Research IndicatorsGraph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (8)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: ADAMTS1 (cancer-related)
BACKGROUND: The ovulatory dysfunction mechanisms underlying polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are not completely understood. And the roles of EPHA7 and EPHA7-regulated pathway factors in the pathogenesis of anovulation remain to be elucidated.
METHODS: We used human granulosa cells (hGCs) of PCOS and non-PCOS patients to measure EPHA7 and other target gene expressions. We performed in vitro experiments in KGN cells to verify the molecular mechanisms. Additionally, we conducted in vivo loss- and gain-of-function studies using EPHA7 shRNA lentivirus and recombinant EPHA7-Fc protein injection to identify the ovulation effects of EPHA7.
FINDINGS: EPHA7 functions as a critically positive upstream factor for the expression of ERK1/2-mediated C/EBPβ. This protein, in turn, induced the expression of KLF4 and then ADAMTS1. Moreover, decreased abundance of EPHA7 was positively correlated with that of its downstream factors in hGCs of PCOS patients. Additionally, a 1-week functional EPHA7 shRNA lentivirus in rat ovaries contributed to decreased numbers of retrieved oocytes, and a 3-week functional lentivirus led to menstrual disorders and morphological polycystic changes in rat ovaries. More importantly, we found that EPHA7 triggered ovulation in rats, and it improved polycystic ovarian changes induced by DHEA in PCOS rats.
INTERPRETATION: Our findings demonstrate a new role of EPHA7 in PCOS, suggesting that EPHA7 is an effective target for the development of innovative medicines to induce ovulation. FUND: National Key Research and Development Program of China, National Natural Science Foundation, Shanghai Municipal Education Commission--Gaofeng Clinical Medicine, and Shanghai Commission of Science and Technology.
BACKGROUND: The prognosis for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients with lymph node metastasis (LNM) is still dismal. Elucidation of the LNM associated genomic alteration and underlying molecular mechanisms may provide clinical therapeutic strategies for ESCC treatment.
METHODS: Joint analysis of ESCC sequencing data were conducted to comprehensively survey SCNAs and identify driver genes which significantly associated with LNM. The roles of miR-548k in lymphangiogensis and lymphatic metastasis were validated both in vitro and in vivo. ESCC tissue and blood samples were analyzed for association between miR-548k expression and patient clinicopathological features and prognosis and diagnosis.
RESULTS: In the pooled cohort of 314 ESCC patients, we found 76 significant focused regions including 43 amplifications and 33 deletions. Clinical implication analysis revealed a panel of genes associated with LNM with the most frequently amplified gene being MIR548K harbored in the 11q13.3 amplicon. Overexpression of miR-548k remarkably promotes lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-548k modulating the tumor microenvironment by promoting VEGFC secretion and stimulating lymphangiogenesis through ADAMTS1/VEGFC/VEGFR3 pathways, while promoting metastasis by regulating KLF10/EGFR axis. Importantly, we found that serum miR-548k and VEGFC of early stage ESCC patients were significantly higher than that in healthy donators, suggesting a promising application of miR-548k and VEGFC as biomarkers in early diagnosis of ESCC.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study comprehensively characterized SCNAs in ESCC and highlighted the crucial role of miR-548k in promoting lymphatic metastasis, which might be employed as a new diagnostic and prognostic marker for ESCC.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents 10-20% of all human ductal adenocarcinomas and has a poor prognosis relative to other subtypes. Hence, new molecular targets for therapeutic intervention are necessary. Analyses of panels of human or mouse cancer lines derived from the same individual that differ in their cellular phenotypes but not in genetic background have been instrumental in defining the molecular players that drive the various hallmarks of cancer. To determine the molecular regulators of metastasis in TNBC, we completed a rigorous
Deng H, Zeng J, Zhang T, et al.Histone H3.3K27M Mobilizes Multiple Cancer/Testis (CT) Antigens in Pediatric Glioma.
Mol Cancer Res. 2018; 16(4):623-633 [PubMed
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Lysine to methionine mutations at position 27 (K27M) in the histone H3 (H3.3 and H3.1) are highly prevalent in pediatric high-grade gliomas (HGG) that arise in the midline of the central nervous system. H3K27M perturbs the activity of polycomb repressor complex 2 and correlates with DNA hypomethylation; however, the pathways whereby H3K27M drives the development of pediatric HGG remain poorly understood. To understand the mechanism of pediatric HGG development driven by H3.3K27M and discover potential therapeutic targets or biomarkers, we established pediatric glioma cell model systems harboring H3.3K27M and performed microarray analysis. H3.3K27M caused the upregulation of multiple cancer/testis (CT) antigens, such as ADAMTS1, ADAM23, SPANXA1, SPANXB1/2, IL13RA2, VCY, and VCX3A, in pediatric glioma cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis from H3.3K27M cells revealed decreased H3K27me3 levels and increased H3K4me3 levels on the
Das K, Taguri M, Imamura H, et al.Genomic predictors of chemotherapy efficacy in advanced or recurrent gastric cancer in the GC0301/TOP002 phase III clinical trial.
