Gene Summary

Gene:ADRB2; adrenoceptor beta 2
Summary:This gene encodes beta-2-adrenergic receptor which is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. This receptor is directly associated with one of its ultimate effectors, the class C L-type calcium channel Ca(V)1.2. This receptor-channel complex also contains a G protein, an adenylyl cyclase, cAMP-dependent kinase, and the counterbalancing phosphatase, PP2A. The assembly of the signaling complex provides a mechanism that ensures specific and rapid signaling by this G protein-coupled receptor. This gene is intronless. Different polymorphic forms, point mutations, and/or downregulation of this gene are associated with nocturnal asthma, obesity and type 2 diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:beta-2 adrenergic receptor
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ADRB2 (cancer-related)

Wang T, Xing Y, Meng Q, et al.
Mammalian Eps15 homology domain 1 potentiates angiogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer by regulating β2AR signaling.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):174 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a devastating disease with a heterogeneous prognosis, and the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor progression remain elusive. Mammalian Eps15 homology domain 1 (EHD1) plays a promotive role in tumor progression, but its role in cancer angiogenesis remains unknown. This study thus explored the role of EHD1 in angiogenesis in NSCLC.
METHODS: The changes in angiogenesis were evaluated through human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, migration and tube formation assays. The impact of EHD1 on β2-adrenoceptor (β2AR) signaling was evaluated by Western blotting, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The interaction between EHD1 and β2AR was confirmed by immunofluorescence (IF) and coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) experiments, and confocal microscopy immunofluorescence studies revealed that β2AR colocalized with the recycling endosome marker Rab11, which indicated β2AR endocytosis. Xenograft tumor models were used to investigate the role of EHD1 in NSCLC tumor growth.
RESULTS: The microarray analysis revealed that EHD1 was significantly correlated with tumor angiogenesis, and loss- and gain-of-function experiments demonstrated that EHD1 potentiates HUVEC proliferation, migration and tube formation. EHD1 knockdown inhibited β2AR signaling activity, and EHD1 upregulation promoted vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and β2AR expression. Interestingly, EHD1 interacted with β2AR and played a novel and critical role in β2AR endocytic recycling to prevent receptor degradation. Aberrant VEGFA or β2AR expression significantly affected EHD1-mediated tumor angiogenesis. The proangiogenic role of EHD1 was confirmed in xenograft tumor models, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis confirmed that EHD1 expression was positively correlated with VEGFA expression, microvessel density (MVD) and β2AR expression in patient specimens.
CONCLUSION: Collectively, the data obtained in this study suggest that EHD1 plays a critical role in NSCLC angiogenesis via β2AR signaling and highlight a potential target for antiangiogenic therapy.

Denichenko P, Mogilevsky M, Cléry A, et al.
Specific inhibition of splicing factor activity by decoy RNA oligonucleotides.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1590 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Alternative splicing, a fundamental step in gene expression, is deregulated in many diseases. Splicing factors (SFs), which regulate this process, are up- or down regulated or mutated in several diseases including cancer. To date, there are no inhibitors that directly inhibit the activity of SFs. We designed decoy oligonucleotides, composed of several repeats of a RNA motif, which is recognized by a single SF. Here we show that decoy oligonucleotides targeting splicing factors RBFOX1/2, SRSF1 and PTBP1, can specifically bind to their respective SFs and inhibit their splicing and biological activities both in vitro and in vivo. These decoy oligonucleotides present an approach to specifically downregulate SF activity in conditions where SFs are either up-regulated or hyperactive.

Jia D, Lu M, Jung KH, et al.
Elucidating cancer metabolic plasticity by coupling gene regulation with metabolic pathways.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019; 116(9):3909-3918 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metabolic plasticity enables cancer cells to switch their metabolism phenotypes between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) during tumorigenesis and metastasis. However, it is still largely unknown how cancer cells orchestrate gene regulation to balance their glycolysis and OXPHOS activities. Previously, by modeling the gene regulation of cancer metabolism we have reported that cancer cells can acquire a stable hybrid metabolic state in which both glycolysis and OXPHOS can be used. Here, to comprehensively characterize cancer metabolic activity, we establish a theoretical framework by coupling gene regulation with metabolic pathways. Our modeling results demonstrate a direct association between the activities of AMPK and HIF-1, master regulators of OXPHOS and glycolysis, respectively, with the activities of three major metabolic pathways: glucose oxidation, glycolysis, and fatty acid oxidation. Our model further characterizes the hybrid metabolic state and a metabolically inactive state where cells have low activity of both glycolysis and OXPHOS. We verify the model prediction using metabolomics and transcriptomics data from paired tumor and adjacent benign tissue samples from a cohort of breast cancer patients and RNA-sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We further validate the model prediction by in vitro studies of aggressive triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. The experimental results confirm that TNBC cells can maintain a hybrid metabolic phenotype and targeting both glycolysis and OXPHOS is necessary to eliminate their metabolic plasticity. In summary, our work serves as a platform to symmetrically study how tuning gene activity modulates metabolic pathway activity, and vice versa.

