Gene Summary

Gene:ALOX15; arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase
Aliases: LOG15, 12-LOX, 15-LOX, 15-LOX-1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the lipoxygenase family of proteins. The encoded enzyme acts on various polyunsaturated fatty acid substrates to generate various bioactive lipid mediators such as eicosanoids, hepoxilins, lipoxins, and other molecules. The encoded enzyme and its reaction products have been shown to regulate inflammation and immunity. Multiple pseudogenes of this gene have been identified in the human genome. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2017]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (17)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (2)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Pentanoic Acids
  • Up-Regulation
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Tumor Burden
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Transcription
  • Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase
  • Papilloma, Choroid Plexus
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Promoter Regions
  • Linoleic Acids
  • Prostaglandins
  • RNA Splicing
  • Enzymologic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Apoptosis
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • p53 Protein
  • Western Blotting
  • Reticulocytes
  • COX2 (PTGS2)
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Chromosome 17
  • siRNA
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Transfection
  • Cell Movement
  • Gene Expression
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids
  • Transketolase
  • Messenger RNA
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • Angiogenesis
  • Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase
  • Down-Regulation
Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ALOX15 (cancer-related)

Tutino V, De Nunzio V, Caruso MG, et al.
Elevated AA/EPA Ratio Represents an Inflammatory Biomarker in Tumor Tissue of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(8) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chronic inflammation increases the risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as colorectal cancer (CRC). The oxidative metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has a strong effect on colonic tumorigenesis and the levels of arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) can contribute to the development of an inflammatory microenvironment. Aim of this study was to evaluate the possible differences in the AA/EPA ratio tissue levels between CRC patients with and without synchronous metastases. Moreover, the expression of the most important inflammatory enzymes and mediators, linked with the AA/EPA ratio, have been also assessed. Sixty-eight patients with CRC were enrolled in the study, of which 33 patients with synchronous metastasis. Fatty acid profile analysis in tissue samples was done to examine the levels of AA and EPA. High levels of the AA/EPA ratio were detected in tumor tissue of patients with metastatic CRC. Moreover, an increase of expression of the main enzymes and mediators involved in inflammation was also detected in the same samples. The lipidomic approach of inflammation allows to evaluate lipid homeostasis changes that occur in cancer and in its metastatic process, in order to identify new biomarkers to be introduced into clinical practice.

Dhabal S, Das P, Biswas P, et al.
Regulation of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) expression, activity, and function in IL-13-stimulated monocytes and A549 lung carcinoma cells.
J Biol Chem. 2018; 293(36):14040-14064 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is a mitochondrial flavoenzyme implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and inflammation and also in many neurological disorders. MAO-A also has been reported as a potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer. However, the regulatory mechanisms controlling cytokine-induced MAO-A expression in immune or cancer cells remain to be identified. Here, we show that MAO-A expression is co-induced with 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) in interleukin 13 (IL-13)-activated primary human monocytes and A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. We present evidence that

Weigert A, Strack E, Snodgrass RG, Brüne B
mPGES-1 and ALOX5/-15 in tumor-associated macrophages.
Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2018; 37(2-3):317-334 [PubMed] Related Publications
The tumor immune landscape gained considerable interest based on the knowledge that genetic aberrations in cancer cells alone are insufficient for tumor development. Macrophages are basically supporting all hallmarks of cancer and owing to their tremendous plasticity they may exert a whole spectrum of anti-tumor and pro-tumor activities. As part of the innate immune response, macrophages are armed to attack tumor cells, alone or in concert with distinct T cell subsets. However, in the tumor microenvironment, they sense nutrient and oxygen gradients, receive multiple signals, and respond to this incoming information with a phenotype shift. Often, their functional output repertoire is shifted to become tumor-supportive. Incoming and outgoing signals are chemically heterogeneous but also comprise lipid mediators. Here, we review the current understanding whereby arachidonate metabolites derived from the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways shape the macrophage phenotype in a tumor setting. We discuss these findings in the context of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) expression and concomitant prostaglandin E

Shintoku R, Takigawa Y, Yamada K, et al.
Lipoxygenase-mediated generation of lipid peroxides enhances ferroptosis induced by erastin and RSL3.
Cancer Sci. 2017; 108(11):2187-2194 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
In cancer cells the small compounds erastin and RSL3 promote a novel type of cell death called ferroptosis, which requires iron-dependent accumulation of lipid reactive oxygen species. Here we assessed the contribution of lipid peroxidation activity of lipoxygenases (LOX) to ferroptosis in oncogenic Ras-expressing cancer cells. Several 12/15-LOX inhibitors prevented cell death induced by erastin and RSL3. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated silencing of ALOX15 significantly decreased both erastin-induced and RSL3-induced ferroptotic cell death, whereas exogenous overexpression of ALOX15 enhanced the effect of these compounds. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that the ALOX15 protein consistently localizes to cell membrane during the course of ferroptosis. Importantly, treatments of cells with ALOX15-activating compounds accelerated cell death at low, but not high doses of erastin and RSL3. These observations suggest that tumor ferroptosis is promoted by LOX-catalyzed lipid hydroperoxide generation in cellular membranes.