Cancer Lett. 2018; 412:208-215 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Recent gastric cancer clinical trials have aimed to establish the efficacy of combination therapy over monotherapy, however, the role for genomic biomarkers in these trials has remained largely unexplored. Here, using the NanoString expression platform, we analyzed 105 gastric tumors from a randomized phase III Japanese clinical trial (GC0301/TOP002) testing the efficacy of irinotecan plus S-1(IRI-S) versus S-1 therapy. We found that previously established proliferative subtype signatures, were associated with older patients (>65 years) and liver metastasis while mesenchymal subtype signatures were associated with younger patients (≤65 years) and peritoneal metastasis. Genes associated with tumor microenvironment (CD4, CD14, ADAMTS1, CCL5, CXCL12, CCL19), therapeutic implications (DPYD) and oncogenic signaling (Wnt5A, PTRF) were significantly associated with patient age, histology, tumor status, measurable lesions and metastasis. We identified Wnt5A downregulation as a candidate predictor of improved progression free survival (>8 weeks) in S-1 but not in IRI-S treatment. Although statistical significance was not achieved, mesenchymal subtype showed a trend for treatment interaction with IRI-S for efficacy. These findings highlight promising genomic markers that could be useful predictors of chemotherapy efficacy for better prognosis and survival outcome in gastric cancer.
Xue W, Zhang Z, Zeng S, et al.Expression and Clinical Significance of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) and a Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin Type 1 Motif 1 (ADAMTS1) in Post-Kidney-Transplant Bladder Tumors.
Ann Transplant. 2017; 22:622-630 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND To investigate the expression and clinical significance of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motif 1 (ADAMTS1) in post-kidney-transplant bladder tumors. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 27 patients with new bladder tumors occurring after surgical kidney transplants (the experimental group) and 56 patients with conventional new bladder tumors (the control group) were included in this study. All the patients were confirmed to have transitional cell carcinomas by postoperative pathological examination. Fifteen pairs of new bladder tumor specimens (from each of the 2 groups) were selected and subjected to whole-genome oligonucleotide microarray screening to determine the differences in gene expression profiles and analysis using the biomolecule annotation system. Subsequently, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analysis were performed to determine and compare differences in the expression of TIMP-l and ADAMTS1 in the urothelial tumors of the 2 groups. RESULTS Analysis of co-differentially expressed genes showed 23 groups of pathways with significant differences (P<0.05) and included immunosuppression and tumor development and progression. TIMP-l expression was significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group, whereas ADAMTS1 expression was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Significant differences in gene expression profiles were observed between patients with post-kidney transplant bladder tumors and those with conventional bladder tumors, and the expression of TIMP-1 and ADAMTS1 has important significance for the diagnosis of post-kidney-transplant bladder tumors.
BACKGROUND: Adipose microenvironment is involved in signaling pathways that influence breast cancer. We aim to characterize factors that are modified: 1) in tumor and non tumor human breast epithelial cell lines when incubated with conditioned media (CMs) from human breast cancer adipose tissue explants (hATT) or normal breast adipose tissue explants (hATN); 2) in hATN-CMs vs hATT-CMs; 3) in the tumor associated adipocytes vs. non tumor associated adipocytes.
METHODS: We used hATN or hATT- CMs on tumor and non-tumor breast cancer cell lines. We evaluated changes in versican, CD44, ADAMTS1 and Adipo R1 expression on cell lines or in the different CMs. In addition we evaluated changes in the morphology and expression of these factors in slices of the different adipose tissues. The statistical significance between different experimental conditions was evaluated by one-way ANOVA. Tukey's post-hoc tests were performed within each individual treatment.
RESULTS: hATT-CMs increase versican, CD44, ADAMTS1 and Adipo R1 expression in breast cancer epithelial cells. Furthermore, hATT-CMs present higher levels of versican expression compared to hATN-CMs. In addition, we observed a loss of effect in cellular migration when we pre-incubated hATT-CMs with chondroitinase ABC, which cleaves GAGs chains bound to the versican core protein, thus losing the ability to bind to CD44. Adipocytes associated with the invasive front are reduced in size compared to adipocytes that are farther away. Also, hATT adipocytes express significantly higher amounts of versican, CD44 and Adipo R1, and significantly lower amounts of adiponectin and perilipin, unlike hATN adipocytes.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that hATT secrete a different set of proteins compared to hATN. Furthermore, versican, a proteoglycan that is overexpressed in hATT-CMs compared to hATN-CMs, might be involved in the tumorogenic behavior observed in both cell lines employed. In addition, we may conclude that adipocytes from the tumor microenvironment show a less differentiated state than adipocytes from normal microenvironment. This would indicate a loss of normal functions in mature adipocytes (such as energy storage), in support of others that might favor tumor growth.
Mullany LE, Herrick JS, Wolff RK, Slattery MLSingle nucleotide polymorphisms within MicroRNAs, MicroRNA targets, and MicroRNA biogenesis genes and their impact on colorectal cancer survival.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017; 56(4):285-295 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We have shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNA (miRNA) genes, miRNA target genes, and miRNA biogenesis genes minimally contribute to colon cancer risk. It is possible that these SNPs alter survival. We analyzed 565 SNPs in or adjacent to microRNAs, target genes, or biogenesis genes, using 1,115 cases and 1,173 controls; 837 cases had survival information. We tested SNPs for associations with colorectal cancer (CRC) survival using a Cox proportional hazard model adjusting for age, study center, gender, AJCC disease stage, and MSI tumor status. Multiple comparison adjustments were made using the step-down Bonferroni correction. SNPs associated with survival (P
Lima MA, Dos Santos L, Turri JA, et al.Prognostic Value of ADAMTS Proteases and Their Substrates in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.
