Gene Summary

Gene:ABCC3; ATP binding cassette subfamily C member 3
Aliases: MLP2, MRP3, ABC31, MOAT-D, cMOAT2, EST90757
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. The specific function of this protein has not yet been determined; however, this protein may play a role in the transport of biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Alternatively spliced variants which encode different protein isoforms have been described; however, not all variants have been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ABCC3 (cancer-related)

Odin E, Sondén A, Carlsson G, et al.
Folate pathway genes linked to mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration are associated with outcome of patients with stage III colorectal cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2019; 41(6):1010428319846231 [PubMed] Related Publications
5-fluorouracil in combination with the folate leucovorin is the cornerstone in treatment of colorectal cancer. Transport of leucovorin into cells, and subsequent metabolic action, require expression of several genes. The aim was to analyze if tumoral expression of genes putatively involved in leucovorin transport, polyglutamation, or metabolism was associated with outcome of patients with stage III colorectal cancer treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. A total of 363 stage III colorectal cancer patients who received adjuvant bolus 5-fluorouracil + leucovorin alone, or in combination with oxaliplatin according to Nordic bolus regimes were included. Expression of 11 folate pathway genes was determined in tumors using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and related to disease-free survival. The median follow-up time was 5 years. During follow-up, 114 (31%) patients suffered from recurrent disease. A high tumoral expression of the genes

Malinen MM, Ito K, Kang HE, et al.
Protein expression and function of organic anion transporters in short-term and long-term cultures of Huh7 human hepatoma cells.
Eur J Pharm Sci. 2019; 130:186-195 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
Human-derived hepatic cell lines are a valuable alternative to primary hepatocytes for drug metabolism, transport and toxicity studies. However, their relevance for investigations of drug-drug and drug-organic anion (e.g., bile acid, steroid hormone) interactions at the transporter level remains to be established. The aim of the present study was to determine the suitability of the Huh7 cell line for transporter-dependent experiments. Huh7 cells were cultured for 1 to 4 weeks and subsequently were analyzed for protein expression, localization and activity of solute carrier (SLC) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters involved in organic anion transport using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy, immunocytochemistry, and model substrates [

Wang F, Zheng Z, Guan J, et al.
Identification of a panel of genes as a prognostic biomarker for glioblastoma.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 37:68-77 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a fatal disease without effective therapy. Identification of new biomarkers for prognosis would enable more rational selections of strategies to cure patients with GBM and prevent disease relapse.
METHODS: Seven datasets derived from GBM patients using microarray or next generation sequencing in R2 online database ( were extracted and then analyzed using JMP software. The survival distribution was calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method and the significance was determined using log-rank statistics. The sensitivity of a panel of GBM cell lines in response to temozolomide (TMZ), salinomycin, celastrol, and triptolide treatments was evaluated using MTS and tumor-sphere formation assay.
FINDINGS: We identified that CD44, ATP binding cassette subfamily C member 3 (ABCC3), and tumor necrosis factor receptor subfamily member 1A (TNFRSF1A) as highly expressed genes in GBMs are associated with patients' poor outcomes and therapy resistance. Furthermore, these three markers combined with MGMT, a conventional GBM marker, can classify GBM patients into five new subtypes with different overall survival time in response to treatment. The four-gene signature and the therapy response of GBMs to a panel of therapeutic compounds were confirmed in a panel of GBM cell lines.
INTERPRETATION: The data indicate that the four-gene panel can be used as a therapy response index for GBM patients and potential therapeutic targets. These results provide important new insights into the early diagnosis and the prognosis for GBM patients and introduce potential targets for GBM therapeutics. FUND: Baylor Scott & White Health Startup Fund (E.W.); Collaborative Faculty Research Investment Program (CFRIP) of Baylor University, Baylor Scott & White Health, and Baylor College of Medicine (E.W., T.S., J.H.H.); NIH R01 NS067435 (J.H.H.); Scott & White Plummer Foundation Grant (J.H.H.); National Natural Science Foundation of China 816280007 (J.H.H. and Fu.W.).