Sausville LN, Jones CC, Aldrich MC, et al.
Genetic variation in the eicosanoid pathway is associated with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) survival.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(7):e0180471 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
Globally, lung cancer results in more deaths worldwide than any other cancer, indicating a need for better treatments. Members of the eicosanoid metabolism pathway represent promising therapeutic targets, as several enzymes involved in the generation of these lipids are dysregulated in many cancers and their inhibition reduces lung cancer growth in mouse models. However, genetic variation of enzymes involved in eicosanoid metabolism has not been adequately examined for association with lung cancer. The goal of this study was to determine whether germline genetic variation altering eicosanoid producing enzyme function and/or expression are associated with differences in lung cancer survival. We examined the association of genetic variation with mortality within eicosanoid metabolism genes in 395 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases from the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS). A total of 108 SNPs, both common and rare, in 19 genes, were examined for association. No common or rare variants were associated with lung cancer survival across the entire study population. However, rare variants in ALOX15B (arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase, type B) and the common variant rs12529 in AKR1C3 (prostaglandin F synthase) were associated with NSCLC mortality in women and African Americans, respectively. Rare variants in ALOX15B were associated with greater mortality in women (HR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.25-3.54, p-value = 0.005). The major allele of rs12529 in AKCR1C3 associated with improved survival in African Americans (HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.59-0.92, p-value = 0.008). The lack of genetic associations among all NSCLC cases and the association among women only for rare variants in ALOX15B may, in part, explain the better NSCLC survival observed among women. These results raise the possibility that some subgroups within the NSCLC population may benefit from drugs targeting eicosanoid metabolism.

Probst L, Dächert J, Schenk B, Fulda S
Lipoxygenase inhibitors protect acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells from ferroptotic cell death.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2017; 140:41-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ferroptosis has recently been identified as a mode of programmed cell death. However, little is yet known about the signaling mechanism. Here, we report that lipoxygenases (LOX) contribute to the regulation of RSL3-induced ferroptosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. We show that the glutathione (GSH) peroxidase 4 (GPX4) inhibitor RSL3 triggers lipid peroxidation, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death in ALL cells. All these events are impeded in the presence of Ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1), a small-molecule inhibitor of lipid peroxidation. Also, lipid peroxidation and ROS production precede the induction of cell death, underscoring their contribution to cell death upon exposure to RSL3. Importantly, LOX inhibitors, including the selective 12/15-LOX inhibitor Baicalein and the pan-LOX inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), protect ALL cells from RSL3-stimulated lipid peroxidation, ROS generation and cell death, indicating that LOX contribute to ferroptosis. RSL3 triggers lipid peroxidation and cell death also in FAS-associated Death Domain (FADD)-deficient cells which are resistant to death receptor-induced apoptosis indicating that the induction of ferroptosis may bypass apoptosis resistance. By providing new insights into the molecular regulation of ferroptosis, our study contributes to the development of novel treatment strategies to reactivate programmed cell death in ALL.

Alonso S, Mayol X, Nonell L, et al.
Peripheral blood leucocytes show differential expression of tumour progression-related genes in colorectal cancer patients who have a postoperative intra-abdominal infection: a prospective matched cohort study.
Colorectal Dis. 2017; 19(5):O115-O125 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Anastomotic leak is associated with higher rates of recurrence after surgery for colorectal cancer. However, the mechanisms responsible are unknown. We hypothesized that the infection-induced inflammatory response may induce overexpression of tumour progression-related genes in immune cells. The aim was to investigate the effect of postoperative intra-abdominal infection on the gene expression patterns of peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) after surgery for colorectal cancer.
METHOD: Prospective matched cohort study. Patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer were included. Patients who had anastomotic leak or intra-abdominal abscess were included in the infection group (n = 23) and matched with patients without complications for the control group (n = 23). PBL were isolated from postoperative blood samples. Total RNA was extracted and hybridized to the Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST microarray.
RESULTS: Patients in the infection group displayed 162 upregulated genes and 146 downregulated genes with respect to the control group. Upregulated genes included examples coding for secreted cytokines involved in tumour growth and invasion (S100P, HGF, MMP8, MMP9, PDGFC, IL1R2). Infection also upregulated some proangiogenic genes (CEP55, TRPS1) and downregulated some inhibitors of angiogenesis (MME, ALOX15, CXCL10). Finally, some inhibitors (HP, ORM1, OLFM4, IRAK3) and activators (GNLY, PRF1, FGFBP2) of antitumour immunity were upregulated and downregulated, respectively, suggesting that the inflammatory environment caused by a postoperative infection favours immune evasion mechanisms of the tumour.
CONCLUSION: Analysis of PBL shows differential expression of certain tumour progression-related genes in colorectal cancer patients who have a postoperative intra-abdominal infection, which in turn may promote the growth of residual cancer cells to become recurrent tumours.

Ou Y, Wang SJ, Li D, et al.
Activation of SAT1 engages polyamine metabolism with p53-mediated ferroptotic responses.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(44):E6806-E6812 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
Although p53-mediated cell-cycle arrest, senescence, and apoptosis remain critical barriers to cancer development, the emerging role of p53 in cell metabolism, oxidative responses, and ferroptotic cell death has been a topic of great interest. Nevertheless, it is unclear how p53 orchestrates its activities in multiple metabolic pathways into tumor suppressive effects. Here, we identified the SAT1 (spermidine/spermine N