Pathobiology. 2016; 83(6):316-26 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: ADAMTS are metalloproteases with disintegrin and thrombospondin motifs. They are secreted proteases playing a role in biological processes such as inflammation, angiogenesis, and urogenital development. ADAMTS have specific substrates, such as the proteoglycans (PG) versican, aggrecan, and brevican. Despite data indicating a role of ADAMTS in tumor invasion and metastases, effects played by these molecules in cancer progression are still controversial. In ovarian cancer, the importance of ADAMTS gene mutations was recently described and related to chemotherapy outcome.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze protein levels of ADAMTS-1, -4, and -5, and TIMP-3 in human ovarian cancer classified as benign, borderline, or malignant. We also assessed the expression of the ADAMTS substrates aggrecan, brevican, and versican in these neoplasms. Correlations between overall survival and protein expression were performed.
METHODS: Tumors were classified according to the WHO Classification of Tumors of Female Reproductive Organs. Protein and PG expression was studied by immunohistochemistry. Differences in labeling were analyzed by percent measurements of stained areas.
RESULTS: ADAMTS-1, ADAMTS-5, and its tissue inhibitor TIMP-3 are increased in borderline and malignant tumors compared to benign neoplasms. Aggrecan and versican levels were increased in malignant subtypes compared to benign ovarian cancer. Higher ADAMTS-1, TIMP-3, and versican expression was associated with a shorter overall survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Comparison of protease, TIMP-3, and substrate expression showed that in malignant tumors all ADAMTS and TIMP-3 expression levels were significantly raised compared to the substrates studied.
BACKGROUND: Metastasis associated in lung adenocarcinoma transcript-1 (MALAT-1) is overexpressed during cancer progression and promotes cell migration and invasion in many solid tumors. However, its role in ovarian cancer remains poorly understood.
METHODS: Expressions of MALAT-1 were detected in 37 normal ovarian tissues and 45 ovarian cancer tissues by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cell proliferation was observed by CCK-8 assay; Flow cytometry was used to measure cell cycle and apoptosis; Cell migration was detected by transwell migration and invasion assay. In order to evaluate the function of MALAT-1, shRNA combined with DNA microarray and Functional enrichment analysis were performed to determine the transcriptional effects of MALAT-1 silencing in OVCAR3 cells. RNA and protein expression were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively.
RESULTS: We found that upregulation of MALAT-1 mRNA in ovarian cancer tissues and enhanced MALAT-1 expression was associated with FIGO stage. Knockdown of MALAT-1 expression in OVCAR3 cells inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, leading to G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Overexpressed MALAT-1 expression in SKOV3 cells promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Downregulation of MALAT-1 resulted in significant change of gene expression (at least 2-fold) in 449 genes, which regulate proliferation, cell cycle, and adhesion. As a consequence of MALAT-1 knockdown, MMP13 protein expression decreased, while the expression of MMP19 and ADAMTS1 was increased.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study found that MALAT-1 is highly expressed in ovarian tumors. MALAT-1 promotes the growth and migration of ovarian cancer cells, suggesting that MALAT-1 may be an important contributor to ovarian cancer development.
The matrix metalloprotease ADAMTS1 (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease with ThromboSpondin repeats 1) has been involved in tumorigenesis although its contributions appeared ambiguous. To understand the multifaceted actions of this protease, it is still required a deeper knowledge of its implication in heterogeneous tumor-stroma interactions. Using a syngeneic B16F1 melanoma model in wild type and ADAMTS1 knockout mice we found distinct stroma versus tumor functions for this protease. Genetic deletion of ADAMTS1 in the host microenvironment resulted in a drastic decrease of tumor growth and metastasis. However, the downregulation of tumor ADAMTS1 did not uncover relevant effects. Reduced tumors in ADAMTS1 KO mice displayed a paradoxical increase in vascular density and vascular-related genes; a detailed characterization revealed an impaired vasculature, along with a minor infiltration of macrophages. In addition, ex-vivo assays supported a chief role for ADAMTS1 in vascular sprouting, and melanoma xenografts showed a relevant induction of its expression in stroma compartments. These findings provide the first genetic evidence that supports the pro-tumorigenic role of stromal ADAMTS1.
BACKGROUND: Ovarian carcinomas, usually associated with sex hormones dysregulation, are the leading cause of gynecological neoplastic death. In normal ovaries, hormones play a central role in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. On the other hand, hormonal alterations also play a variety of roles in cancer. Stimulation by sex hormones potentially affects gene expression, invasiveness, cell growth and angiogenesis. Proteases of the "a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs" (ADAMTS) family are secreted by different cell types and become involved in collagen processing, cleavage of the proteoglycan matrix, and angiogenesis. We evaluated whether sex hormones affect ADAMTS 1 and 4 expression in ovarian cancer cells.
METHODS: We analysed mRNA and protein levels in human ovarian tumor cells with different degrees of malignancy, NIH-OVCAR-3 and ES-2, that were treated or not with estrogen, testosterone and progesterone.
RESULTS: Our results suggest that progesterone increases ADAMTS protein and mRNA levels in the lysates from ES-2 cells, and it increases ADAMTS protein in the lysates and conditioned media from NIH-OVCAR-3. Progesterone effects were reversed by RU486 treatment.
CONCLUSION: We conclude that progesterone acts via the progesterone receptor to modulate ADAMTS 1 and 4 levels in ovarian cancer cell lines.
Wu D, Han B, Guo L, Fan ZMolecular mechanisms associated with breast cancer based on integrated gene expression profiling by bioinformatics analysis.