Perez S, Gal-Tanamy M
Studying the Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Epigenetic Signature After Cure with Direct-Acting Antivirals.
Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 1911:191-207 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy efficiently eradicates HCV infection, epidemiological studies show that sustained virological response (SVR) following anti-HCV treatment reduces, but does not eliminate, the risk for HCC. We have recently demonstrated that HCV infection induces genome-wide epigenetic changes that reprogram host gene expression and persist as "epigenetic signature" following virus eradication by DAAs. We suggest that this epigenetic signature underlie the residual risk for HCC post-SVR. Here, we provide a methodology to study the HCV-induced epigenetic signature. We describe a ChIP-seq protocol to evaluate changes in epigenome profile following HCV infection, its cure with DAA, and after treatment with epigenetic modifier inhibitor. We also describe evaluation of changes in the gene expression profile using RNA-seq. The integration between detected alterations in epigenetic marks and gene expression allows for identification of biological processes that are involved in HCV-driven oncogenesis before and after cure.

Kaira K, Kamiyoshihara M, Kawashima O, et al.
Prognostic Impact of β2 Adrenergic Receptor Expression in Surgically Resected Pulmonary Pleomorphic Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(1):395-403 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) is highly expressed in various human cancers and has been linked to tumor growth and metastases. Although β2AR is considered a novel therapeutic target of human neoplasms, the clinicopathological significance of β2AR expression in patients with pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma (PPC) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the prognostic impact of β2AR in PPC.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and five Japanese patients with surgically resected PPC were included in the study. The expression levels of β2AR were assessed by immunohistochemistry in specimens from the resected tumors, and their association with patient survival, as well as with tumor characteristics was investigated.
RESULTS: β2AR was highly expressed in 63% of all patients, irrespective of adenocarcinoma components present. The β2AR expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, lymphatic permeation and tumor cell proliferation in PPC patients with early-stage disease (stage I or II). A high β2AR expression was identified as a significant predictor of worse prognosis for PPC patients during early stages of the disease. Multivariate analysis confirmed that β2AR expression was an independent factor for predicting the overall survival of PPC patients.
CONCLUSION: β2AR can serve as a significant predictor of tumor aggressiveness and poor survival for PPC patients, especially those with early-stage disease.

Bae GE, Kim HS, Won KY, et al.
Lower Sympathetic Nervous System Density and β-adrenoreceptor Expression Are Involved in Gastric Cancer Progression.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(1):231-236 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Identifying the role of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in tumor progression is among the most important challenges in cancer research. This study aimed to investigate the role of the SNS and β-adrenoreceptor in gastric cancer progression.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The density of SNS was quantified by immunohistochemical staining for tyrosine hydroxylase in 115 surgically-resected gastric cancer specimens. Immunostaining for β1- and β2-adrenoreceptor was also performed to examine the β-adrenoreceptor expression status in gastric cancer. Then the association of protein expression status with histological grade, pathological tumor stage (pT), and pathological node stage of gastric cancer was investigated.
RESULTS: The SNS density of pT4 tumors was significantly lower than that of pT1-3 tumors. The SNS density was positively correlated with β1-adrenoreceptor expression status. In addition, lower β1-adrenoreceptor expression was significantly associated with increased lymph node metastasis. Reduced β2-adrenoreceptor staining proportion was significantly associated with worse histological grade. Furthermore, the proportion of β2-adrenoreceptor staining was significantly lower in tumors with diffuse-type histology, than those with intestinal-type histology.
CONCLUSION: A lower SNS density and β-adrenoreceptor expression was associated with an aggressive oncogenic behavior including worse histological grade, advanced pT, and increased lymph node metastasis. SNS and β-adrenergic pathway are involved in the negative regulation of gastric cancer progression.

Gannon HS, Zou T, Kiessling MK, et al.
Identification of ADAR1 adenosine deaminase dependency in a subset of cancer cells.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):5450 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Systematic exploration of cancer cell vulnerabilities can inform the development of novel cancer therapeutics. Here, through analysis of genome-scale loss-of-function datasets, we identify adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR or ADAR1) as an essential gene for the survival of a subset of cancer cell lines. ADAR1-dependent cell lines display increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes. Activation of type I interferon signaling in the context of ADAR1 deficiency can induce cell lethality in non-ADAR1-dependent cell lines. ADAR deletion causes activation of the double-stranded RNA sensor, protein kinase R (PKR). Disruption of PKR signaling, through inactivation of PKR or overexpression of either a wildtype or catalytically inactive mutant version of the p150 isoform of ADAR1, partially rescues cell lethality after ADAR1 loss, suggesting that both catalytic and non-enzymatic functions of ADAR1 may contribute to preventing PKR-mediated cell lethality. Together, these data nominate ADAR1 as a potential therapeutic target in a subset of cancers.