Chandrasekharan JA, Huang XM, Hwang AC, Sharma-Walia N
Altering the Anti-inflammatory Lipoxin Microenvironment: a New Insight into Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Pathogenesis.
J Virol. 2016; 90(24):11020-11031 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
Lipoxins are host anti-inflammatory molecules that play a vital role in restoring tissue homeostasis. The efficacy of lipoxins and their analog epilipoxins in treating inflammation and its associated diseases has been well documented. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) are two well-known inflammation related diseases caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Controlling inflammation is one of the strategies adopted to treat KS and PEL, a primary motivation for exploring and evaluating the therapeutic potential of using lipoxins. This study documents how KSHV manipulates and downregulates the secretion of the anti-inflammatory lipoxin A4 in host cells and the viral factors involved in this process using in vitro KS and PEL cells as models. The presence of the lipoxin A4 receptor/formyl peptidyl receptor (ALX/FPR) in KS patient tissue sections and in vitro KS and PEL cell models offers a novel possibility for treating KS and PEL with lipoxins. Treating de novo KSHV-infected endothelial cells with lipoxin and epilipoxin creates an anti-inflammatory environment by decreasing the levels of NF-κB, AKT, ERK1/2, COX-2, and 5-lipoxygenase. Lipoxin treatment on CRISPR/CAS9 technology-mediated ALX/FPR gene deletion revealed the importance of the lipoxin receptor ALX for effective lipoxin signaling. A viral microRNA (miRNA) cluster was identified as the primary factor contributing to the downregulation of lipoxin A4 secretion in host cells. The KSHV miRNA cluster probably targets enzyme 15-lipoxygenase, which is involved in lipoxin A4 synthesis. This study provides a new insight into the potential treatment of KS and PEL using nature's own anti-inflammatory molecule, lipoxin.
IMPORTANCE: KSHV infection has been shown to upregulate several host proinflammatory factors, which aid in its survival and pathogenesis. The influence of KSHV infection on anti-inflammatory molecules is not well studied. Since current treatment methods for KS and PEL are fraught with unwanted side effects and low efficiency, the search for new therapeutics is therefore imperative. The use of nature's own molecule lipoxin as a drug is promising. This study opens up new domains in KSHV research focusing on how the virus modulates lipoxin secretion and warrants further investigation of the therapeutic potential of lipoxin using in vitro cell models for KS and PEL.

Li M, Gao F, Xia Y, et al.
Filtrating colorectal cancer associated genes by integrated analyses of global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in cancer and normal tissue.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:31826 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
Recently, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine patterning across the tumor genome was considered as a hallmark of cancer development and progression. However, locus-specific difference of hydroxymethylation between colorectal cancer and normal tissue is unknown. In this study, we performed a newly developed method, HMST-seq, to profile 726 aberrant methylated loci and 689 aberrant hydroxymethylated loci synchronously in genome wide of colorectal cancers, majority of which presented higher methylation or lower hydroxymethylationin than in normal group. Besides, abnormal hydroxymethylated modification was more frequently occur at proximal regions close to TSSs and TSSs regions than abnormal methylation. Subsequently, we screened four genes (ALOX15, GHRHR, TFPI2 and TKTL1) with aberrant methylation and aberrant hydroxymethylation at some genome position by functional enrichment analysis as candidate genes associated with colorectal cancer. Our results may allow us to select differentially epigenetically modified target genes implicated in colorectal cancer tumorigenesis.

Kumar R, Singh AK, Kumar M, et al.
Serum 5-LOX: a progressive protein marker for breast cancer and new approach for therapeutic target.
Carcinogenesis. 2016; 37(9):912-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway has emerged to have a role in carcinogenesis. There is an evidence that both 12-LOX and 5-LOX have procarcinogenic role. We have previously reported the elevated level of serum 12-LOX in breast cancer patients. This study evaluated the serum level of 5-LOX in breast cancer patients and its in vitro inhibition assessment with peptide inhibitor YWCS. The level of 5-LOX was determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The peptide inhibitor of 5-LOX was designed by molecular modeling and kinetic assay was performed by spectrophotometry. The siRNA mediated 5-LOX gene silencing was performed to investigate the effect on proliferation of MDA-MB-231, breast cancer cell line. The serum 5-LOX level in breast cancer (5.69±1.97ng/µl) was almost 2-fold elevated compared to control (3.53±1.0ng/µl) (P < 0.0001). The peptide YWCS had shown competitive inhibitory effects with IC50, 2.2 µM and dissociation constant (K D), 4.92×10(-8) M. The siRNA mediated knockdown of 5-LOX, resulted in the decreased gene expression for 5-LOX and increased cell death in MDA-MB-231 cell line and thereby play a key role in reducing tumor proliferation. Thus, it can be concluded that 5-LOX is one of the potential serum protein marker for breast cancer and a promising therapeutic target for the same.

Tunçer S, Tunçay Çağatay S, Keşküş AG, et al.
Interplay between 15-lipoxygenase-1 and metastasis-associated antigen 1 in the metastatic potential of colorectal cancer.
Cell Prolif. 2016; 49(4):448-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Metastasis-associated antigen 1 (MTA1) is implicated in metastasis while 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) reduces cell motility, when re-expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to understand any potential interplay between MTA1 and 15-LOX-1 in CRC metastasis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: ALOX15 and MTA1 expression in tumour and normal samples were analysed from TCGA RNA-seq data, microarray data sets and a human CRC cDNA array. Western blots, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), luciferase assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) were carried out in HT-29 and LoVo cells re-expressing 15-LOX-1 to determine NF- κB activity at the MTA1 promoter. Functional assays in cells ectopically expressing either 15-LOX-1, MTA-1 or both, were carried out to determine adhesion and cell motility.
RESULTS: Significantly higher expression of MTA1 was observed in tumours compared to normal tissues; MTA1 overexpression resulted in reduced adhesion in CRC cell lines. Re-expression of 15-LOX-1 in the CRC cell lines reduced expression of endogenous MTA1, corroborated by negative correlation between the two genes in two independent human CRC microarray data sets, with greater significance in specific subsets of patients. DNA binding and transcriptional activity of NF-κB at the MTA1 promoter was significantly lower in cells re-expressing 15-LOX-1. Functionally, the same cells had reduced motility, which was rescued when they overexpressed MTA1, and further corroborated by expressions of E-cadherin and vimentin.
CONCLUSIONS: Expression of MTA1 and 15-LOX-1 negatively correlated in specific subsets of CRC. Mechanistically, this is at least in part through reduced recruitment of NF-κB to the MTA1 promoter.