J Obstet Gynaecol. 2016; 36(5):615-21 [PubMed
] Related Publications
In this study, we aimed to gain more insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for breast cancer (BC) progression. Three gene expression profiles of human BC were integrated and used to screen the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between healthy breast samples and BC samples. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGs was constructed by mapping DEGs into the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) database; then the subnetworks of PPI were constructed with plug-in, MCODE and DEGs in Subnetwork 1 were analysed based on Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database ( http://www.genome.jp/kegg /). In addition, co-expression network of DEGs was established using the Cytoscape. Totalally 931 DEGs were selected, including 340 up-regulated genes and 591 down-regulated genes. KEGG pathway analysis for DEGs in Subnetwork 1 showed that the pathogenesis of BC was associated with cell cycle, oocyte meiosis, progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation and p53 signalling pathways. Meanwhile, the most significant-related DEGs were found by co-expression network analysis of DEGs. In conclusion, CCNG1 might be involved in the progression of BC via inhibiting cell proliferation, and ADAMTS1 might play a crucial role in BC development through the regulation of angiogenesis.
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of several human cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), which preferentially arise in immunocompromised patients and lack effective therapeutic options. We have previously shown that KSHV or viral protein LANA up-regulates the glycoprotein CD147, thereby inducing primary endothelial cell invasiveness. In the current study, we identify the global network controlled by CD147 in KSHV-infected endothelial cells using Illumina microarray analysis. Among downstream genes, two specific metalloproteases, ADAMTS1 and 9, are strongly expressed in AIDS-KS tissues and contribute to KSHV-infected endothelial cell invasiveness through up-regulation of IL-6 and VEGF. By using a KS-like nude mouse model, we found that targeting CD147 and downstream ADAMTSs significantly suppressed KSHV-induced tumorigenesis in vivo. Taken together, targeting CD147 and associated proteins may represent a promising therapeutic strategy against these KSHV-related malignancies.
Perez-Segura P, Zamorano-León JJ, Acosta D, et al.BRCA2 gene mutations and coagulation-associated biomarkers.
Thromb Haemost. 2016; 115(2):415-23 [PubMed
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Thromboembolic events are the second cause of death in cancer patients, although the mechanisms underlying this increased thromboembolic risk remain unclear. The aims of this study were to examine whether BRCA2 gene mutations may modify the circulating levels of thrombocoagulation biomarkers and whether breast cancer development may influence changes in such circulating biomarkers. The study was performed in 25 women with mutations in the BRCA2 gene (n=12 breast cancer, n=13 breast cancer-free) and in 13 BRCA2 non-mutant controls. Results revealed that plasma levels of fibrinogen gamma chain isotypes 2 and 3, haptoglobin isotypes 4 and 5, serotransferrin isotypes 3 and 4 and convertase C3/C5 isotypes 4 and 5 were significantly higher in BRCA2 mutation carriers compared to controls. However, plasma levels of vitamin D binding protein isotype 1 and alpha1-antitrypsin isotypes 2, 3 and 4 were significantly decreased in BRCA2 mutation carriers compared to controls. Plasma expression of PF4 and P-selectin was significantly higher in BRCA2 mutations carriers than in controls. BRCA2 truncated mutations conserving a binding region for RAD51 were associated with increased plasma levels of alpha1-antitrypsin isotypes 3 and 4 with respect to women showing BRCA2 mutations that loss the binding RD51 region to BRCA2. Only plasma levels of vitamin D binding protein isotypes 1 and 3 were significantly reduced and alpha 1-antitrypsin isotype 1 was increased in cancer-free BRCA2 mutation carriers compared to BRCA2 mutation carriers with breast cancer. The presence of BRCA2 mutations is associated with increased plasma levels of thrombo-coagulating-related proteins, which are independent to breast cancer development.
Turkoglu SA, Kockar FSP1 and USF differentially regulate ADAMTS1 gene expression under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in hepatoma cells.
Gene. 2016; 575(1):48-57 [PubMed
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ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type I motif, 1 (ADAMTS1) that has both antiangiogenic and aggrecanase activity was dysregulated in many pathophysiologic circumstances. However, there is limited information available on the transcriptional regulation of ADAMTS1 gene. Therefore, this study mainly aimed to identify regulatory regions important for the regulation of ADAMTS1 gene under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in human hepatoma cells (HEP3B). Cultured HEP3B cells were exposed to normal oxygen condition, and Cobalt chloride (CoCl2) induced the hypoxic condition, which is an HIF-1 inducer. The cocl2-induced hypoxic condition led to the induced ADAMTS1 mRNA and protein expression in Hepatoma cells. Differential regulation of SP1 and USF transcription factors on ADAMTS1 gene expression was determined by transcriptional activity, mRNA and protein level of ADAMTS1 gene. Ectopic expression of SP1 and USF transcription factors resulted in the decrease in ADAMTS1 transcriptional activity of all promoter constructs consistent with mRNA and protein level in normoxic condition. However, overexpression of SP1 and USF led to the increase of ADAMTS1 gene expressions at mRNA and protein level in hypoxic condition. On the other hand, C/EBPα transcription factor didn't show any statistically significant effect on ADAMTS1 gene expression at mRNA, protein and transcriptional level under normoxic and hypoxic condition.