Leibovici A, Sharon R, Azoulay D
BDNF Val66Met is Associated with Pre-existing but not with Paclitaxel-induced Peripheral Neuropathy in an Israeli Cohort of Breast Cancer Patients.
Isr Med Assoc J. 2018; 20(12):746-748 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neuronal growth factor that is important for the development, maintenance, and repair of the peripheral nervous system. The BDNF gene commonly carries a single nucleotide polymorphism (Val66Met-SNP), which affects the cellular distribution and activity-dependent secretion of BDNF in neuronal cells.
OBJECTIVES: To check the association between BDNF Val66Met-SNP as a predisposition that enhances the development of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in an Israeli cohort of patients with breast cancer who were treated with paclitaxel.
METHODS: Peripheral neuropathy symptoms were assessed and graded at baseline, before beginning treatment, and during the treatment protocol in 35 patients, using the reduced version of the Total Neuropathy Score (TNSr). Allelic discrimination of BDNF polymorphism was determined in the patients' peripheral blood by established polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing.
RESULTS: We found Val/Val in 20 patients (57.14%), Val/Met in 15 patients (42.86%), and Met/Met in none of the patients (0%). Baseline TNSr scores were higher in Met-BDNF patients compared to Val-BDNF patients. The maximal TNSr scores that developed during the follow-up in Met-BDNF patients were higher than in Val-BDNF patients. However, exclusion of patients with pre-existing peripheral neuropathy from the analysis resulted in equivalent maximal TNSr scores in Met-BDNF and Val-BDNF patients.
CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest that BDNF Val66met-SNP has no detectable effect on the peripheral neuropathy that is induced by paclitaxel. The significance of BDNF Val66Met-SNP in pre-existing peripheral neuropathy-related conditions, such as diabetes, should be further investigated.

Xie WY, He RH, Zhang J, et al.
β‑blockers inhibit the viability of breast cancer cells by regulating the ERK/COX‑2 signaling pathway and the drug response is affected by ADRB2 single‑nucleotide polymorphisms.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(1):341-350 [PubMed] Related Publications
The β2‑adrenergic receptor (β2‑AR, encoded by the ADRB2 gene) is a member of the G‑protein‑coupled receptor superfamily that can be stimulated by catecholamines. Studies in vivo and in vitro have confirmed that β‑blockers (β‑AR antagonists) exert antitumor effects on various tumors. Furthermore, ADRB2 single‑nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified to alter the expression and conformation of β2‑AR, which may alter the β‑blocker drug response. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of β‑blockers on triple‑negative breast cancer cells and determine whether ADRB2 SNPs affect the response to β‑blocker drugs. Propranolol and ICI 118,551 significantly inhibited the viability of MDA‑MB‑231 cells, arrested cell cycle progression at G0/G1 and S phase and induced cell apoptosis. Western blot analysis indicated that the phosphorylation levels of extracellular‑signal‑regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and the expression levels of cyclo‑oxygenase 2 (COX‑2) were significantly decreased following β‑blocker treatment. Four haplotypes, which comprised ADRB2 SNPs rs1042713 and rs1042714, were transfected into 293 cells. After 24 and 48 h of transfection, ADRB2 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in mutant groups compared with the wild‑type group. The ADRB2 SNPs exerted no effect on cell viability, but did affect the drug response of ICI 118,551. Furthermore, ADRB2 SNPs also affected the regulatory function of ICI 118,551 on the ERK/COX‑2 signaling pathway. Collectively, propranolol and ICI 118,551 inhibited the viability of MDA‑MB‑231 cells by downregulating the ERK/COX‑2 signaling pathway and inducing apoptosis. The results of the present study indicated that SNPs rs1042713 and rs1042714 of ADRB2 affected the response to ICI 118,551, and the underlying molecular mechanism was elucidated.

Shtam T, Naryzhny S, Samsonov R, et al.
Plasma exosomes stimulate breast cancer metastasis through surface interactions and activation of FAK signaling.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 174(1):129-141 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The interaction between malignant cells and surrounding healthy tissues is a critical factor in the metastatic progression of breast cancer (BC). Extracellular vesicles, especially exosomes, are known to be involved in inter-cellular communication during cancer progression. In the study presented herein, we aimed to evaluate the role of circulating plasma exosomes in the metastatic dissemination of BC and to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon.
METHODS: Exosomes isolated from plasma of healthy female donors were applied in various concentrations into the medium of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell lines. Motility and invasive properties of BC cells were examined by random migration and Transwell invasion assays, and the effect of plasma exosomes on the metastatic dissemination of BC cells was demonstrated in an in vivo zebrafish model. To reveal the molecular mechanism of interaction between plasma exosomes and BC cells, a comparison between un-treated and enzymatically modified exosomes was performed, followed by mass spectrometry, gene ontology, and pathway analysis.
RESULTS: Plasma exosomes stimulated the adhesive properties, two-dimensional random migration, and transwell invasion of BC cells in vitro as well as their in vivo metastatic dissemination in a dose-dependent manner. This stimulatory effect was mediated by interactions of surface exosome proteins with BC cells and consequent activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling in the tumor cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Plasma exosomes have a potency to stimulate the metastasis-promoting properties of BC cells. This pro-metastatic property of normal plasma exosomes may have impact on the course of the disease and on its prognosis.