Li MY, Yuan HL, Ko FW, et al.
Antineoplastic effects of 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and 13-S-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid in non-small cell lung cancer.
Cancer. 2015; 121 Suppl 17:3130-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the levels of 15-lipoxygenase 1 (15-LOX-1) and 15-LOX-2 as well as their metabolites 13-S-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13(S)-HODE) and 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE) are significantly reduced in smokers with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Furthermore, animal model experiments have indicated that the reduction of these molecules occurs before the establishment of cigarette smoking carcinogen-induced lung tumors, and this suggests roles in lung tumorigenesis. However, the functions of these molecules remain unknown in NSCLC.
METHODS: NSCLC cells were treated with exogenous 13(S)-HODE and 15(S)-HETE, and then the ways in which they affected cell function were examined. 15-LOX-1 and 15-LOX-2 were also overexpressed in tumor cells to restore these 2 enzymes to generate endogenous 13(S)-HODE and 15(S)-HETE before cell function was assessed.
RESULTS: The application of exogenous 13(S)-HODE and 15(S)-HETE significantly enhanced the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and activated caspases 9 and 3. The overexpression of 15-LOX-1 and 15-LOX-2 obviously promoted the endogenous levels of 13(S)-HODE and 15(S)-HETE, which were demonstrated to be more effective in the inhibition of NSCLC.
CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated that exogenous or endogenous 13(S)-HODE and 15(S)-HETE can functionally inhibit NSCLC, likely by activating PPARγ. The restoration of 15-LOX activity to increase the production of endogenous 15(S)-HETE and 13(S)-HODE may offer a novel research direction for molecular targeting treatment of smoking-related NSCLC. This strategy can potentially avoid side effects associated with the application of synthetic PPARγ ligands.

Mashima R, Okuyama T
The role of lipoxygenases in pathophysiology; new insights and future perspectives.
Redox Biol. 2015; 6:297-310 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are dioxygenases that catalyze the formation of corresponding hydroperoxides from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. LOX enzymes are expressed in immune, epithelial, and tumor cells that display a variety of physiological functions, including inflammation, skin disorder, and tumorigenesis. In the humans and mice, six LOX isoforms have been known. 15-LOX, a prototypical enzyme originally found in reticulocytes shares the similarity of amino acid sequence as well as the biochemical property to plant LOX enzymes. 15-LOX-2, which is expressed in epithelial cells and leukocytes, has different substrate specificity in the humans and mice, therefore, the role of them in mammals has not been established. 12-LOX is an isoform expressed in epithelial cells and myeloid cells including platelets. Many mutations in this isoform are found in epithelial cancers, suggesting a potential link between 12-LOX and tumorigenesis. 12R-LOX can be found in the epithelial cells of the skin. Defects in this gene result in ichthyosis, a cutaneous disorder characterized by pathophysiologically dried skin due to abnormal loss of water from its epithelial cell layer. Similarly, eLOX-3, which is also expressed in the skin epithelial cells acting downstream 12R-LOX, is another causative factor for ichthyosis. 5-LOX is a distinct isoform playing an important role in asthma and inflammation. This isoform causes the constriction of bronchioles in response to cysteinyl leukotrienes such as LTC4, thus leading to asthma. It also induces neutrophilic inflammation by its recruitment in response to LTB4. Importantly, 5-LOX activity is strictly regulated by 5-LOX activating protein (FLAP) though the distribution of 5-LOX in the nucleus. Currently, pharmacological drugs targeting FLAP are actively developing. This review summarized these functions of LOX enzymes under pathophysiological conditions in mammals.

Tang K, Cai Y, Joshi S, et al.
Convergence of eicosanoid and integrin biology: 12-lipoxygenase seeks a partner.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:111 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Integrins and enzymes of the eicosanoid pathway are both well-established contributors to cancer. However, this is the first report of the interdependence of the two signaling systems. In a screen for proteins that interacted with, and thereby potentially regulated, the human platelet-type 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX, ALOX12), we identified the integrin β4 (ITGB4).
METHODS: Using a cultured mammalian cell model, we have demonstrated that ITGB4 stimulation leads to recruitment of 12-LOX from the cytosol to the membrane where it physically interacts with the integrin to become enzymatically active to produce 12(S)-HETE, a known bioactive lipid metabolite that regulates numerous cancer phenotypes.
RESULTS: The net effect of the interaction was the prevention of cell death in response to starvation. Additionally, regulation of β4-mediated, EGF-stimulated invasion was shown to be dependent on 12-LOX, and downstream Erk signaling in response to ITGB4 activation also required 12-LOX.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of an enzyme of the eicosanoid pathway being recruited to and regulated by activated β4 integrin. Integrin β4 has recently been shown to induce expansion of prostate tumor progenitors and there is a strong correlation between stage/grade of prostate cancer and 12-LOX expression. The 12-LOX enzymatic product, 12(S)-HETE, regulates angiogenesis and cell migration in many cancer types. Therefore, disruption of integrin β4-12LOX interaction could reduce the pro-inflammatory oncogenic activity of 12-LOX. This report on the consequences of 12-LOX and ITGB4 interaction sets a precedent for the linkage of integrin and eicosanoid biology through direct protein-protein association.

