Gene Summary

Gene:COL18A1; collagen type XVIII alpha 1 chain
Aliases: KS, KNO, KNO1
Summary:This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XVIII collagen. This collagen is one of the multiplexins, extracellular matrix proteins that contain multiple triple-helix domains (collagenous domains) interrupted by non-collagenous domains. A long isoform of the protein has an N-terminal domain that is homologous to the extracellular part of frizzled receptors. Proteolytic processing at several endogenous cleavage sites in the C-terminal domain results in production of endostatin, a potent antiangiogenic protein that is able to inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth. Mutations in this gene are associated with Knobloch syndrome. The main features of this syndrome involve retinal abnormalities, so type XVIII collagen may play an important role in retinal structure and in neural tube closure. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:collagen alpha-1(XVIII) chain
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (21)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: COL18A1 (cancer-related)

Gong HB, Wu XJ, Pu XM, Kang XJ
Bioinformatics analysis of key biomarkers and pathways in KSHV infected endothelial cells.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(27):e16277 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is an endothelial tumor etiologically related to Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) infection. The aim of our study was to screen out candidate genes of KSHV infected endothelial cells and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms by bioinformatics methods. Microarray datasets GSE16354 and GSE22522 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between endothelial cells and KSHV infected endothelial cells were identified. And then, functional enrichment analyses of gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were performed. After that, Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) was used to investigate the potential protein-protein interaction (PPI) network between DEGs, Cytoscape software was used to visualize the interaction network of DEGs and to screen out the hub genes. A total of 113 DEGs and 11 hub genes were identified from the 2 datasets. GO enrichment analysis revealed that most of the DEGs were enrichen in regulation of cell proliferation, extracellular region part and sequence-specific DNA binding; KEGG pathway enrichments analysis displayed that DEGs were mostly enrichen in cell cycle, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, and Insulin signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present study identified a host of DEGs and hub genes in KSHV infected endothelial cells which may serve as potential key biomarkers and therapeutic targets, helping us to have a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of KS.

Ferreira MA, Gamazon ER, Al-Ejeh F, et al.
Genome-wide association and transcriptome studies identify target genes and risk loci for breast cancer.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1741 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 170 breast cancer susceptibility loci. Here we hypothesize that some risk-associated variants might act in non-breast tissues, specifically adipose tissue and immune cells from blood and spleen. Using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) reported in these tissues, we identify 26 previously unreported, likely target genes of overall breast cancer risk variants, and 17 for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, several with a known immune function. We determine the directional effect of gene expression on disease risk measured based on single and multiple eQTL. In addition, using a gene-based test of association that considers eQTL from multiple tissues, we identify seven (and four) regions with variants associated with overall (and ER-negative) breast cancer risk, which were not reported in previous GWAS. Further investigation of the function of the implicated genes in breast and immune cells may provide insights into the etiology of breast cancer.

Hussein HAM, Alfhili MA, Pakala P, et al.
miRNAs and their roles in KSHV pathogenesis.
Virus Res. 2019; 266:15-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman Disease (MCD). Recent mechanistic advances have discerned the importance of microRNAs in the virus-host relationship. KSHV has two modes of replication: lytic and latent phase. KSHV entry into permissive cells, establishment of infection, and maintenance of latency are contingent upon successful modulation of the host miRNA transcriptome. Apart from host cell miRNAs, KSHV also encodes viral miRNAs. Among various cellular and molecular targets, miRNAs are appearing to be key players in regulating viral pathogenesis. Therefore, the use of miRNAs as novel therapeutics has gained considerable attention as of late. This innovative approach relies on either mimicking miRNA species by identical oligonucleotides, or selective silencing of miRNA with specific oligonucleotide inhibitors. Here, we provide an overview of KSHV pathogenesis at the molecular level with special emphasis on the various roles miRNAs play during virus infection.

Hao S, Lv J, Yang Q, et al.
Identification of Key Genes and Circular RNAs in Human Gastric Cancer.
Med Sci Monit. 2019; 25:2488-2504 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Globally, gastric cancer (GC) is the third most common source of cancer-associated mortality. The aim of this study was to identify key genes and circular RNAs (circRNAs) in GC diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy and to further explore the potential molecular mechanisms of GC. MATERIAL AND METHODS Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and circRNAs (DE circRNAs) between GC tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues were identified from 3 mRNA and 3 circRNA expression profiles. Functional analyses were performed, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed. The significant modules and key genes in the PPI networks were identified. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to evaluate the prognostic value of these key genes. Potential miRNA-binding sites of the DE circRNAs and target genes of these miRNAs were predicted and used to construct DE circRNA-miRNA-mRNA networks. RESULTS A total of 196 upregulated and 311 downregulated genes were identified in GC. The results of functional analysis showed that these DEGs were significantly enriched in a variety of functions and pathways, including extracellular matrix-related pathways. Ten hub genes (COL1A1, COL3A1, COL1A2, COL5A2, FN1, THBS1, COL5A1, SPARC, COL18A1, and COL11A1) were identified via PPI network analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that 7 of these were associated with a poor overall survival in GC patients. Furthermore, we identified 2 DE circRNAs, hsa_circ_0000332 and hsa_circ_0021087. To reveal the potential molecular mechanisms of circRNAs in GC, DE circRNA-microRNA-mRNA networks were constructed. CONCLUSIONS Key candidate genes and circRNAs were identified, and novel PPI and circRNA-microRNA-mRNA networks in GC were constructed. These may provide useful information for the exploration of potential biomarkers and targets for the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of GC.