The ADAMTS (A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin motifs) enzymes are secreted, multi-domain matrix-associated zinc metalloendopeptidases that have diverse roles in tissue morphogenesis and patho-physiological remodeling, in inflammation and in vascular biology. The human family includes 19 members that can be sub-grouped on the basis of their known substrates, namely the aggrecanases or proteoglycanases (ADAMTS1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 15 and 20), the procollagen N-propeptidases (ADAMTS2, 3 and 14), the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein-cleaving enzymes (ADAMTS7 and 12), the von-Willebrand Factor proteinase (ADAMTS13) and a group of orphan enzymes (ADAMTS6, 10, 16, 17, 18 and 19). Control of the structure and function of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a central theme of the biology of the ADAMTS, as exemplified by the actions of the procollagen-N-propeptidases in collagen fibril assembly and of the aggrecanases in the cleavage or modification of ECM proteoglycans. Defects in certain family members give rise to inherited genetic disorders, while the aberrant expression or function of others is associated with arthritis, cancer and cardiovascular disease. In particular, ADAMTS4 and 5 have emerged as therapeutic targets in arthritis. Multiple ADAMTSs from different sub-groupings exert either positive or negative effects on tumorigenesis and metastasis, with both metalloproteinase-dependent and -independent actions known to occur. The basic ADAMTS structure comprises a metalloproteinase catalytic domain and a carboxy-terminal ancillary domain, the latter determining substrate specificity and the localization of the protease and its interaction partners; ancillary domains probably also have independent biological functions. Focusing primarily on the aggrecanases and proteoglycanases, this review provides a perspective on the evolution of the ADAMTS family, their links with developmental and disease mechanisms, and key questions for the future.
Li M, Liu L, Zang W, et al.miR‑365 overexpression promotes cell proliferation and invasion by targeting ADAMTS-1 in breast cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(1):296-302 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have important roles in the initiation and progression of human cancer, including breast cancer. We evaluated miR‑365 expression in breast cancer tissues, and investigated its effects on cell growth, cell cycle, cell invasion, and expression of its target gene ADAMTS-1. miR‑365 expression levels were analyzed in breast cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues using qRT-PCR. CCK-8, cell cycle, and invasion assays were used to explore the role of miR‑365 expression in breast cancer cells. We conducted luciferase reporter and western blot assays to test whether ADAMTS-1 is a direct target of miR‑365. We found that miR‑365 expression levels were significantly higher in breast cancer tissues compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues (P<0.05). These relatively high expression levels were significantly associated with advanced clinical stages (P<0.05). In breast cancer cell lines, transfection with miR‑365 inhibitor suppressed proliferation and invasion, and resulted in cell cycle arrest. Subsequent experiments indicated that miR‑365 bound the 3'-UTR of ADAMTS-1 and downregulated its expression. Our findings indicated that the inhibition of miR‑365 reduced cell proliferation and cell invasion. Additionally, miR‑365 may function as a novel oncogene in breast cancer through targeting ADAMTS-1. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of breast cancer pathogenesis.
A disintegrin and metallopeptidase with thrombospondin motif type 1 (ADAMTS1) is a metalloproteinase with antiangiogenic activity. It was previously observed that the mRNA and protein levels of ADAMTS1 are downregulated in primary gastric tumors. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the reduction in the expression of ADAMTS1 is due to aberrant methylation of the gene in primary gastric tumor tissues and gastric cancer cell lines. In addition, the association between ADAMTS1 methylation and clinicopathological features in were investigated in patients with primary gastric cancer. The results revealed that the frequency of ADAMTS1 methylation in primary gastric tumor tissues was significantly higher, compared with the corresponding normal gastric tissues. The relative mRNA expression levels of ADAMTS1 were significantly lower in the methylated primary gastric tumor tissues, compared with the unmethylated primary gastric tumor tissues. A significant association was observed between the ADAMTS1 methylation status and the depth of tumor invasion and tumor, node, metastasis stage in primary gastric cancer. The mRNA expression of ADAMTS1 was significantly lower in 60% (3 of 5) of the gastric cancer cell lines. The relative mRNA expression levels of ADAMTS1 were significantly lower in the methylated gastric cancer cell lines, compared with the unmethylated gastric cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the expression of ADAMTS1 was significantly restored following treatment with the 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine demethylating agent in the MGC-803, HGC-27 and AGS gastric cancer cell lines, and the demethylation of the MGC-803 cell line inhibited cell invasion. Together, these results suggested for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, ADAMTS1 as a novel antitumor protease, and this function was lost following epigenetic silencing in the gastric cancer cells and gastric tumor tissues. Therefore, the aberrant methylation of ADAMTS1 may be involved in the development and progression of gastric cancer.
Kara M, Yumrutas O, Ozcan O, et al.Differential expressions of cancer-associated genes and their regulatory miRNAs in colorectal carcinoma.
Gene. 2015; 567(1):81-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer is one of the frequently seen malignancies in the world. To date, several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes have been identified and linked to colorectal cancer pathogenesis. Although recent advances in the diagnosis and therapy of colorectal cancer are promising, identifying novel genetic contributors is still high priority. In the present study, expression profile of some cancer-related genes and their regulatory miRNA molecules were evaluated by using a high-throughput real-time PCR method. For the study, a total of 54 patients diagnosed with CRC and normal colon tissue samples of 42 healthy controls were included. For the expression analysis, total RNA was extracted from FFPE tissue samples and converted to cDNA. All expression analyses were assessed by using Fluidigm Microfluidic Dynamic Array chips for 96 samples and the reactions were held in Fluidigm BioMark™ HD System Real-Time PCR. As a result of the study, expression of the ADAMTS1, FHIT, RUNX1, RUNX3 and WWOX genes was shown to be significantly altered in CRC tissues in contrast to normal tissue samples. Moreover, miR-378a-3p, miR-155-5p, miR-193b-3p, miR-96-5p, miR-17-5p, miR-27a-3p, miR-133b, miR-203a, miR-205-5p, miR-34c-5p, miR-130a-3p, miR-301a-3p, miR-132-3p, miR-222-3p, miR-34a-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-29a-3p and miR-29b-3p were found to be significantly deregulated in CRC. Consequently, results of the current study strongly suggest the involvement of novel cancer-related genes and their regulatory miRNAs in CRC physiopathology.