Bessadóttir M, Eiríksson FF, Becker S, et al.
Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of lichen-derived compound protolichesterinic acid are not mediated by its lipoxygenase-inhibitory activity.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2015; 98:39-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lipoxygenases (LOXs) and their products are involved in several biological functions and have been associated with carcinogenesis. Protolichesterinic acid (PA), a lichen metabolite, inhibits 5- and 12-LOX and has anti-proliferative effects on various cancer cell lines. Here, PA was shown to inhibit proliferation of multiple myeloma cells, RPMI 8226 and U266, and pancreatic cancer cells AsPC-1. Apoptosis was induced only in multiple myeloma cells. Cell-cycle associated changes in expression and sub-cellular localization of 5- and 12-LOX were not affected by PA but increased cytoplasmic localisation was found to accompany morphological changes at later stages. Assessment by mass spectrometry showed that PA entered the pancreatic cancer cells. However, effects on LOX metabolites were only evident after treatment with concentrations exceeding those having anti-proliferative effects and no effects were measurable in the myeloma cells. We conclude that the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of PA are not mediated directly through inhibition of LOX activity.

Mao F, Xu M, Zuo X, et al.
15-Lipoxygenase-1 suppression of colitis-associated colon cancer through inhibition of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.
FASEB J. 2015; 29(6):2359-70 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
The IL-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway is a critical signaling pathway for colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-δ, a lipid nuclear receptor, up-regulates IL-6. 15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1), which is crucial to production of lipid signaling mediators to terminate inflammation, down-regulates PPAR-δ. 15-LOX-1 effects on IL-6/STAT3 signaling and CAC tumorigenesis have not been determined. We report that intestinally targeted transgenic 15-LOX-1 expression in mice inhibited azoxymethane- and dextran sodium sulfate-induced CAC, IL-6 expression, STAT3 phosphorylation, and IL-6/STAT3 downstream target (Notch3 and MUC1) expression. 15-LOX-1 down-regulation was associated with IL-6 up-regulation in human colon cancer mucosa. Reexpression of 15-LOX-1 in human colon cancer cells suppressed IL-6 mRNA expression, STAT3 phosphorylation, IL-6 promoter activity, and PPAR-δ mRNA and protein expression. PPAR-δ overexpression in colonic epithelial cells promoted CAC tumorigenesis in mice and increased IL-6 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation, whereas concomitant 15-LOX-1 expression in colonic epithelial cells (15-LOX-1-PPAR-δ-Gut mice) suppressed these effects: the number of tumors per mouse (mean ± sem) was 4.22 ± 0.68 in wild-type littermates, 6.67 ± 0.83 in PPAR-δ-Gut mice (P = 0.026), and 2.25 ± 0.25 in 15-LOX-1-PPAR-δ-Gut mice (P = 0.0006). Identification of 15-LOX-1 suppression of PPAR-δ to inhibit IL-6/STAT3 signaling-driven CAC tumorigenesis provides mechanistic insights that can be used to molecularly target CAC.

Chen Y, Peng C, Abraham SA, et al.
Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase is required for chronic myeloid leukemia stem cell survival.
J Clin Invest. 2014; 124(9):3847-62 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for the initiation and maintenance of some types of cancer, suggesting that inhibition of these cells may limit disease progression and relapse. Unfortunately, few CSC-specific genes have been identified. Here, we determined that the gene encoding arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (Alox15/15-LO) is essential for the survival of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) in a murine model of BCR-ABL-induced chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In the absence of Alox15, BCR-ABL was unable to induce CML in mice. Furthermore, Alox15 deletion impaired LSC function by affecting cell division and apoptosis, leading to an eventual depletion of LSCs. Moreover, chemical inhibition of 15-LO function impaired LSC function and attenuated CML in mice. The defective CML phenotype in Alox15-deficient animals was rescued by depleting the gene encoding P-selectin, which is upregulated in Alox15-deficient animals. Both deletion and overexpression of P-selectin affected the survival of LSCs. In human CML cell lines and CD34+ cells, knockdown of Alox15 or inhibition of 15-LO dramatically reduced survival. Loss of Alox15 altered expression of PTEN, PI3K/AKT, and the transcription factor ICSBP, which are known mediators of cancer pathogenesis. These results suggest that ALOX15 has potential as a therapeutic target for eradicating LSCs in CML.

de León FC, Gordillo-Domínguez LF, González-Carranza V, et al.
Brachmann-Cornelia de Lange syndrome with a papilloma of the choroid plexus: analyses of molecular genetic characteristics of the patient and the tumor. A single-case study.
Childs Nerv Syst. 2015; 31(1):141-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: A 10-month-old girl with a Brachmann-Cornelia de Lange syndrome and a choroid plexus papilloma of the brain was studied at the Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez (HIMFG) in Mexico City.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Presumptive papilloma of the third ventricle was evidenced on CT and MR images and removed. Pathological analysis confirmed its origin. A posterior radiosurgery was required due to a tumor relapse. Karyotypes (GTG bands) of the patient and her parents undertaken at HIMFG were normal. Array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) analyses of blood DNA of the patient and her parents carried out at BlueGnome's Laboratory in Cambridge, UK, set in evidence amplification of genes SPNS2, GGT6, SMTNL2, PELP1, MYBBP1A, and ALOX15 in chromosome 17p of the patient. Since MYBBP1A is a proto-oncogene and ALOX15 participates in the development of cancer and metastases of tumors, further fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of these two genes were implemented at HIMFG. Amplification of the two genes was found in the tumor of the case under study but not in an unrelated papilloma of the choroid plexus.
DISCUSSION: Further analyses of the association of choroid plexus papillomas with disorders of psycho-neural development and its relationship to molecular genetic modifications at chromosome 17p are now under way at HIMFG.