Yao S, Hu Q, Kerns S, et al.
Impact of chemotherapy for breast cancer on leukocyte DNA methylation landscape and cognitive function: a prospective study.
Clin Epigenetics. 2019; 11(1):45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effects of chemotherapeutic drugs on DNA methylation status of leukocytes, which may be predictive of treatment benefits and toxicities. Based on a prospective national study, we characterize the changes in leukocyte DNA methylome from pre- to post-chemotherapy (approximately 4 months apart) in 93 patients treated for early stage breast cancer and 48 matched non-cancer controls. We further examined significant methylation changes with perceived cognitive impairment, a clinically significant problem related to cancer and chemotherapy.
RESULTS: Approximately 4.2% of the CpG sites measured using the Illumina 450K methylation array underwent significant changes after chemotherapy (p < 1e-7), in comparison to a stable DNA methylome in controls. Post-chemotherapy, the estimated relative proportions of B cells and CD4
CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapy profoundly alters the composition and DNA methylation landscape of leukocytes in breast cancer patients. Our results shed light on the epigenetic response of circulating immune cell populations to cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs and provide possible epigenetic links to the degeneration of cognitive function associated with chemotherapy.

Gabrielli AP, Manzardo AM, Butler MG
GeneAnalytics Pathways and Profiling of Shared Autism and Cancer Genes.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent research revealed that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and cancer may share common genetic architecture, with evidence first reported with the

Jing Y, Xiu-Juan Z, Hong-Jiao C, et al.
Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction improved the antiangiogenic effect of Endostar in triple-negative breast carcinoma xenografts.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(5):1191-1200 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) has been reported to be a meritorious technique for drug targeting delivery. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the synergistic antiangiogenic effect of UTMD combined with Endostar on triple-negative breast carcinoma tumors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The lipid-shelled microbubbles (MBs) conjugated with Endostar were constructed using a biotin-avidin bridging chemistry method, and the morphological characteristics and drug-conjugating content were determined. MBs were administered intravenously to nude mice bearing MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma xenografts and ultrasound exposure followed. The tumor microcirculation was observed by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and the Endostar biodistribution was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Twenty-four breast carcinoma-bearing nude mice were divided into four groups. After treatment, every 3 days for 15 days the in vivo antitumor effects were assessed by calculating the tumor growth inhibition rate (TGIR). The tumor microcirculation was observed by CEUS, the tumor microvessel density (MVD) was calculated by immunohistochemistry under a microscope, and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene expression was detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: The prepared Endostar-conjugated MBs were round and well-dispersed with a mean size of 2.8 ± 0.7 µm and a drug conjugating content of 800.72 ± 70.53 µg/10
CONCLUSION: UTMD can improve Endostar delivery in the targeting tumor tissue and mediate synergistic antiangiogenetic and antitumor effects, which may be a potential therapeutic strategy for refractory breast cancer.

Chen X, Yang F, Zhang T, et al.
MiR-9 promotes tumorigenesis and angiogenesis and is activated by MYC and OCT4 in human glioma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):99 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glioma, characterized by its undesirable prognosis and poor survival rate, is a serious threat to human health and lives. MicroRNA-9 (miR-9) is implicated in the regulation of multiple tumors, while the mechanisms underlying its aberrant expression and functional alterations in human glioma are still controversial.
METHODS: Expressions of miR-9 were measured in GEO database, patient specimens and glioma cell lines. Gain- and loss-of-function assays were applied to identify the effects of miR-9 on glioma cells and HUVECs in vitro and in vivo. Potential targets of miR-9 were predicted by bioinformatics and further verified via in vitro experiments. Transcriptional regulation of miR-9 by MYC and OCT4 was determined in glioma cells.
RESULTS: MiR-9 was frequently up-regulated in glioma specimens and cells, and could significantly enhance proliferation, migration and invasion of glioma cells. In addition, miR-9 could be secreted from glioma cells via exosomes and was then absorbed by vascular endothelial cells, leading to an increase in angiogenesis. COL18A1, THBS2, PTCH1 and PHD3 were verified as the direct targets of miR-9, which could elucidate the miR-9-induced malignant phenotypes in glioma cells. MYC and OCT4 were able to bind to the promoter region of miR-9 to trigger its transcription.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight that miR-9 is pivotal for glioma pathogenesis and can be treated as a potential therapeutic target for glioma.