Gayle SS, Sahni JM, Webb BM, et al.
Targeting BCL-xL improves the efficacy of bromodomain and extra-terminal protein inhibitors in triple-negative breast cancer by eliciting the death of senescent cells.
J Biol Chem. 2019; 294(3):875-886 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/01/2020 Related Publications
Inhibitors of bromodomain and extra-terminal proteins (BETi) suppress oncogenic gene expression and have been shown to be efficacious in many

Valdés MG, Galván-Femenía I, Ripoll VR, et al.
Pipeline design to identify key features and classify the chemotherapy response on lung cancer patients using large-scale genetic data.
BMC Syst Biol. 2018; 12(Suppl 5):97 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: During the last decade, the interest to apply machine learning algorithms to genomic data has increased in many bioinformatics applications. Analyzing this type of data entails difficulties for managing high-dimensional data, class imbalance for knowledge extraction, identifying important features and classifying individuals. In this study, we propose a general framework to tackle these challenges with different machine learning algorithms and techniques. We apply the configuration of this framework on lung cancer patients, identifying genetic signatures for classifying response to drug treatment response. We intersect these relevant SNPs with the GWAS Catalog of the National Human Genome Research Institute and explore the Regulomedb, GTEx databases for functional analysis purposes.
RESULTS: The machine learning based solution proposed in this study is a scalable and flexible alternative to the classical uni-variate regression approach to analyze large-scale data. From 36 experiments executed using the machine learning framework design, we obtain good classification performance from the top 5 models with the highest cross-validation score and the smallest standard deviation. One thousand two hundred twenty four SNPs corresponding to the key features from the top 20 models (cross validation F1 mean >= 0.65) were compared with the GWAS Catalog finding no intersection with genome-wide significant reported hits. From these, new genetic signatures in MAE, CEP104, PRKCZ and ADRB2 show relevant biological regulatory functionality related to lung physiology.
CONCLUSIONS: We have defined a machine learning framework using data with an unbalanced large data-set of SNP-arrays and imputed genotyping data from a pharmacogenomics study in lung cancer patients subjected to first-line platinum-based treatment. This approach found genome signals with no genome-wide significance in the uni-variate regression approach (GWAS Catalog) that are valuable for classifying patients, only few of them with related biological function. The effect results of these variants can be explained by the recently proposed omnigenic model hypothesis, which states that complex traits can be influenced mostly by genes outside not only by the "core genes", mainly found by the genome-wide significant SNPs, but also by the rest of genes outside of the "core pathways" with apparent unrelated biological functionality.

Bing Z, Cheng Z, Shi D, et al.
Investigate the mechanisms of Chinese medicine Fuzhengkangai towards EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinomas by network pharmacology.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018; 18(1):293 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chinese traditional herbal medicine Fuzhengkangai (FZKA) formulation combination with gefitinib can overcome drug resistance and improve the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma patients. However, the pharmacological and molecular mechanisms underlying the active ingredients, potential targets, and overcome drug resistance of the drug are still unclear. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the molecular mechanism of FZKA.
METHODS: A systems pharmacology and bioinformatics-based approach was employed to investigate the molecular pathogenesis of EGFR-TKI resistance with clinically effective herb formula. The differential gene expressions between EGFR-TKI sensitive and resistance cell lines were calculated and used to find overlap from targets as core targets. The prognosis of core targets was validated from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database by Cox regression. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment is applied to analysis core targets for revealing mechanism in biology.
RESULTS: The results showed that 35 active compounds of FZKA can interact with eight core targets proteins (ADRB2, BCL2, CDKN1A, HTR2C, KCNMA1, PLA2G4A, PRKCA and LYZ). The risk score of them were associated with overall survival and relapse free time (HR = 6.604, 95% CI: 2.314-18.850; HR = 5.132, 95% CI: 1.531-17.220). The pathway enrichment suggested that they involved in EGFR-TKI resistance and non-small cell lung cancer pathways, which directly affect EGFR-TKI resistance. The molecular docking showed that licochalcone a and beta-sitosterol can closely bind two targets (BCL2 and PRKCA) that involved in EGFR-TKI resistance pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provided a workflow for understanding mechanism of CHM for against drug resistance.

Xiao MB, Jin DD, Jiao YJ, et al.
β2-AR regulates the expression of AKR1B1 in human pancreatic cancer cells and promotes their proliferation via the ERK1/2 pathway.
Mol Biol Rep. 2018; 45(6):1863-1871 [PubMed] Related Publications
Psychological stress has been recognized as a well-documented risk factor associated with β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) in the development of pancreatic cancer. Aldo-keto reductase 1 member B1 (AKR1B1) is a potential interacting partner of β2-AR, but the effect of their interaction on pancreatic cancer cells is not known at present. We found a positive correlation between AKR1B1 and β2-AR expression in pancreatic cancer tissue samples, and co-localization of these proteins in the human pancreatic cancer BXPC-3 cell line. Compared to the controls, the CFPAC-1 and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells overexpressing β2-AR and AKR1B1 respectively showed significantly higher proliferation rates, which is attributed to higher proportion of cells in the S phase and decreased percentage of early apoptotic cells. Furthermore, overexpression of β2-AR led to a significant increase in the expression of AKR1B1 and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK1/2). Overexpression of AKR1B1 significantly decreased β2-AR levels and increased that of p-ERK1/2. Taken together, β2-AR directly interacted with and up-regulated AKR1B1 in pancreatic cancer cells, and promoted their proliferation and inhibited apoptosis via the ERK1/2 pathway. Our findings also highlight the β2-AR-AKR1B1 axis as a potential therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer.

