significantly upregulated in the MU group (2
Conclusions: miR-1224-5p may serve as a potential tumor suppressor in HCC. Upregulation in miR-1224-5p expression may decrease proliferation, induce apoptosis, inhibit migration and invasion, and suppress tube formation in TECs of human HCC.

Liu T, Jin L, Lu W, et al.
Sequence-dependent synergistic cytotoxicity of icotinib and pemetrexed in human lung cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):148 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent Clinical trials of administration of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in combination with standard first-line chemotherapy have failed to improve survival in patients with advanced NSCLC, However, the sequential treatment with EGFR-TKIs and chemotherapy is expected to improve survival of NSCLC. The aim of this study is to test the antiproliferative effect of pemetrexed combined with icotinib in different sequences on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines to determine the optimal combination schedule, and subsequently elaborated the potential mechanisms.
METHODS: Six human lung cancer cell lines with wild-type or mutant EGFR gene were exposed to pemetrexed and icotinib combined in different sequences. Cell proliferation was examined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and colony formation assay; cell cycle and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry; cell migration and invasion were measured by wound healing and transwell invasion assays respectively; protein expression was by detected by Western blot.
RESULTS: The growth inhibition effect of pemetrexed combined with icotinib on NSCLC cells were schedule-dependent in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with pemetrexed followed by icotinib (P-I) had significantly stronger anticancer ability than treatment with icotinib followed by pemetrexed (I-P) and concomitant treatment with pemetrexed and icotinib (P + I). Cell cycle analysis revealed that pemetrexed blocked cells in S phase, whereas icotinib arrested cells in G1 phase. We also found that icotinib markedly enhanced the pro-apoptotic activity of pemetrexed via cytochrome-C/Caspase/Bcl-2 signaling pathway. In addition, our results showed that pemetrexed alone increased the levels of p-EGFR, p-AKT and p-MAPK, which were inhibited by icotinib. Finally, we showed that the washout period of icotinib was no less than 96 h.
CONCLUSIONS: Sequential treatment of NSCLC cells with pemetrexed followed by icotinib had powerful antiproliferative effect, and it could become a novel effective combination therapy for NSCLC patients.

He C, Sun Z, Hoffman RM, et al.
P-Glycoprotein Overexpression Is Associated With Cisplatin Resistance in Human Osteosarcoma.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(4):1711-1718 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Osteosarcoma (OS) is a diagnosed primary cancer of the bone. Despite the great advances that have been made during the past decades in OS therapy, drug resistance and tumor recurrence are still major problems. It is urgent to find novel strategies to overcome drug resistance in order to prolong the survival time of OS patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell viability was investigated by the cell count kit-8 (CCK-8) and colony formation assays. P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) expression was analyzed by RT-qPCR and western blot. A xenograft mouse model was used to identify the synergistic efficacy of a P-gp inhibitor with cisplatin. Student's t-test was used to determine statistically significant differences.
RESULTS: P-gp expression levels were associated with cisplatin efficacy in OS patients. OS cells with higher P-gp expression were more resistant to cisplatin. Knockdown or inhibition of P-gp sensitized OS cells to cisplatin.
CONCLUSION: Down-regulating the expression of P-gp in OS maybe a promising strategy to overcome cisplatin resistance.

Ahmed KI, Govardhan HB, Roy M, et al.
Cell-free circulating tumor DNA in patients with high-grade glioma as diagnostic biomarker - A guide to future directive.
Indian J Cancer. 2019 Jan-Mar; 56(1):65-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Owing to the aggressive nature of high-grade gliomas (HGGs), its early diagnosis holds the key to a favorable prognosis. Currently, tissue biopsy is the gold standard to verify HGG's initial diagnosis and can be challenging due to its invasive nature. In this study, our objective was a noninvasive panel for timely detection of HGG and its progression using cell-free circulating tumor DNA (cfTDNA).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with HGG were tested with a 50-gene tumor panel. cfTDNA isolated from serum was checked for single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) or copy number alterations using targeted next-generation sequencing, with further validation of results by checking respective formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues for the same genetic alterations.
RESULTS: About 88.8% of the patients were detected with HGG-associated cfTDNA. Around 25% patients were detected with one, 25% patients had three, 25% patients had four, and 12.5% patients each had five and six genetic alterations. About 12 of 50 genes were detected in the serum samples. The SNVs detected included TP53 in 87.5% of patients; PIK3CA and EGFR in 50% of patients; PTEN in 37.5%; KIT and VHL in each 25% of patients; and RB1, NF2, MET, ATRX, CDK2A, and CTNNB1 each in 8.3%-16.6%. On combining EGFR, KIT, PTEN, PIK3CA, TP53, and VHL genes (Govardhan Diagnostic Genetic Module for high-grade glioma), at least one of the genetic alterations was found in 100% of patients.
Conclusion: These findings illustrate that cfTDNA is easily demonstrable and can be used as a surrogate to tissue biopsy in brain tumor.