Suraneni MV, Moore JR, Zhang D, et al.
Tumor-suppressive functions of 15-Lipoxygenase-2 and RB1CC1 in prostate cancer.
Cell Cycle. 2014; 13(11):1798-810 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
15-Lipoxygenase-2 (15-LOX2) is a human-specific lipid-peroxidizing enzyme most prominently expressed in epithelial cells of normal human prostate but downregulated or completely lost in>70% of prostate cancer (PCa) cases. Transgenic expression of 15-LOX2 in the mouse prostate surprisingly causes hyperplasia. Here we first provide evidence that 15-LOX2-induced prostatic hyperplasia does not progress to PCa even in p53(+/-) or p53(-/-) background. More important, by generating 15-LOX2; Hi-Myc double transgenic (dTg) mice, we show that 15-LOX2 expression inhibits Myc-induced PCa development, such that in the 3-month- and 6-month-old dTg mice, there is a significant reduction in prostate intraneoplasia (PIN) and PCa prevalent in age-matched Hi-Myc prostates. The dTg prostates show increased cell senescence and expression of several senescence-associated molecules, including p27, phosphorylated Rb, and Rb1cc1. We further show that in HPCa, 15-LOX2 and c-Myc manifest reciprocal protein expression patterns. Moreover, RB1CC1 accumulates in senescing normal human prostate (NHP) cells, and in both NHP and RWPE-1 cells, the 15-LOX2 metabolic products 15(S)-HPETE and 15(S)-HETE induce RB1CC1. We finally show that unlike 15-LOX2, RB1CC1 is not lost but rather frequently overexpressed in PCa samples. RB1CC1 knockdown in PC3 cells enhances clonal growth in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Together, our present studies provide evidence for tumor-suppressive functions for both 15-LOX2 and RB1CC1.

Zhong H, Wang R, Kelavkar U, et al.
Enzyme 15-lipoxygenase 1 promotes hypoxia-inducible factor 1α turnover and reduces vascular endothelial growth factor expression: implications for angiogenesis.
Cancer Med. 2014; 3(3):514-25 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is the regulatory subunit of the heterodimeric HIF-1 that plays a critical role in transcriptional regulation of genes in angiogenesis and hypoxic adaptation, while fatty acid metabolism mediated by lipoxygenases has been implicated in a variety of pathogeneses, including cancers. In this study, we report that 15-lipoxygenase 1 (15-LO1), a key member of the lipoxygenase family, promotes HIF-1α ubiquitination and degradation. Altering the level of 15-LO1 yields inverse changes in HIF-1α and HIF-1 transcriptional activity, under both normoxia and hypoxia, and even in CoCl2 -treated cells where HIF-1α has been artificially elevated. The antagonistic effect of 15-LO1 is mediated by the Pro(564) /hydroxylation/26S proteasome system, while both the enzymatic activity and the intracellular membrane-binding function of 15-LO1 appear to contribute to HIF-1α suppression. Our findings provide a novel mechanism for HIF-1α regulation, in which oxygen-dependent HIF-1 activity is modulated by an oxygen-insensitive lipid metabolic enzyme.

Wu Y, Mao F, Zuo X, et al.
15-LOX-1 suppression of hypoxia-induced metastatic phenotype and HIF-1α expression in human colon cancer cells.
Cancer Med. 2014; 3(3):472-84 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
The expression of 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) is downregulated in colon cancer and other major cancers, and 15-LOX-1 reexpression in cancer cells suppresses colonic tumorigenesis. Various lines of evidence indicate that 15-LOX-1 expression suppresses premetastatic stages of colonic tumorigenesis; nevertheless, the role of 15-LOX-1 loss of expression in cancer epithelial cells in metastases continues to be debated. Hypoxia, a common feature of the cancer microenvironment, promotes prometastatic mechanisms such as the upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, a transcriptional master regulator that enhances cancer cell metastatic potential, angiogenesis, and tumor cell invasion and migration. We have, therefore, tested whether restoring 15-LOX-1 in colon cancer cells affects cancer cells' hypoxia response that promotes metastasis. We found that 15-LOX-1 reexpression in HCT116, HT29LMM, and LoVo colon cancer cells inhibited survival, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, angiogenesis, cancer cell migration and invasion, and HIF-1α protein expression and stability under hypoxia. These findings demonstrate that 15-LOX-1 expression loss in cancer cells promotes metastasis and that therapeutically targeting ubiquitous 15-LOX-1 loss in cancer cells has the potential to suppress metastasis.