Xiao GY, Mohanakrishnan A, Schmid SL
Role for ERK1/2-dependent activation of FCHSD2 in cancer cell-selective regulation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(41):E9570-E9579 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/01/2020 Related Publications
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) regulates the uptake of cell-surface receptors as well as their downstream signaling activities. We recently reported that signaling can reciprocally regulate CME in cancer cells and that this crosstalk can contribute to cancer progression. To further explore the nature and extent of the crosstalk between signaling and CME in cancer cell biology, we analyzed a panel of oncogenic signaling kinase inhibitors for their effects on CME across a panel of normal and cancerous cells. Inhibition of several kinases selectively affected CME in cancer cells, including inhibition of ERK1/2, which selectively inhibited CME by decreasing the rate of clathrin-coated pit (CCP) initiation. We identified an ERK1/2 substrate, the FCH/F-BAR and SH3 domain-containing protein FCHSD2, as being essential for the ERK1/2-dependent effects on CME and CCP initiation. Our data suggest that ERK1/2 phosphorylation activates FCHSD2 and regulates EGF receptor (EGFR) endocytic trafficking as well as downstream signaling activities. Loss of FCHSD2 activity in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells leads to increased cell-surface expression and altered signaling downstream of EGFR, resulting in enhanced cell proliferation and migration. The expression level of FCHSD2 is positively correlated with higher NSCLC patient survival rates, suggesting that FCHSD2 can negatively affect cancer progression. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms and consequences of the reciprocal regulation of signaling and CME in cancer cells.

Ghantous Y, Bahouth Z, Abu El-Naaj I
Clinical and genetic signatures of local recurrence in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Arch Oral Biol. 2018; 95:141-148 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Recurrent and metastatic Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is often incurable. There are large gaps in the understanding of the clinical course, biology and genetic biomarkers of OSCC which could help us identify patients with high-risk of recurrence who may benefit from intensified therapy or novel targeted therapy trials. The purpose of this study was to identify significant clinical, pathological and genomic risk factors for local recurrence in OSCC.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Molecular data sets and clinicopathological characteristics of 159 head and neck carcinoma patients were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data portal and analyzed using the Genome Data Analysis Center and cBioPortal to find significant risk factors for tumor recurrence.
RESULTS: The local recurrence rate was 24%. OSCC originating from the buccal mucosa composed 13% of all the tumors in the recurrent group, making it a statistically significant risk of recurrence (P value = 0.03). Likewise, positive surgical margins, pathological T staging, and alcohol consumption were found to be significantly associated with recurrence (P value < 0.05). Genetic profiling revealed the top 5 mutated genes (using the MutSigCV analysis). Only one of these genes, CASP8 was the only gene that was significantly altered only in the recurrent group (Q value = 8.7 × 10
CONCLUSIONS: In the current study, we found several clinical and genetic characteristics that could define patients with high-risk of OSCC recurrence. This provides a means of identifying patients that may benefit from intensified therapy or novel targeted therapy trials.

Meirson T, Gil-Henn H
Targeting invadopodia for blocking breast cancer metastasis.
Drug Resist Updat. 2018; 39:1-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dissemination of cancer cells from the primary tumor and their spread to distant sites of the body is the leading cause of mortality in metastatic cancer patients. Metastatic cancer cells invade surrounding tissues and blood vessels by forming F-actin-rich protrusions known as invadopodia, which degrade the extracellular matrix and enable invasion of tumor cells through it. Invadopodia have now been observed in vivo, and recent evidence demonstrates direct molecular links between assembly of invadopodia and cancer metastasis in both mouse models and in human patients. While significant progress has been achieved in the last decade in understanding the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways regulating invadopodia formation and function, the application of this knowledge to development of prognostic and therapeutic approaches for cancer metastasis has not been discussed before. Here, we provide a detailed overview of current prognostic markers and tests for cancer metastasis and discuss their advantages, disadvantages, and their predicted efficiency. Using bioinformatic patient database analysis, we demonstrate, for the first time, a significant correlation between invadopodia-associated genes to breast cancer metastasis, suggesting that invadopodia could be used as both a prognostic marker and as a therapeutic target for blocking cancer metastasis. We include here a novel network interaction map of invadopodia-associated proteins with currently available inhibitors, demonstrating a central role for the recently identified EGFR-Pyk2-Src-Arg-cortactin invadopodial pathway, to which re-purposing of existent inhibitors could be used to block breast cancer metastasis. We then present an updated overview of current cancer-related clinical trials, demonstrating the negligible number of trials focusing on cancer metastasis. We also discuss the difficulties and complexity of performing cancer metastasis clinical trials, and the possible development of anti-metastasis drug resistance when using a prolonged preventive treatment with invadopodia inhibitors. This review presents a new perspective on invadopodia-mediated tumor invasiveness and may lead to the development of novel prognostic and therapeutic approaches for cancer metastasis.