Jiang X, Finucane HK, Schumacher FR, et al.
Shared heritability and functional enrichment across six solid cancers.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):431 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (r

Han Y, Wu P, Wang Z, et al.
Ubiquinol-cytochrome C reductase core protein II promotes tumorigenesis by facilitating p53 degradation.
EBioMedicine. 2019; 40:92-105 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ubiquinol-cytochrome C reductase core protein II (QCR2) is essential for mitochondrial functions, yet, its role in cancer development has remained elusive.
METHODS: The expression of QCR2 in cancer patients was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The proliferation of cancer cells was assessed by CCK-8 assay, EdU staining and Flow cytometry analysis. The biological function of QCR2 and PHB were determined using western blotting, RT-qPCR, microarray analysis and xenografts. The interactions between proteins and the ubiquitination of p53 were assessed by immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry analysis and GST pull down. The subcellular location of PHB and QCR2 was assessed by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence.
FINDING: The expression of QCR2 is upregulated in multiple human tumors. Suppression of QCR2 inhibits cancer cell growth by activating p53 signaling and inducing p21-dependent cell cycle arrest and senescence. QCR2 directly interacts with PHB in the mitochondria. Overexpression of QCR2 inhibits PHB binding to p53 in the nucleus, and facilitates p53 ubiquitination and degradation, consequently leading to tumorigenesis. Also, increased QCR2 and decreased PHB protein levels are well correlated with decreased expression of p21 in cervical cancer tissues.
INTERPRETATION: These results identify a novel role for QCR2, together with PHB, in negative regulation of p53 stability and activity, thus promote cervical carcinogenesis. FUND: "973" Program of China, the National Science-technology Supporting Plan Projects, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Science and Technology Major Sub-Project and Technical Innovation Special Project of Hubei Province.

Capello M, Vykoukal JV, Katayama H, et al.
Exosomes harbor B cell targets in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and exert decoy function against complement-mediated cytotoxicity.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):254 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although B cell response is frequently found in cancer, there is little evidence that it alters tumor development or progression. The process through which tumor-associated antigens trigger humoral response is not well delineated. We investigate the repertoire of antigens associated with humoral immune response in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) using in-depth proteomic profiling of immunoglobulin-bound proteins from PDAC patient plasmas and identify tumor antigens that induce antibody response together with exosome hallmark proteins. Additional profiling of PDAC cell-derived exosomes reveals significant overlap in their protein content with immunoglobulin-bound proteins in PDAC plasmas, and significant autoantibody reactivity is observed between PDAC cell-derived exosomes and patient plasmas compared to healthy controls. Importantly, PDAC-derived exosomes induce a dose-dependent inhibition of PDAC serum-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity towards cancer cells. In summary, we provide evidence that exosomes display a large repertoire of tumor antigens that induce autoantibodies and exert a decoy function against complement-mediated cytotoxicity.

Eggener S, Karsh LI, Richardson T, et al.
A 17-gene Panel for Prediction of Adverse Prostate Cancer Pathologic Features: Prospective Clinical Validation and Utility.
Urology. 2019; 126:76-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To validate the 17-gene Oncotype DX Genomic Prostate Score (GPS) biopsy-based gene expression assay as a predictor of adverse pathology (AP, Gleason score [pGS] ≥4+3and/or ≥pT3) in a prospectively enrolled cohort.
METHODS: Between July 2014 and September 2015, 1200 men with very low-, low-, and favorable intermediate-risk prostate cancer enrolled in a multi-institutional prospective study of the GPS assay (NCT03502213). The subset who proceeded to immediate radical prostatectomy (RP) after GPS testing was included in a prespecified subanalysis of GPS on biopsy and its association with surgical AP on RP using logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curves. The effect of GPS testing on physicians' and patients' attitudes about decision making was assessed with the Decisional Conflict Scale.
RESULTS: One hundred fourteen patients (treated by 59 physicians from 19 sites) elected RP and 40 (35%) had AP. GPS result was a significant predictor of AP (odds ratio per 20 GPS units [OR/20 units]: 2.2; 95% CI 1.2-4.1; P = .008) in univariable analysis and remained significant after adjustment for biopsy Gleason score, clinical T-stage, and logPSA (OR/20 units: 1.9; 95% CI 1.0-3.8; P = .04), or NCCN risk group (OR/20 units: 2.0; 95% CI 1.1-3.7; P = .02). Mean pre-GPS Decisional Conflict Scale score was 27 (95% CI 24-31), which improved significantly after GPS testing to 14 (95% CI 11-17) (P < .001).
CONCLUSION: In this real-world multi-institutional study, the GPS assay was prospectively confirmed as an independent predictor of AP at surgery. GPS testing was associated with reduced patient decisional conflict.