Shi Y, Song Y, Liu P, Li P
YKL-40 can promote angiogenesis in sporadic cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM).
J Clin Neurosci. 2019; 64:220-226 [PubMed] Related Publications
The factors affecting the formation of sporadic CCMs remain unclear. A cDNA microarray was used to identify characteristic gene expression patterns in sporadic CCMs. Transcription level of YKL-40 was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The location and expression were revealed by immunochemistry, immunofluorescence staining and level of YKL-40 was quantified by Western blotting. Alterations to endothelial function following the up or down regulation of gene expression was assessed by Transwell assays, cell counting kit-8 assays and capillary-like tube formation assays in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) in vitro. We generated a murine model by stereotaxically injecting HBMECs with expressing amounts of YKL-40 into the brain. cDNA microarray and RT-PCR results revealed that the transcription level of YKL-40 was ≥140-fold higher in sporadic CCMs in healthy controls. Histological staining revealed excessive YKL-40 expression in the CCM endothelium. Western blotting results analysis showed that YKL-40 protein expression was significantly higher in CCM endothelium (P < 0.05). YKL-40 over-expressing HBMECs showed increased cell proliferation, migration and tube formation ability compared with the control group, whereas downregulating of YKL-40 inhibited the proliferation, migration of HBMECs and capillary-like tube formation (P < 0.05). In animals, increased of YKL-40 was associated with abnormal vascular lesions that were similar to CCMs. YKL-40 is over-expressed in the CCM endothelium and acts as an angiogenic factor that promotes the pathogenesis of sporadic CCMs. YKL-40 may therefore represent a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of sporadic CCM.

Zhou F, Liu X, Gao L, et al.
HIV-1 Tat enhances purinergic P2Y4 receptor signaling to mediate inflammatory cytokine production and neuronal damage via PI3K/Akt and ERK MAPK pathways.
J Neuroinflammation. 2019; 16(1):71 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) afflict more than half of HIV-1-positive individuals. The transactivator of transcription (Tat) produced by HIV virus elicits inflammatory process and is a major neurotoxic mediator that induce neuron damage during HAND pathogenesis. Activated astrocytes are important cells involved in neuroinflammation and neuronal damage. Purinergic receptors expressed in astrocytes participate in a positive feedback loop in virus-induced neurotoxicity. Here, we investigated that whether P2Y4R, a P2Y receptor subtype, that expressed in astrocyte participates in Tat-induced neuronal death in vitro and in vivo.
METHODS: Soluble Tat protein was performed to determine the expression of P2Y4R and proinflammatory cytokines in astrocytes using siRNA technique via real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence assays. Cytometric bead array was used to measure proinflammatory cytokine release. The TUNEL staining and MTT cell viability assay were analyzed for HT22 cell apoptosis and viability, and the ApopTag® peroxidase in situ apoptosis detection kit and cresyl violet staining for apoptosis and death of hippocampal neuron in vivo.
RESULTS: We found that Tat challenge increased the expression of P2Y4R in astrocytes. P2Y4R signaling in astrocytes was involved in Tat-induced inflammatory cytokine production via PI3K/Akt- and ERK1/2-dependent pathways. Knockdown of P2Y4R expression significantly reduced inflammatory cytokine production and relieved Tat-mediated neuronal apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo challenged with Tat, P2Y4R knockdown mice showed decreased inflammation and neuronal damage, especially in hippocampal CA1 region.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide novel insights into astrocyte-mediated neuron damage during HIV-1 infection and suggest a potential therapeutic target for HANDs.