Muliaditan T, Caron J, Okesola M, et al.
Macrophages are exploited from an innate wound healing response to facilitate cancer metastasis.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):2951 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/01/2020 Related Publications
Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in tumour progression, which is facilitated by their ability to respond to environmental cues. Here we report, using murine models of breast cancer, that TAMs expressing fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP) and haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which are also found in human breast cancer, represent a macrophage phenotype similar to that observed during the wound healing response. Importantly, the expression of a wound-like cytokine response within the tumour is clinically associated with poor prognosis in a variety of cancers. We show that co-expression of FAP and HO-1 in macrophages results from an innate early regenerative response driven by IL-6, which both directly regulates HO-1 expression and licenses FAP expression in a skin-like collagen-rich environment. We show that tumours can exploit this response to facilitate transendothelial migration and metastatic spread of the disease, which can be pharmacologically targeted using a clinically relevant HO-1 inhibitor.

Trink A, Kanter I, Pode-Shakked N, et al.
Geometry of Gene Expression Space of Wilms' Tumors From Human Patients.
Neoplasia. 2018; 20(8):871-881 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/01/2020 Related Publications
Wilms' tumor is a pediatric malignancy that is thought to originate from faulty kidney development during the embryonic stage. However, there is a large variation between tumors from different patients in both histology and gene expression that is not well characterized. Here we use a meta-analysis of published microarray datasets to show that Favorable Histology Wilms' Tumors (FHWT's) fill a triangle-shaped continuum in gene expression space of which the vertices represent three idealized "archetypes". We show that these archetypes have predominantly renal blastemal, stromal, and epithelial characteristics and that they correlate well with the three major lineages of the developing embryonic kidney. Moreover, we show that advanced stage tumors shift towards the renal blastemal archetype. These results illustrate the potential of this methodology for characterizing the cellular composition of Wilms' tumors and for assessing disease progression.

Dreifuss T, Ben-Gal TS, Shamalov K, et al.
Uptake mechanism of metabolic-targeted gold nanoparticles.
Nanomedicine (Lond). 2018; 13(13):1535-1549 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To elucidate the interactions, uptake mechanisms and cytotoxicity profile of glucose-functionalized gold nanoparticles (2GF-GNPs), for expanding and advancing the recently proposed technology of metabolic-based cancer detection to a variety of cancer diseases.
METHODS: Several cell types with different metabolic features were used to assess the involvement of GLUT-1 and different endocytosis pathways in 2GF-GNP uptake, and the cytotoxicity profile of 2GF-GNPs.
RESULTS: Cellular uptake of 2GF-GNP strongly correlated with GLUT-1 surface expression, and occurred mainly through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. 2GF-GNPs showed no toxic effect on cell cycle and proliferation.
CONCLUSION: These findings promote development of metabolic-based cancer detection technologies, and suggest that 2GF-GNPs may enable specific cancer detection in a wide range of tumors characterized by high GLUT-1 expression.

Menghi F, Barthel FP, Yadav V, et al.
The Tandem Duplicator Phenotype Is a Prevalent Genome-Wide Cancer Configuration Driven by Distinct Gene Mutations.
Cancer Cell. 2018; 34(2):197-210.e5 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/01/2020 Related Publications
The tandem duplicator phenotype (TDP) is a genome-wide instability configuration primarily observed in breast, ovarian, and endometrial carcinomas. Here, we stratify TDP tumors by classifying their tandem duplications (TDs) into three span intervals, with modal values of 11 kb, 231 kb, and 1.7 Mb, respectively. TDPs with ∼11 kb TDs feature loss of TP53 and BRCA1. TDPs with ∼231 kb and ∼1.7 Mb TDs associate with CCNE1 pathway activation and CDK12 disruptions, respectively. We demonstrate that p53 and BRCA1 conjoint abrogation drives TDP induction by generating short-span TDP mammary tumors in genetically modified mice lacking them. Lastly, we show how TDs in TDP tumors disrupt heterogeneous combinations of tumor suppressors and chromatin topologically associating domains while duplicating oncogenes and super-enhancers.

Wu N, Zhang C, Wang C, et al.
Zinc-doped copper oxide nanocomposites reverse temozolomide resistance in glioblastoma by inhibiting AKT and ERK1/2.
Nanomedicine (Lond). 2018; 13(11):1303-1318 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To assess the effect of zinc-doped copper oxide nanocomposites (nZn-CuO NPs) on glioblastoma therapy.
MATERIALS & METHODS: nZn-CuO NPs were synthesized by sonochemical method and its antitumor effects and underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated both in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: After nZn-CuO NPs treatment, cell proliferation was significantly inhibited in dividing cancer cells but less toxicity was observed in normal cells. In vivo studies show that nZn-CuO NPs inhibited tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner. Further study found that nZn-CuO NPs trigger cell reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In temozolomide resistance glioblastoma, nZn-CuO NPs disturb cell growth and sphere formation by inhibiting AKT and ERK1/2 activation.
CONCLUSION: nZn-CuO NPs possess the potential to be developed as a novel anti-tumor agent, especially to treat temozolomide resistance glioblastoma.