Rose TM, Bruce AG, Barcy S, et al.
Quantitative RNAseq analysis of Ugandan KS tumors reveals KSHV gene expression dominated by transcription from the LTd downstream latency promoter.
PLoS Pathog. 2018; 14(12):e1007441 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
KSHV is endemic in Uganda and the HIV epidemic has dramatically increased the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma (KS). To investigate the role of KSHV in the development of KS, we obtained KS biopsies from ART-naïve, HIV-positive individuals in Uganda and analyzed the tumors using RNAseq to globally characterize the KSHV transcriptome. Phylogenetic analysis of ORF75 sequences from 23 tumors revealed 6 distinct genetic clusters with KSHV strains exhibiting M, N or P alleles. RNA reads mapping to specific unique coding sequence (UCDS) features were quantitated using a gene feature file previously developed to globally analyze and quantitate KSHV transcription in infected endothelial cells. A pattern of high level expression was detected in the KSHV latency region that was common to all KS tumors. The clear majority of transcription was derived from the downstream latency transcript promoter P3(LTd) flanking ORF72, with little evidence of transcription from the P1(LTc) latency promoter, which is constitutive in KSHV-infected lymphomas and tissue-culture cells. RNAseq data provided evidence of alternate P3(LTd) transcript editing, splicing and termination resulting in multiple gene products, with 90% of the P3(LTd) transcripts spliced to release the intronic source of the microRNAs K1-9 and 11. The spliced transcripts encode a regulatory uORF upstream of Kaposin A with alterations in intervening repeat sequences yielding novel or deleted Kaposin B/C-like sequences. Hierarchical clustering and PCA analysis of KSHV transcripts revealed three clusters of tumors with different latent and lytic gene expression profiles. Paradoxically, tumors with a latent phenotype had high levels of total KSHV transcription, while tumors with a lytic phenotype had low levels of total KSHV transcription. Morphologically distinct KS tumors from the same individual showed similar KSHV gene expression profiles suggesting that the tumor microenvironment and host response play important roles in the activation level of KSHV within the infected tumor cells.

Yang M, Wang M, Li X, et al.
Inhibition of constructed SEC3-ES lentiviral vector to proliferation, migration of Hela cells.
Pathol Res Pract. 2019; 215(2):315-321 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To construct a lentiviral vector with endostatin (ES) and staphylococcal enterotoxin C
METHODS: By inserting ES and SEC3 gene into the plasmid and then transfect 293 T cell, the co-expressed (SEC3-ES) vector were constructed. A series of experiments in vitro were carried out to detect its anti-tumor capacity.
RESULTS: SEC3 expression of the vector is about 3 times of GV365-SEC3 vector, and ES expression is over 22.5-fold compared with GV365-ES vector. Moreover, OD490 value of CO group (1.212 ± 0.003) was notably lower than NC (negative control) group (1.124 ± 0.01) (P < 0.05) in MTT assay. Cell cycle analysis showed it could block Hela cells in S phase. Meanwhile, in wound healing assay, cells of CO group migrated at a slower rate (0.59 ± 0.02) compared with NC group (0.65 ± 0.02)(P < 0.01).
CONCLUSION: The successful construction of co-expressed vector lays the foundation for further studies in vivo. These promising results suggest a new strategy to treating cervical cancer.