Sain S, Naoghare PK, Devi SS, et al.
Beta caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide, isolated from Aegle marmelos, as the potent anti-inflammatory agents against lymphoma and neuroblastoma cells.
Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem. 2014; 13(1):45-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aegle marmelos (Indian Bael) is a tree which belongs to the family of Rutaceae. It holds a prominent position in both Indian medicine and Indian culture. We have screened various fractions of Aegle marmelos extracts for their anticancer properties using in vitro cell models. Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed to analyze the biomolecules present in the Aegle marmelos extract. Jurkat and human neuroblastoma (IMR-32) cells were treated with different concentrations of the fractionated Aegle marmelos extracts. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that optimal concentration (50 µg/ml) of beta caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide fractions of Aegle marmelos extract can induce apoptosis in Jurkat cell line. cDNA expression profiling of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes was carried out using real time PCR (RT-PCR). Down-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes (bcl-2, mdm2, cox2 and cmyb) and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes (bax, bak1, caspase-8, caspase-9 and ATM) in Jurkat and IMR-32 cells treated with the beta caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide fractions of Aegle marmelos extract revealed the insights of the downstream apoptotic mechanism. Furthermore, in-silico approach was employed to understand the upstream target involved in the induction of apoptosis by the beta caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide fractions of Aegle marmelos extract. Herein, we report that beta caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide isolated from Aegle marmelos can act as potent anti-inflammatory agents and modulators of a newly established therapeutic target, 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX). Beta caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide can induce apoptosis in lymphoma and neuroblastoma cells via modulation of 15-LOX (up-stream target) followed by the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes.

Hughes L, Ruth K, Rebbeck TR, Giri VN
Genetic variation in IL-16 miRNA target site and time to prostate cancer diagnosis in African-American men.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2013; 16(4):308-14 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Men with a family history of prostate cancer and African-American men are at high risk for prostate cancer and in need of personalized risk estimates to inform screening decisions. This study evaluated genetic variants in genes encoding microRNA (miRNA) binding sites for informing of time to prostate cancer diagnosis among ethnically diverse, high-risk men undergoing prostate cancer screening.
METHODS: The Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program (PRAP) is a longitudinal screening program for high-risk men. The eligibility includes men aged between 35 and 69 years with a family history of prostate cancer or African descent. Participants with 1 follow-up visit were included in the analyses (n=477). Genetic variants in genes encoding miRNA binding sites (ALOX15 (arachidonate 15-lipooxygenase), IL-16, IL-18 and RAF1 (v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1)) previously implicated in prostate cancer development were evaluated. Genotyping methods included Taqman SNP Genotyping Assay or pyrosequencing. Cox models were used to assess time to prostate cancer diagnosis by risk genotype.
RESULTS: Among 256 African Americans with one follow-up visit, the TT genotype at rs1131445 in IL-16 was significantly associated with earlier time to prostate cancer diagnosis vs the CC/CT genotypes (P=0.013), with a suggestive association after correction for false discovery (P=0.065). Hazard ratio after controlling for age and PSA for TT vs CC/CT among African Americans was 3.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.26-7.12). No association with time to diagnosis was detected among Caucasians by IL-16 genotype. No association with time to prostate cancer diagnosis was found for the other miRNA target genotypes.
CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation in IL-16 encoding miRNA target site may be informative of time to prostate cancer diagnosis among African-American men enrolled in prostate cancer risk assessment, which may inform individualized prostate cancer screening strategies in the future.

Li S, Zhao X, Wu Z, et al.
Polymorphisms in arachidonic acid metabolism-related genes and the risk and prognosis of colorectal cancer.
Fam Cancer. 2013; 12(4):755-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) and phospholipaseA2 (PLA2) played important roles in the modulation of apoptosis, angiogenesis, carcinogenesis and invasion of colorectal cancer (CRC). The polymorphisms in COX-2, 12-LOX and PLA2 may affect their roles. Therefore, we investigated if COX-2 -1195G > A, 12-LOX 261Arg > Gln and PLA2 c.349 + 191A > G polymorphisms were associated with risk and prognosis of CRC as well as possible interactions with the environmental factors on the risk of CRC in Northeast of China. A case-control study with 451 cases and 631 controls were carried out, a cohort with 386 patients were followed up. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Compared with the 261Arg/Arg genotype, 12-LOX 261Arg/Gln genotype and 261Arg/Gln + Gln/Gln genotypes reduced the risk of rectal cancer by 33% (adjusted OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.47-0.97, p = 0.03) and 32% (adjusted OR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.49-0.96, p = 0.03), respectively. The adjusted HR for the association between 12-LOX 261Gln/Gln genotype and overall survival in patients with CRC was 1.68 (95% CI 1.06-2.68, p = 0.03). There was also evidence of an interaction between the PLA2 c.349 + 191 A > G genotypes and the overnight food consumption (adjusted ORi = 1.92, 95% CI 1.14-3.25, P(interaction) = 0.01). These observations indicate that 12-LOX 261Arg > Gln polymorphism may affect risk of rectal cancer, and it may be a potential predictive marker for prognosis of CRC.

Dilly AK, Ekambaram P, Guo Y, et al.
Platelet-type 12-lipoxygenase induces MMP9 expression and cellular invasion via activation of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 133(8):1784-91 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of death in males in the United States. Using human prostate cancer specimens, the authors have previously shown that elevated expression levels of 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) occurred more frequently in advanced stage, high-grade prostate cancer, suggesting that 12-LOX expression is associated with carcinoma progression and invasion. Previous reports from their group and others have shown that 12-LOX is a positive modulator of invasion and metastasis; however, the mechanism remains unclear. In this work, a new link between 12-LOX and the matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) in prostate cancer angiogenesis is reported. This study demonstrated that overexpression of 12-LOX in prostate cancer PC-3 cells resulted in elevated expression of MMP9 mRNA, protein and secretion. Exogenous addition of 12(S)-hydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid, the sole and stable end product of arachidonic acid metabolism by 12-LOX, is able to increase MMP9 expression in wild-type PC-3 cells. Furthermore, using pharmacological and genetic inhibition approaches, it was found that 12-LOX activates phosphoinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt, which results in nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-driven MMP9 expression, ensuing in enhanced chemoattraction of endothelial cells. Specific inhibitors of 12-LOX, PI3K or NF-κB inhibited MMP9 expression in 12-LOX-expressing PC-3 cells and resulted in the blockade of the migratory ability of endothelial cells. In summary, the authors have identified a new pathway by which overexpression of 12-LOX in prostate cancer cells leads to augmented production of MMP9 via activation of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling. The role of 12-LOX-mediated MMP9 secretion in endothelial cell migration may account for the proangiogenic function of 12-LOX in prostate cancer.