Journo G, Tushinsky C, Shterngas A, et al.
Modulation of Cellular CpG DNA Methylation by Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus.
J Virol. 2018; 92(16) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/01/2020 Related Publications
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, HHV-8) is a gammaherpesvirus associated with several human malignancies. DNA methylation at CpG dinucleotides is an epigenetic mark dysregulated in many cancer types and in KSHV-infected cells. Several previous studies have analyzed in detail the CpG methylation of the KSHV episomal genomes, but little is known about the impact of KSHV on the human genome. Our knowledge of cellular CpG methylation in the context of KSHV infection is currently limited to four hypermethylated human gene promoters. Therefore, we undertook a comprehensive CpG methylation analysis of the human methylome in KSHV-infected cells and KSHV-associated primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). We performed Infinium HumanMethylation450K and MethylationEpic BeadChip arrays and identified panels of hyper- and hypomethylated cellular promoters in KSHV-infected cells. We combined our genome-wide methylation analysis with high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to add functional outcomes to the virally induced methylation changes. We were able to correlate many downregulated genes with promoter hypermethylation and upregulated genes with hypomethylation. In addition, we show that treating the cells with a demethylating agent leads to reexpression of these downregulated genes, indicating that, indeed, DNA methylation plays a role in the repression of these human genes. Comparison between

Azoulay D, Herishanu Y, Shapiro M, et al.
Elevated serum BDNF levels are associated with favorable outcome in CLL patients: Possible link to CXCR4 downregulation.
Exp Hematol. 2018; 63:17-21.e1 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increased chemokine C-X-C receptor 4 (CXCR4) expression is related to unfavorable outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neuronal growth factor that has been shown previously to interact with CXCR4 in neuronal cells. Here, we studied the in vitro effect of BDNF on CXCR4 expression and chemotaxis toward stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in freshly isolated CLL cells. We also explored the correlations between serum BDNF levels in CLL patients and disease characteristics and clinical course. Incubation of CLL cells with recombinant BDNF (50 ng/mL) resulted in a downregulation of CXCR4 surface expression and atenuated chemotaxis toward SDF-1. Higher serum BDNF levels were associated with a mutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV) gene, an early clinical stage, and a stable clinical course. Our findings suggest that increased circulating blood BDNF may be associated with a favorable effect in CLL. However, the exact mechanism of this favorable effect should be investigated further.

Zhu Y, Liu Y, Zhang C, et al.
Tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells are resistant to DNA-damaging chemotherapy because of upregulated BARD1 and BRCA1.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):1595 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/01/2020 Related Publications
Tamoxifen resistance is accountable for relapse in many ER-positive breast cancer patients. Most of these recurrent patients receive chemotherapy, but their chemosensitivity is unknown. Here, we report that tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells express significantly more BARD1 and BRCA1, leading to resistance to DNA-damaging chemotherapy including cisplatin and adriamycin, but not to paclitaxel. Silencing BARD1 or BRCA1 expression or inhibition of BRCA1 phosphorylation by Dinaciclib restores the sensitivity to cisplatin in tamoxifen-resistant cells. Furthermore, we show that activated PI3K/AKT pathway is responsible for the upregulation of BARD1 and BRCA1. PI3K inhibitors decrease the expression of BARD1 and BRCA1 in tamoxifen-resistant cells and re-sensitize them to cisplatin both in vitro and in vivo. Higher BARD1 and BRCA1 expression is associated with worse prognosis of early breast cancer patients, especially the ones that received radiotherapy, indicating the potential use of PI3K inhibitors to reverse chemoresistance and radioresistance in ER-positive breast cancer patients.

Suman P, Mishra S, Chander H
High expression of FBP17 in invasive breast cancer cells promotes invadopodia formation.
Med Oncol. 2018; 35(5):71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastatic spread of the cancer is usually the consequence of the activation of signaling pathways that generate cell motility and tissue invasion. Metastasis involves the reorganization of cytoskeleton and cell shape for the swift movement of the cells through extracellular matrix. Previously, we have described the invasive and metastatic role played by one of the members (Toca-1) of CIP4 subfamily of F-BAR proteins. In the present study, we address the role of another member (FBP17) of same family in the invasion breast cancer cells. Here, we report that the formin-binding protein 17 (FBP17) is highly expressed at both mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer cells. The study showed the association of FBP17 with cytoskeletal actin regulatory proteins like dynamin and cortactin. To determine its role in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, we achieved stable knockdown of FBP17 in MDA-MB-231 cells. FBP17 knockdown cells showed a defect and were found to be compromised in the degradation of ECM indicating the role of FBP17 in the invasion of breast cancer cells. Our results suggest that FBP17 is highly expressed in breast cancer cells and facilitates the invasion of breast cancer cells.