Junes-Gill KS, Lawrence CE, Wheeler CJ, et al.Human Hematopoietic Signal peptide-containing Secreted 1 (hHSS1) modulates genes and pathways in glioma: implications for the regulation of tumorigenicity and angiogenesis.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:920 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human Hematopoietic Signal peptide-containing Secreted 1 (hHSS1) is a truly novel protein, defining a new class of secreted factors. We have previously reported that ectopic overexpression of hHSS1 has a negative modulatory effect on cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in glioblastoma model systems. Here we have used microarray analysis, screened glioblastoma samples in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and studied the effects of hHSS1 on glioma-derived cells and endothelial cells to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-tumorigenic effects of hHSS1.
METHODS: Gene expression profiling of human glioma U87 and A172 cells overexpressing hHSS1 was performed. Ingenuity® iReport™ and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) were used to analyze the gene expression in the glioma cells. DNA content and cell cycle analysis were performed by FACS, while cell migration, cell invasion, and effects of hHSS1 on HUVEC tube formation were determined by transwell and matrigel assays. Correlation was made between hHSS1 expression and specific genes in glioblastoma samples in the TCGA database.
RESULTS: We have clarified the signaling and metabolic pathways (i.e. role of BRCA1 in DNA damage response), networks (i.e. cell cycle) and biological processes (i.e. cell division process of chromosomes) that result from hHSS1effects upon glioblastoma growth. U87-overexpressing hHSS1 significantly decreased the number of cells in the G0/G1 cell cycle phase, and significantly increased cells in the S and G2/M phases (P < 0.05). U87-overexpressing hHSS1 significantly lost their ability to migrate (P < 0.001) and to invade (P < 0.01) through matrigel matrix. hHSS1-overexpression significantly decreased migration of A172 cells (P < 0.001), inhibited A172 tumor-induced migration and invasion of HUVECs (P < 0.001), and significantly inhibited U87 tumor-induced invasion of HUVECs (P < 0.001). Purified hHSS1 protein inhibited HUVEC tube formation. TCGA database revealed significant correlation between hHSS1 and BRCA2 (r = -0.224, P < 0.0005), ADAMTS1 (r = -0.132, P <0.01) and endostatin (r = 0.141, P < 0.005).
CONCLUSIONS: hHSS1-overexpression modulates signaling pathways involved in tumorigenesis. hHSS1 inhibits glioma-induced cell cycle progression, cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis. Our data suggest that hHSS1 is a potential therapeutic for malignant glioblastoma possessing significant antitumor and anti-angiogenic activity.
The TGFβ signaling pathway is essential to epithelial homeostasis and is often inhibited during progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Recently, an important role for TGFβ signaling has been described in the crosstalk between epithelial and stromal cells regulating squamous tumor cell invasion in mouse models of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Loss of TGFβ signaling, in either compartment, leads to HNSCC however, the mechanisms involved are not well understood. Using organotypic reconstruct cultures (OTC) to model the interaction between epithelial and stromal cells that occur in dysplastic lesions, we show that loss of TGFβ signaling promotes an invasive phenotype in both fibroblast and epithelial compartments. Employing immortalized esophageal keratinocytes established to reproduce common mutations of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, we show that treatment of OTC with inhibitors of TGFβ signaling (A83-01 or SB431542) enhances invasion of epithelial cells into a fibroblast-embedded Matrigel/collagen I matrix. Invasion induced by A83-01 is independent of proliferation but relies on protease activity and expression of ADAMTS-1 and can be altered by matrix density. This invasion was associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL1 and EGFR ligands HB-EGF and TGFα. Altering EGF signaling prevented or induced epithelial cell invasion in this model. Loss of expression of the TGFβ target gene ROBO1 suggested that chemorepulsion may regulate keratinocyte invasion. Taken together, our data show increased invasion through inhibition of TGFβ signaling altered epithelial-fibroblasts interactions, repressing markers of activated fibroblasts, and altering integrin-fibronectin interactions. These results suggest that inhibition of TGFβ signaling modulates an array of pathways that combined promote multiple aspects of tumor invasion.
Rösner T, Lohse S, Peipp M, et al.Epidermal growth factor receptor targeting IgG3 triggers complement-mediated lysis of decay-accelerating factor expressing tumor cells through the alternative pathway amplification loop.
J Immunol. 2014; 193(3):1485-95 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Binding of C1q to target-bound IgG initiates complement-mediated lysis (CML) of pathogens, as well as of malignant or apoptotic cells, and thus constitutes an integral part of the innate immune system. Despite its prominent molecular flexibility and higher C1q binding affinity compared with human IgG1, IgG3 does not consistently promote superior CML. Hence the aim of this study was to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of IgG1- and IgG3-driven complement activation using isotype variants of the therapeutic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) Ab cetuximab. Both IgG1 and IgG3 Abs demonstrated similar EGFR binding and similar efficiency in Fab-mediated effector mechanisms. Whereas anti-EGFR-IgG1 did not promote CML of investigated target cells, anti-EGFR-IgG3 triggered significant CML of some, but not all tested cell lines. CML triggered by anti-EGFR-IgG3 negatively correlated with expression levels of the membrane-bound complement regulatory proteins CD55 and CD59, but not CD46. Notably, anti-EGFR-IgG3 promoted strong C1q and C3b, but relatively low C4b and C5b-9 deposition on analyzed cell lines. Furthermore, anti-EGFR-IgG3 triggered C4a release on all cells but failed to induce C3a and C5a release on CD55/CD59 highly expressing cells. RNA interference-induced knockdown or overexpression of membrane-bound complement regulatory proteins revealed CD55 expression to be a pivotal determinant of anti-EGFR-IgG3-triggered CML and to force a switch from classical complement pathway activation to C1q-dependent alternative pathway amplification. Together, these data suggest human anti-EGFR-IgG3, although highly reactive with C1q, to weakly promote assembly of the classical C3 convertase that is further suppressed in the presence of CD55, forcing human IgG3 to act mainly through the alternative pathway.