Lövey J, Nie D, Tóvári J, et al.
Radiosensitivity of human prostate cancer cells can be modulated by inhibition of 12-lipoxygenase.
Cancer Lett. 2013; 335(2):495-501 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nearly 30% of prostate cancer (PCa) patients treated with potentially curative doses relapse at the sites of irradiation. How some tumor cells acquire radioresistance is poorly understood. The platelet-type 12-lipoxygenases (12-LOX)-mediated arachidonic acid metabolism is important in PCa progression. Here we show that 12-LOX confers radioresistance upon PCa cells. Treatment with 12-LOX inhibitors baicalein or BMD122 sensitizes PCa cells to radiation, without radiosensitizing normal cells. 12-LOX inhibitors and radiation, when combined, have super additive or synergistic inhibitory effects on the colony formation of both androgen-dependent LNCaP and androgen-independent PC-3 PCa cells. In vivo, the combination therapy significantly reduced tumor growth.

Kleinstein SE, Heath L, Makar KW, et al.
Genetic variation in the lipoxygenase pathway and risk of colorectal neoplasia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013; 52(5):437-49 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
Arachidonate lipoxygenase (ALOX) enzymes metabolize arachidonic acid to generate potent inflammatory mediators and play an important role in inflammation-associated diseases. We investigated associations between colorectal cancer risk and polymorphisms in ALOX5, FLAP, ALOX12, and ALOX15, and their interactions with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. We genotyped fifty tagSNPs, one candidate SNP, and two functional promoter variable nucleotide tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms in three US population-based case-control studies of colon cancer (1,424 cases/1,780 controls), rectal cancer (583 cases/775 controls), and colorectal adenomas (485 cases/578 controls). Individuals with variant genotypes of the ALOX5 VNTR had a decreased risk of rectal cancer, with the strongest association seen for individuals with one or more alleles of >5 repeats (wild type = 5, OR>5/≥5 = 0.42, 95% CI 0.20-0.92; P = 0.01). Four SNPs in FLAP (rs17239025), ALOX12 (rs2073438), and ALOX15 (rs4796535 and rs2619112) were associated with rectal cancer risk at P ≤ 0.05. One SNP in FLAP (rs12429692) was associated with adenoma risk. A false discovery rate (FDR) was applied to account for false positives due to multiple testing; the ALOX15 associations were noteworthy at 25% FDR. Colorectal neoplasia risk appeared to be modified by NSAID use in individuals with variant alleles in FLAP and ALOX15. One noteworthy interaction (25% FDR) was observed for rectal cancer. Genetic variability in ALOXs may affect risk of colorectal neoplasia, particularly for rectal cancer. Additionally, genetic variability in FLAP and ALOX15 may modify the protective effect of NSAID use against colorectal neoplasia.

Zuo X, Shureiqi I
Eicosanoid profiling in colon cancer: emergence of a pattern.
Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2013 Jul-Aug; 104-105:139-43 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
Oxidative metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been linked to tumorigenesis in general and colonic tumorigenesis in particular. Earlier studies showed that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) have opposing impacts on colonic tumorigenesis: COX-2 promotes while 15-LOX-1 inhibits colonic tumorigenesis. Advances in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry have allowed for measurement of various products of oxidative metabolism in a single colonic biopsy specimen. Studies of LOX products in preclinical models and in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and sporadic colorectal tumorigenesis indicate that LOX pathways are shifted during colonic tumorigenesis and that the main shift is downregulation of 15-LOX-1. This shift occurs during the polyp formation stage and thus offers the opportunity to modulate tumorigenesis early by correcting 15-LOX-1 downregulation.

Yang P, Cartwright CA, Li J, et al.
Arachidonic acid metabolism in human prostate cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2012; 41(4):1495-503 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
The arachidonic acid pathway is important in the development and progression of numerous malignant diseases, including prostate cancer. To more fully evaluate the role of individual cyclooxygenases (COXs), lipoxygenases (LOXs) and their metabolites in prostate cancer, we measured mRNA and protein levels of COXs and LOXs and their arachidonate metabolites in androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (PC-3 and DU145) prostate cancer cell lines, bone metastasis-derived MDA PCa 2a and MDA PCa 2b cell lines and their corresponding xenograft models, as well as core biopsy specimens of primary prostate cancer and nonneoplastic prostate tissue taken ex vivo after prostatectomy. Relatively high levels of COX-2 mRNA and its product PGE2 were observed only in PC-3 cells and their xenografts. By contrast, levels of the exogenous 12-LOX product 12-HETE were consistently higher in MDA PCa 2b and PC-3 cells and their corresponding xenograft tissues than were those in LNCaP cells. More strikingly, the mean endogenous level of 12-HETE was significantly higher in the primary prostate cancers than in the nonneoplastic prostate tissue (0.094 vs. 0.010 ng/mg protein, respectively; p=0.019). Our results suggest that LOX metabolites such as 12-HETE are critical in prostate cancer progression and that the LOX pathway may be a target for treating and preventing prostate cancer.

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