Dunleavy K, Fanale MA, Abramson JS, et al.
Dose-adjusted EPOCH-R (etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and rituximab) in untreated aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with MYC rearrangement: a prospective, multicentre, single-arm phase 2 study.
Lancet Haematol. 2018; 5(12):e609-e617 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MYC gene rearrangement is present in approximately 10% of aggressive B-cell lymphomas, with half also harbouring a BCL2 gene rearrangement. Multiple retrospective studies of R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone or prednisolone) have shown a worse outcome in patients with MYC rearrangement (alone or with rearrangement of BCL2 or BCL6, or both) than in patients without MYC rearrangement, and suggest improved outcomes after more intensive treatment. We aimed to determine the outcome of dose-adjusted EPOCH-R (etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and rituximab; DA-EPOCH-R), an intensive infusional treatment regimen, in untreated aggressive B-cell lymphoma with MYC rearrangement.
METHODS: We present the final analysis of a prospective, multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 study of DA-EPOCH-R in patients with untreated aggressive B-cell lymphoma with MYC rearrangement. DA-EPOCH-R was scheduled to be administered with CNS prophylaxis for six cycles. Primary endpoints included event-free and overall survival. This study is registered with (NCT01092182).
FINDINGS: 53 patients were enrolled, with median age of 61 years (range 29-80; IQR 50-70); 43 (81%) patients had stage III-IV disease and 26 (49%) had high-intermediate or high international prognostic index (IPI) scores. 19 patients had confirmed MYC rearrangement alone (single-hit) and 24 also had rearrangement of BCL2, BCL6, or both (double-hit), with similar characteristics between these two groups. After a median follow-up of 55·6 months (IQR 50·5-61·1), 48-month event-free survival was 71·0% (95% CI 56·5-81·4) and 48-month overall survival was 76·7% (95% CI 62·6-86·1) for all patients. Toxicity included grade 4 neutropenia in 160 (53%) of 301 cycles, grade 4 thrombocytopenia in 40 (13%) cycles, and any grade of fever with neutropenia in 56 (19%) cycles. There were three treatment-related deaths (all infections).
INTERPRETATION: In this study, DA-EPOCH-R produced durable remission in patients with MYC-rearranged aggressive B-cell lymphomas and should be considered for the treatment of these diseases.
FUNDING: Cancer Trials Support Unit and Center for Cancer Research of the National Cancer Institute and Genentech.

Gu W, Sun S, Kahn A, et al.
Cervical cancer cell lines are sensitive to sub-erythemal UV exposure.
Gene. 2019; 688:44-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
High risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the causative agent in virtually every cervical cancer as well as a host of other anogenital and oropharyngeal malignancies. These viruses must activate DNA repair pathways to facilitate their replication, while avoiding the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis that can accompany DNA damage. HPV oncoproteins facilitate each of these goals, but also reduce genome stability. Our data dissect the cytotoxic and cytoprotective characteristics of HPV oncogenes in cervical cancer cells. These data show that while the transformation of keratinocytes by HPV oncogene leaves these cells more sensitive to UV, the oncogenes also protect against UV-induced apoptosis. Cisplatin and UV resistant cervical cancer cell lines were generated and probed for their sensitivity to genotoxic agents. Cervical cancer cells can acquire resistance to one DNA crosslinking agent (UV or cisplatin) without gaining broad tolerance of crosslinked DNA. Further, cisplatin resistance may or may not result in sensitivity to PARP1 inhibition.

Meng FJ, Wang S, Yan YJ, et al.
Recombined humanized endostatin-induced suppression of HMGB1 expression inhibits proliferation of NSCLC cancer cells.
Thorac Cancer. 2019; 10(1):90-95 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recombined humanized endostatin (Rh-endostatin) exhibits a potent anti-cancer effect involving multiple molecular targets and signaling pathways. HMGB1 is a highly conserved DNA-binding protein involved in cancer development. The therapeutic effect of Rh-endostatin on HMGB1 has not been reported, thus we investigate the effect in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells.
METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot were used to analyze the messenger RNA and protein expression of HMGB1 in A549 cancer cells, while enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the release of HMGB1. Western blot was performed to evaluate HMGB1 expression in SK-MES-1 and H661 NSCLC cells.
RESULTS: Rh-endostatin inhibited the proliferation of A549 cancer cells and distinctly downregulated the expression and release of HMGB1 in dose and time dependent manners. Rh-endostatin-induced HMGB1 downregulation was confirmed in different types of NSCLC cells.
CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate the general phenomenon that Rh-endostatin can induce HMGB1 suppression in a variety of NSCLC cells. Rh-endostatin may suppress HMGB1 expression and release in A549 cancer cells, thus inhibiting cell proliferation.

Faundes V, Malone G, Newman WG, Banka S
A comparative analysis of KMT2D missense variants in Kabuki syndrome, cancers and the general population.
J Hum Genet. 2019; 64(2):161-170 [PubMed] Related Publications
Determining the clinical significance of germline and somatic KMT2D missense variants (MVs) in Kabuki syndrome (KS) and cancers can be challenging. We analysed 1920 distinct KMT2D MVs that included 1535 germline MVs in controls (Control-MVs), 584 somatic MVs in cancers (Cancer-MVs) and 201 MV in individuals with KS (KS-MVs). The proportion of MVs likely to affect splicing was significantly higher for Cancer-MVs and KS-MVs than in Control-MVs (p = 0.000018). Our analysis identified significant clustering of Cancer-MVs and KS-MVs in the PHD#3 and #4, RING#4 and SET domains. Areas of enrichment restricted to just Cancer-MVs (FYR-C and between amino acids 3043-3248) or KS-MVs (coiled-coil#5, FYR-N and between amino acids 4995-5090) were also found. Cancer-MVs and KS-MVs tended to affect more conserved residues (lower BLOSUM scores, p < 0.001 and p = 0.007). KS-MVs are more likely to increase the energy for protein folding (higher ELASPIC ∆∆G scores, p = 0.03). Cancer-MVs are more likely to disrupt protein interactions (higher StructMAn scores, p = 0.019). We reclassify several presumed pathogenic MVs as benign or as variants of uncertain significance. We raise the possibility of as yet unrecognised 'non-KS' phenotype(s) associated with some germline pathogenic KMT2D MVs. Overall, this work provides insights into the disease mechanism of KMT2D variants and can be extended to other genes, mutations in which also cause developmental syndromes and cancer.