Expression of IGFBP2 (Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2) has been positively correlated with glioma progression. Although the proteolysis of IGFBP2 has been widely recognized, with consequences as a major modulator of IGFII signaling, the relevance of this post-translational modification has not been well studied in tumors. Using an in vivo proteomic approach by Isotope-Coded Protein Label (ICPL), we identified IGFBP2 as a target of the extracellular protease ADAMTS1 (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase with ThromboSpondin motifs 1). Notably, the proteolytic pattern of IGFBP2 was also detected in human glioma culture cells and, more importantly, in all glioma samples evaluated. In addition, high expression of ADAMTS1 correlates with higher levels of cleaved IGFBP2 in glioblastoma multiforme cases. Using gene expression public databases, we confirmed that IGFBP2 is a poor prognosis marker for gliomas, and we also observed an important contribution of ADAMTS1.Finally, we showed the impact of ADAMTS1 on IGFII-mediated IGF1R phosphorylation and cellular migration. Our results support a functional interaction between IGFBP2 and ADAMTS1 and suggest the need to evaluate post-translational modifications of IGFBP2 in glioma, in order to approach new therapies.
While the E2F transcription factors (E2Fs) have a clearly defined role in cell cycle control, recent work has uncovered new functions. Using genomic signature methods, we predicted a role for the activator E2F transcription factors in the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-polyomavirus middle T oncoprotein (PyMT) mouse model of metastatic breast cancer. To genetically test the hypothesis that the E2Fs function to regulate tumor development and metastasis, we interbred MMTV-PyMT mice with E2F1, E2F2, or E2F3 knockout mice. With the ablation of individual E2Fs, we noted alterations of tumor latency, histology, and vasculature. Interestingly, we noted striking reductions in metastatic capacity and in the number of circulating tumor cells in both the E2F1 and E2F2 knockout backgrounds. Investigating E2F target genes that mediate metastasis, we found that E2F loss led to decreased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegfa), Bmp4, Cyr61, Nupr1, Plod 2, P4ha1, Adamts1, Lgals3, and Angpt2. These gene expression changes indicate that the E2Fs control the expression of genes critical to angiogenesis, the remodeling of the extracellular matrix, tumor cell survival, and tumor cell interactions with vascular endothelial cells that facilitate metastasis to the lungs. Taken together, these results reveal that the E2F transcription factors play key roles in mediating tumor development and metastasis in addition to their well-characterized roles in cell cycle control.
Lee SY, Lee HS, Gil M, et al.Differential expression patterns of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) -1, -4, -5, and -14 in human placenta and gestational trophoblastic diseases.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2014; 138(5):643-50 [PubMed
] Related Publications
CONTEXT: The ability of intermediate trophoblasts to invade maternal tissue during placentation depends on how well they can degrade the extracellular matrix. Invasion into the extracellular matrix requires many complex proteases. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) is a novel family of secreted metalloproteinases. The ADAMTS-1, -4, -5, and -14 subtypes are known to be expressed in human placenta, but little is understood about their expression patterns.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the expression patterns of ADAMTS-1, -4, -5, and -14 in specific human placenta cell types during gestation and in gestational trophoblastic diseases.
DESIGN: Placental tissues were obtained from 25 pregnant women and 21 cases of gestational trophoblastic diseases (10 early complete moles, 3 placental site trophoblastic tumors, 4 invasive moles, and 4 choriocarcinomas). The expression of the 4 ADAMTS was analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: ADAMTS-1, -4, -5, and -14 were differentially expressed by the human placenta throughout gestation in a time-specific and cell type-specific manner, as well as in gestational trophoblastic diseases. ADAMTS-1 showed gradually strong staining intensity in gestational trophoblastic diseases according to the invasive potential but showed consistent strong intensity throughout normal placenta. ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 exhibited higher and restricted expression in first-trimester intermediate trophoblasts. They also exhibited comparably strong expression in gestational trophoblastic diseases. However, ADAMTS-14 expression remained unchanged throughout gestation.
CONCLUSIONS: The restricted expression pattern of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 and their increased expression in gestational trophoblastic diseases suggest that these 2 ADAMTS subtypes are associated with a biological phenotype of trophoblasts involved in human placentation and the development of gestational trophoblastic diseases.