Sterbova M, Pazourkova E, Santorova-Pospisilova S, et al.
The use of Human Inflammatory Response and Autoimmunity RT2 lncRNA PCR Array for plasma examination in breast cancer patients prior to therapy.
Neoplasma. 2019; 2019:641-646 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are defined as RNA molecules longer than 200 nucleotides with poor protein-coding capacity and key functions in regulation of gene expression. Dysregulations of lncRNAs (e.g. HOTAIR and MALAT I) were detected in plasma of breast cancer (BC) patients. Plasma samples are examined as liquid biopsies for purposes of non-invasive diagnostics therefore the research of plasma lncRNAs as potential plasma biomarkers became highly topical. 84 lncRNAs were profiled in 18 plasma samples - 9 BC patients and 9 age-matched healthy - using Human Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity RT2 lncRNA PCR Array. Total RNA from plasma samples was isolated using miRNeasy Serum/Plasma Kit. Although a pre-amplification recommended for quantification from small starting RNA amounts was used, only 3 lncRNAs (A2ML1-AS1, GAS5 and SNHG5) were detected in all plasma samples. A total of 72 lncRNAs (e.g. HOTAIR or MALAT I) were detected only in some samples and 9 lncRNAs were not detected in any samples. No significant differences were observed in levels of plasma lncRNAs between the BC patients and healthy controls despite the fact that our panel contained also the lncRNAs whose levels were previously reported as significantly different in plasma or cancer tissues (e.g. GAS5, HOTAIR, MALAT I) in BC patients. Detection of lncRNAs in plasma is due to their low concentrations quite difficult as compared with tissues. Our findings suggest that analysis of plasma lncRNAs using this technology is not suitable for use as non-invasive diagnostic tool in BC patients.

Sun S, Wang N, Sun Z, et al.
MiR-5692a promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis by targeting HOXD8 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
J BUON. 2019 Jan-Feb; 24(1):178-186 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a member of the most frequent malignancies in the world and the poor prognosis of HCC is mainly due to lack of early detection and treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of microRNA (miR)-5692a in the progression of HCC and its underlying mechanism.
METHODS: The relative expression of miR-5692a in HCC tissues and cell lines was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay. Cell counting kit-8 assay and colony formation assay were used to determine cell proliferation. Flow cytometric analysis was carried out to determine cell cycle distribution and apoptotic cells. Bioinformatics analysis and dual luciferase reporter assay were employed to predict and verify the potential targets of miR-5692a. Protein expression level of HOXD8 was assessed by western blotting normalized by GAPDH in transfected cells.
RESULTS: The relative expression level of miR-5692a was increased in both HCC tissues and cell lines. According to CCK8 assay and colony formation assay, miR-5692a was considered to promote proliferation in HCC. The consequence of flow cytometric analysis showed that overexpressed miR-5692a accelerated cell cycle and inhibited cell apoptosis. We verified that HOXD8 was a target of miR-5692a via online prediction database and dual luciferase reporter assay. The rescue assay we carried out subsequently validated that miR-5692a functioned as an oncogene by regulating HOXD8 in HCC.
CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that miR-5692a had an oncogenic role in HCC by targeting HOXD8 which might bring a novel insight into new therapeutic targets and biomarkers in HCC.

Yuan X, Liu J, Ye X
Effect of miR-200c on the proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells and relevant mechanisms.
J BUON. 2019 Jan-Feb; 24(1):61-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The current study aimed to explore the effect of miR-200c on the proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells and its relevant mechanisms.
METHODS: Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), scratch wound healing assay and Transwell assay were performed after upregulation of miR-200c to detect the capabilities of proliferation, migration and invasion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Also, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot were carried out to determine the expression levels of fucosyltransferase-4 (FUT4) and relevant genes in PI3K/AKT signaling pathways.
RESULTS: miR-200c upregulation in MCF-7 cells decreased the capabilities of proliferation, migration and invasion in MCF-7 cells. MiR-200c could regulate the level of FUT4 in MCF-7 cells, and might affect the cell proliferation, migration and invasion through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicated that miR-200c might serve as a new target in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. MiR-200c regulated the expression of FUT4, and affected the biological behaviors of breast cancer MCF-7 cells, such as proliferation, migration and invasion.

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