Cohen YC, Saranga A, Gatt ME, et al.
Treatment patterns and clinical outcomes in high-risk newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients carrying the 17p deletion: An observational multi-center retrospective study.
Am J Hematol. 2018; 93(6):810-815 [PubMed] Related Publications
Del17p is a genomic imbalance occurring in ∼7%-10% of myeloma at diagnosis newly diagnosed myeloma patients (NDMM) and comprises a poor prognostic factor. The goal of this study is to analyze real world data and outcomes among NDMM patients carrying 17p deletion. We report an observational, retrospective, multicenter study. Sixty consecutive patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma in the 8 participating centers diagnosed between 1/2008 and 1/2016 proven to carry 17p deletion by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were identified. Most received a bortezomib-based induction, over half underwent autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT); 30% of the patients gained early access to new novel agents via clinical trials, access programs or private insurance. Overall response rate (ORR) after induction was 85%; 94% for transplant eligible (TE); and 75% for transplant ineligible (NTE), and declined in subsequent treatment lines, 64% achieved ≥ VGPR. Median overall survival (OS) was 43 months; median progression free survival (PFS) was 11 months, 19 months for TE and 7 for NTE. In multivariate analysis: higher M-Spike, presence of extramedullary disease, and >50% of cells baring del17p were associated with adverse PFS; Autologous HCT and higher hemoglobin were associated with longer PFS; OS was 59 months for patients with early access to newer agents. Older age and higher M-Spike levels were associated with adverse OS, Autologous HCT was associated with favorable OS, 59.7 vs 28.7 months for NTE patients. Despite the improvement achieved with autologous HCT and new novel agents, the prognosis of patients with 17p deletion is still inferior, emphasizing the need for novel approaches.

Wei L, Xin C, Wang W, Hao C
Microarray analysis of obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome for key gene screening, key pathway identification and drug prediction.
Gene. 2018; 661:85-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: This study aimed to screen key genes and pathways involved in obese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and predict drugs for treatment of obese PCOS via bioinformatics approaches.
METHODS: Microarray dataset GSE10946 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 7 cumulus cell samples from obese PCOS patients and 6 lean control samples. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between obese PCOS and controls were obtained using Bayesian test after data preprocessing, followed by functional enrichment analyses for DEGs. Besides, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and sub-network analyses were performed. Furthermore, drug prediction was carried out based on the DEGs.
RESULTS: A total of 793 DEGs were identified in PCOS compared with control, including 352 up-regulated and 441 down-regulated DEGs. Specifically, upregulated RNA polymerase I subunit B (POLR1B), DNA polymerase epsilon 3, accessory subunit (POLE3), and DNA polymerase delta 3, accessory subunit (POLD3) were enriched in pathway of pyrimidine metabolism associated with obesity and PCOS, and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C (HTR2C) was enriched calcium signaling pathway. Additionally, 10 significant potential drugs, such as spironolactone targeting androgen receptor (AR), trimipramine targeting adrenoceptor beta 2 (ADRB2), and L-ornithine targeting ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 3 (OAZ3), were obtained.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, POLR1B, POLE3, POLD3, and HTR2C might play important roles in obese PCOS via involvement of pyrimidine metabolism and calcium signaling pathway. Moreover, AR, ADRB2, and OAZ3 might be targets of spironolactone, trimipramine, and L-ornithine in the treatment of obese PCOS.

Cheng Y, Gao XH, Li XJ, et al.
Depression promotes prostate cancer invasion and metastasis via a sympathetic-cAMP-FAK signaling pathway.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(22):2953-2966 [PubMed] Related Publications
Depression drives cancer progression and induces poor clinical outcome. However, the mechanisms underlying depression and cancer outcomes are unclear. In this work, we investigated 98 prostate cancer patients and found that patients with high score of psychological depression were correlated with tumor invasion and metastasis. We found focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was increased in cancer patients with metastatic features and high score of depression. FAK knockdown completely blocked depression-promoted tumor invasion in orthotopic transplantation tumors. In Hi-myc mice and a murine model of depression, sympathetic activation was detected in the prostate tissue. Further we showed that FAK activation was dependent on a cAMP-PKA signaling pathway. Our results demonstrated that the activation of a sympathetic-FAK signaling pathway in prostate cancer patients with high degrees of depression facilitates tumor invasion. We suggest that blocking β2AR with propranolol or inhibiting FAK activation with PF562 271 may be novel strategies for depressed patients with invasive prostate cancer.

Mathew NR, Baumgartner F, Braun L, et al.
Sorafenib promotes graft-versus-leukemia activity in mice and humans through IL-15 production in FLT3-ITD-mutant leukemia cells.
Nat Med. 2018; 24(3):282-291 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/01/2020 Related Publications
Individuals with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harboring an internal tandem duplication (ITD) in the gene encoding Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) who relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) have a 1-year survival rate below 20%. We observed that sorafenib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, increased IL-15 production by FLT3-ITD

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