Wang X, Hu KB, Zhang YQ, et al.
Comprehensive analysis of aberrantly expressed profiles of lncRNAs, miRNAs and mRNAs with associated ceRNA network in cholangiocarcinoma.
Cancer Biomark. 2018; 23(4):549-559 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a highly malignant and poorly differentiated bile duct cancer with an extremely poor prognosis, but the pathogenesis of CCA remains not well-known. Attention has been increasingly focused on long noncoding RNAs, which plays an important role in tumorigenesis. However, the roles of cancer specific lncRNA and its related competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNA) network in CCA remain elusive. In this study, we comprehensively integrated expression profiles, including data on mRNAs, lncRNAs and miRNAs obtained from 36 CCA tissues and 9 normal tissues in The Cancer Genome Atlas. 1434 cancer specific lncRNAs, 68 miRNAs and 3538 mRNAs (|logFC|> 1, p< 0.05) were identified. Based on bioinformatics generated from miRcode, starBase, miRTarBase, TargetScan and miRDB, we constructed an lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA network (ceRNA network) in CCA. We constructed the lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA network consisting of 206 molecules and 454 interactions. In addition, we used Cytoscape software to visualize the ceRNA network in WGCNA, 22 mRNA network modules were identified, five of which were significantly related to tumor grade and survival time. Moreover, three lncRNAs COL18A1-AS1, SLC6A1-AS1 and HULC were found to be significantly associated with overall survival. The present study provides novel insight for better understanding of lncRNA-related ceRNA network in CCA and useful resource for identifcation of novel biomarkers of CCA.

Yang K, Lu XF, Luo PC, Zhang J
Identification of Six Potentially Long Noncoding RNAs as Biomarkers Involved Competitive Endogenous RNA in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:9303486 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications

Tyner JW, Tognon CE, Bottomly D, et al.
Functional genomic landscape of acute myeloid leukaemia.
Nature. 2018; 562(7728):526-531 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
The implementation of targeted therapies for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) has been challenging because of the complex mutational patterns within and across patients as well as a dearth of pharmacologic agents for most mutational events. Here we report initial findings from the Beat AML programme on a cohort of 672 tumour specimens collected from 562 patients. We assessed these specimens using whole-exome sequencing, RNA sequencing and analyses of ex vivo drug sensitivity. Our data reveal mutational events that have not previously been detected in AML. We show that the response to drugs is associated with mutational status, including instances of drug sensitivity that are specific to combinatorial mutational events. Integration with RNA sequencing also revealed gene expression signatures, which predict a role for specific gene networks in the drug response. Collectively, we have generated a dataset-accessible through the Beat AML data viewer (Vizome)-that can be leveraged to address clinical, genomic, transcriptomic and functional analyses of the biology of AML.

Dong R, Chen P, Chen Q
Inhibition of pancreatic cancer stem cells by Rauwolfia vomitoria extract.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(6):3144-3154 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
The poor treatment outcomes of pancreatic cancer are linked to an enrichment of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in these tumors, which are resistant to chemotherapy and promote metastasis and tumor recurrence. The present study investigated an extract from the root of the medicinal plant Rauwolfia vomitoria (Rau) for its activity against pancreatic CSCs. In vitro tumor spheroid formation and CSC markers were tested, and in vivo tumorigenicity was evaluated in nude mice. Rau inhibited the overall proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cell lines with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) ranging between 125 and 325 µg/ml, and showed limited cytotoxicity towards normal epithelial cells. The pancreatic CSC population, identified using cell surface markers or a tumor spheroid formation assay, was significantly reduced, with an IC50 value of ~100 µg/ml treatment for 48 h and ~27 µg/ml for long-term tumor spheroid formation. The levels of CSC-related gene Nanog and nuclear β-catenin were decreased, suggesting suppression of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In vivo, 20 mg/kg of Rau administered five times per week by oral gavage significantly reduced the tumorigenicity of PANC-1 cells in immunocompromised mice. Taken together, these data showed that Rau preferentially inhibited pancreatic cancer stem cells. Further investigation is warranted to examine the potential of Rau as a novel treatment for pancreatic cancer.