The biguanide metformin is used in type 2 diabetes management and has gained significant attention as a potential cancer preventive agent. Angioprevention represents a mechanism of chemoprevention, yet conflicting data concerning the antiangiogenic action of metformin have emerged. Here, we clarify some of the contradictory effects of metformin on endothelial cells and angiogenesis, using in vitro and in vivo assays combined with transcriptomic and protein array approaches. Metformin inhibits formation of capillary-like networks by endothelial cells; this effect is partially dependent on the energy sensor adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as shown by small interfering RNA knockdown. Gene expression profiling of human umbilical vein endothelial cells revealed a paradoxical modulation of several angiogenesis-associated genes and proteins by metformin, with short-term induction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclooxygenase 2 and CXC chemokine receptor 4 at the messenger RNA level and downregulation of ADAMTS1. Antibody array analysis shows an essentially opposite regulation of numerous angiogenesis-associated proteins in endothelial and breast cancer cells including interleukin-8, angiogenin and TIMP-1, as well as selective regulation of angiopioetin-1, -2, endoglin and others. Endothelial cell production of the cytochrome P450 member CYP1B1 is upregulated by tumor cell supernatants in an AMPK-dependent manner, metformin blocks this effect. Metformin inhibits VEGF-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and the inhibition of AMPK activity abrogates this event. Metformin hinders angiogenesis in matrigel pellets in vivo, prevents the microvessel density increase observed in obese mice on a high-fat diet, downregulating the number of white adipose tissue endothelial precursor cells. Our data show that metformin has an antiangiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo associated with a contradictory short-term enhancement of pro-angiogenic mediators, as well as with a differential regulation in endothelial and breast cancer cells.
Although the cure rate for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is high, the diverse spectrum of squamous cell carcinoma has made it difficult for early diagnosis, particularly the aggressive tumors that are highly associated with mortality. Therefore, molecular markers are needed as an adjunct to current staging methods for diagnosing high-risk lesions, and stratifying those patients with aggressive tumors. To identify such biomarkers, we have examined a comprehensive set of 200 histologically defined squamous cell carcinoma and normal skin samples by using a combination of microarray, QRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses. A characteristic and distinguishable profile including matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) as well as other degradome components was differentially expressed in squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal skin samples. The expression levels of some of these genes including matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1), matrix metallopeptidase 10 (MMP10), parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 1 (ADAMTS1), FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene (FOS), interleukin 6 (IL6) and reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK) were significantly differentially expressed (P≤0.02) in squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal skin. Furthermore, based on receiver operating characteristic analyses, the mRNA and protein levels of MMP1 are significantly higher in aggressive tumors compared with non-aggressive tumors. Given that MMPs represent the most prominent family of proteinases associated with tumorigenesis, we believe that they may have an important role in modulating the tumor microenvironment of squamous cell carcinoma.
PURPOSE: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths and there currently is no reliable modality for the early detection of this disease. Here, we identify cancer-specific promoter DNA methylation of BNC1 and ADAMTS1 as a promising biomarker detection strategy meriting investigation in pancreatic cancer.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used a genome-wide pharmacologic transcriptome approach to identify novel cancer-specific DNA methylation alterations in pancreatic cancer cell lines. Of eight promising genes, we focused our studies on BNC1 and ADAMTS1 for further downstream analysis, including methylation and expression. We used a nanoparticle-enabled methylation on beads (MOB) technology to detect early-stage pancreatic cancers by analyzing DNA methylation in patient serum.
RESULTS: We identified two novel genes, BNC1 (92%) and ADAMTS1 (68%), that showed a high frequency of methylation in pancreatic cancers (n = 143), up to 100% in PanIN-3 and 97% in stage I invasive cancers. Using the nanoparticle-enabled MOB technology, these alterations could be detected in serum samples (n = 42) from patients with pancreatic cancer, with a sensitivity for BNC1 of 79% [95% confidence interval (CI), 66%-91%] and for ADAMTS1 of 48% (95% CI, 33%-63%), whereas specificity was 89% for BNC1 (95% CI, 76%-100%) and 92% for ADAMTS1 (95% CI, 82%-100%). Overall sensitivity using both markers is 81% (95% CI, 69%-93%) and specificity is 85% (95% CI, 71%-99%).
CONCLUSIONS: Promoter DNA methylation of BNC1 and ADAMTS1 is a potential biomarker to detect early-stage pancreatic cancers. Assaying the promoter methylation status of these genes in circulating DNA from serum is a promising strategy for early detection of pancreatic cancer and has the potential to improve mortality from this disease.
Martino-Echarri E, Fernández-Rodríguez R, Rodríguez-Baena FJ, et al.Contribution of ADAMTS1 as a tumor suppressor gene in human breast carcinoma. Linking its tumor inhibitory properties to its proteolytic activity on nidogen-1 and nidogen-2.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 133(10):2315-24 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The extracellular protease ADAMTS1 (A disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin repeats 1) has been described as an anti-angiogenic molecule and its role as a putative tumor protective molecule has also been suggested. Here, we have used a tumor xenograft model to determine the role of ADAMTS1 in tumor growth and angiogenesis. Increasing levels of the protease led to the complete inhibition of tumor growth. In an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of action of this protease, we focused our attention on its proteolytic activity on nidogens, one of the main components of the vascular basement membrane. The increased expression of ADAMTS1 was accompanied by increased proteolysis of nidogen-1 and -2 and their almost complete removal from vascular structures, together with major morphological alterations of tumor blood vessels and a decreased vessel density. The clinical relevance of this work is supported by our observations that ADAMTS1 expression is decreased in breast tumor specimens when compared with healthy tissue. Our studies also reveal that the cleavage of nidogen-1 and -2 is partially inhibited in human tumor samples. Moreover, the deposition of both nidogens surrounding vascular structures is drastically altered, implying a possible reduction in the maintenance of vessel integrity. Our studies reflect the requirement to explore the functional interactions between proteases and specific substrates in cancer biology.