Klymenko Y, Wates RB, Weiss-Bilka H, et al.
Modeling the effect of ascites-induced compression on ovarian cancer multicellular aggregates.
Dis Model Mech. 2018; 11(9) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. EOC dissemination is predominantly via direct extension of cells and multicellular aggregates (MCAs) into the peritoneal cavity, which adhere to and induce retraction of peritoneal mesothelium and proliferate in the submesothelial matrix to generate metastatic lesions. Metastasis is facilitated by the accumulation of malignant ascites (500 ml to >2 l), resulting in physical discomfort and abdominal distension, and leading to poor prognosis. Although intraperitoneal fluid pressure is normally subatmospheric, an average intraperitoneal pressure of 30 cmH

Galanina N, Goodman AM, Cohen PR, et al.
Successful Treatment of HIV-Associated Kaposi Sarcoma with Immune Checkpoint Blockade.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2018; 6(10):1129-1135 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is an incurable, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated malignancy. We reviewed 320 immunotherapy-treated patient records. Seventeen had HIV-associated malignancies, including nine men with KS. Median viral load was 20 copies/mL (range, undetectable to 549,704) and median CD4 count was 256 cells/μL (range, 10-603). Eight patients received nivolumab and one received pembrolizumab. Six patients (67%) achieved partial (

Blumenthal MJ, Schutz C, Meintjes G, et al.
EPHA2 sequence variants are associated with susceptibility to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection and Kaposi's sarcoma prevalence in HIV-infected patients.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2018; 56:133-139 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To determine if variations exist in the KSHV host receptor EPHA2's coding region that affect KSHV infectivity and/or KS prevalence among South African HIV-infected patients.
METHODS: A retrospective candidate gene association study was performed on 150 patients which were randomly selected from a total of 756 HIV-infected patients and grouped according to their KS status and KSHV serodiagnosis; namely group 1: KS
RESULTS: 100% (95% CI 92.9-100%) of the KS positive patients, and 31.6% (95% CI 28.3-35.1%) of the KS negative patients were found to be KSHV seropositive. Aggregate variation across the entire EPHA2 coding region identified an association with KS (OR = 6.6 (95% CI 2.8, 15.9), p = 2.2 × 10
CONCLUSIONS: Variations in the KSHV entry receptor gene EPHA2 affected susceptibility to KSHV infection and KS development in a South African HIV-infected patient cohort.

Lu G, Wu X, Zhao Z, et al.
MicroRNA-126 regulates the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway in SLK cells in vitro and the expression of its pathway members in Kaposi's sarcoma tissue.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(35):e11855 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
In vitro, microRNA-126 (miR-126) inhibits SLK cell proliferation, inhibits the cell cycle, induces cell apoptosis, and reduces cell invasiveness. Double luciferase assays have shown that phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) is the miR-126 target in SLK cells. We aimed to investigate the influence of miR-126 on the phosphate and tension homology deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN)/PI3K/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway members in SLK cells and to determine the expression of these pathway members in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). The mimic and inhibitor of miR-126 were transfected into SLK cells and PTEN and AKT1 expression was assayed in SLK cells by real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting. PTEN, AKT1, phosphorylated (P)-PTEN, and phosphorylated (P)-AKT expression in KS and paraneoplastic skin were assayed by immunohistochemistry. AKT1 expression was downregulated in SLK cells that overexpressed miR-126, while there was no significant difference in PTEN expression between SLK cells overexpressing miR-126 and those in which its expression was knocked down. PTEN and AKT1 were expressed in KS and paraneoplastic skin but P-AKT was not. Interestingly, P-PTEN was not expressed in paraneoplastic skin but it was expressed in 90% of KS biopsies (P < .05). P-PTEN expression was also significantly higher in visceral than in cutaneous KS (P = .01) and was higher in indoor than in outdoor workers (P = .018). In vitro, miR-126 negatively regulated AKT1 expression but no regulation of PTEN expression was evident. Results indicated that in KS, PTEN is activated and may therefore be a potential therapeutic target for KS. In addition, these results also indicate that sunlight may not be the cause of KS.

Etta EM, Alayande DP, Mavhandu-Ramarumo LG, et al.
HHV-8 Seroprevalence and Genotype Distribution in Africa, 1998⁻2017: A Systematic Review.
Viruses. 2018; 10(9) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Human herpes virus type 8 (HHV-8) is the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). We systematically reviewed literature published between 1998 and 2017, according to the PRISMA guidelines, to understand the distribution of HHV-8 infection in Africa. More than two-thirds (64%) of studies reported on seroprevalence and 29.3% on genotypes; 9.5% were on both seroprevalence and genotypes. About 45% of African countries had data on HHV-8 seroprevalence exclusively, and more than half (53%) had data on either seroprevalence or genotypes. Almost half (47%) of the countries had no data on HHV-8 infection. There was high heterogeneity in the types of tests and interpretation algorithms used in determining HHV-8 seropositivity across the different studies. Generally, seroprevalence ranged from 2.0% in a group of young children in Eritrea to 100% in a small group of individuals with KS in Central African Republic, and in a larger group of individuals with KS in Morocco. Approximately 16% of studies reported on children. Difference in seroprevalence across the African regions was not significant (95% CI, χ² = 0.86;

Lan L, Liu H, Smith AR, et al.
Natural product derivative Gossypolone inhibits Musashi family of RNA-binding proteins.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):809 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The Musashi (MSI) family of RNA-binding proteins is best known for the role in post-transcriptional regulation of target mRNAs. Elevated MSI1 levels in a variety of human cancer are associated with up-regulation of Notch/Wnt signaling. MSI1 binds to and negatively regulates translation of Numb and APC (adenomatous polyposis coli), negative regulators of Notch and Wnt signaling respectively.
METHODS: Previously, we have shown that the natural product (-)-gossypol as the first known small molecule inhibitor of MSI1 that down-regulates Notch/Wnt signaling and inhibits tumor xenograft growth in vivo. Using a fluorescence polarization (FP) competition assay, we identified gossypolone (Gn) with a > 20-fold increase in Ki value compared to (-)-gossypol. We validated Gn binding to MSI1 using surface plasmon resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance, and cellular thermal shift assay, and tested the effects of Gn on colon cancer cells and colon cancer DLD-1 xenografts in nude mice.
RESULTS: In colon cancer cells, Gn reduced Notch/Wnt signaling and induced apoptosis. Compared to (-)-gossypol, the same concentration of Gn is less active in all the cell assays tested. To increase Gn bioavailability, we used PEGylated liposomes in our in vivo studies. Gn-lip via tail vein injection inhibited the growth of human colon cancer DLD-1 xenografts in nude mice, as compared to the untreated control (P < 0.01, n = 10).
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that PEGylation improved the bioavailability of Gn as well as achieved tumor-targeted delivery and controlled release of Gn, which enhanced its overall biocompatibility and drug efficacy in vivo. This provides proof of concept for the development of Gn-lip as a molecular therapy for colon cancer with MSI1/MSI2 overexpression.

O'Mara TA, Glubb DM, Amant F, et al.
Identification of nine new susceptibility loci for endometrial cancer.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):3166 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer of the female reproductive tract in developed countries. Through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we have previously identified eight risk loci for endometrial cancer. Here, we present an expanded meta-analysis of 12,906 endometrial cancer cases and 108,979 controls (including new genotype data for 5624 cases) and identify nine novel genome-wide significant loci, including a locus on 12q24.12 previously identified by meta-GWAS of endometrial and colorectal cancer. At five loci, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses identify candidate causal genes; risk alleles at two of these loci associate with decreased expression of genes, which encode negative regulators of oncogenic signal transduction proteins (SH2B3 (12q24.12) and NF1 (17q11.2)). In summary, this study has doubled the number of known endometrial cancer risk loci and revealed candidate causal genes for future study.

Neff R, Rush CM, Smith B, et al.
Functional characterization of recurrent FOXA2 mutations seen in endometrial cancers.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 143(11):2955-2961 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
FOXA2, a member of the forkhead family of DNA-binding proteins, is frequently mutated in uterine cancers. Most of the mutations observed in uterine cancers are frameshifts and stops. FOXA2 is considered to be a driver gene in uterine cancers, functioning as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor. The functional consequences of FOXA2 mutations, however, have not yet been determined. We evaluated the effects that frameshift mutations and a recurrent missense mutation have on FOXA2 transcriptional activity. Recurrent N-terminal frameshifts resulted in truncated proteins that failed to translocate to the nucleus and have no transcriptional activity using an E-cadherin/luciferase reporter assay. Protein abundance was reduced for the recurrent p.S169 W mutation, as was transcriptional activity. A C-terminal frameshift mutation had increased FOXA2 levels evidenced by both Western blot and immunofluorescence. Given that FOXA2 is a recognized activator of E-cadherin (CDH1) expression and E-cadherin's potential role in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in a wide range of cancer types, we tested the hypothesis that FOXA2 mutations in primary uterine cancer specimens would be associated with reduced CDH1 transcript levels. qRT-PCR revealed significantly lower levels of CDH1 expression in primary tumors with FOXA2 mutations. Our findings in vitro and in vivo suggest that reduced transcriptional activity associated with FOXA2 mutations in uterine cancers is likely to contribute to protumorigenic changes in gene expression.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. COL18A1, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 29 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999