Taflin H, Odin E, Derwinger K, et al.
Relationship between folate concentration and expression of folate-associated genes in tissue and plasma after intraoperative administration of leucovorin in patients with colorectal cancer.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2018; 82(6):987-997 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
PURPOSE: The aim of study was to investigate the relationship between folate concentration and expression of folate-associated genes in tumour, mucosa and plasma of patients with colorectal cancer, after intraoperative administration of bolus leucovorin (LV).
METHODS: Eighty patients were randomized into four groups to receive 0, 60, 200, or 500 mg/m
RESULTS: The folate concentration in tumour increased with increasing dosage of LV. Half of the patients treated with 60 mg/m
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate the possibility of using the individual plasma 5-MTHF/LV ratio after LV injection as a surrogate marker for tissue folate concentration. Expression of several folate-associated genes is associated with folate concentration in tissue and plasma and may become useful when predicting response to LV treatment.

Chua PJ, Lim JP, Guo TT, et al.
Y-box binding protein-1 and STAT3 independently regulate ATP-binding cassette transporters in the chemoresistance of gastric cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(6):2579-2589 [PubMed] Related Publications
Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) facilitates cancer chemoresistance through the upregulation of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters associated with multidrug resistance, which is one of the primary obstacles in cancer treatment. Since aberrant Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling is also implicated in chemoresistance in numerous human malignancies, the interaction between YB-1 and JAK/STAT signaling was explored underlying the chemoresistance of NUGC3 gastric cancer cells. It was demonstrated that YB-1 translocated into the nuclei of NUGC3 cells exposed to doxorubicin hydrochloride, suggesting its important role in chemoresistance. Consistently, knockdown of YB-1 significantly decreased the chemoresistance of cells to doxorubicin hydrochloride and epirubicin hydrochloride, as evidenced by a decrease in cell viability. Notably, JAK inhibitor AG490 treatment further decreased the cell viability caused by YB-1 inhibition and doxorubicin hydrochloride. It was also observed that YB-1 transcriptionally regulated the ABCC3 transporter, whereas STAT3 modulated ABCC2 transporter levels. These findings suggest that YB-1 and STAT3 act together to facilitate chemoresistance via modulating the expression of different ABC transporters in NUGC3 cells. Notably, siYB-1 did not exhibit any significant effect on STAT3 expression. Similarly, siSTAT3 failed to alter YB-1 expression, suggesting that the two may not regulate each other in a mutual manner. However, double knockdown of YB-1 and STAT3 led to a synergistic inhibition of cell invasion in NUGC3 cells. Nonetheless, the combined treatment of YB-1 antagonists with STAT3 inhibitors may serve as an effective therapy in gastric cancer.

An Q, Zhou L, Xu N
Long noncoding RNA FOXD2-AS1 accelerates the gemcitabine-resistance of bladder cancer by sponging miR-143.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 103:415-420 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increasing evidences have proved that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) modulate the tumorigenesis of bladder cancer involved in multiple pathophysiological processes. In the study, we investigate the role of lncRNA FOXD2-AS1 in the gemcitabine (GEM) resistant bladder cancer and explore its potential mechanism. Results showed that lncRNA FOXD2-AS1 was high-expressed in gemcitabine-resistant bladder cancer cells. In vitro experiments, FOXD2-AS1 knockdown suppressed the 50% inhibitive concentration (IC50) of gemcitabine, drug-resistance related genes (MDR1, MRP2, LRP1) expression, invasion and ABCC3 protein expression in gemcitabine-resistant bladder cancer cells (T24/GEM, 5637/GEM). In vivo of xenograft assay, FOXD2-AS1 knockdown inhibited the tumor growth of bladder cancer cells. Bioinformatics program and validation experiments confirmed that FOXD2-AS1 positively regulated ABCC3 protein through targeting miR-143, acting as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA). In summary, our results revealed the vital roles of FOXD2-AS1/miR-143/ABCC3 axis in gemcitabine resistance of bladder cancer cells, providing a novel therapeutic strategy for bladder cancer.

Ceballos MP, Decándido G, Quiroga AD, et al.
Inhibition of sirtuins 1 and 2 impairs cell survival and migration and modulates the expression of P-glycoprotein and MRP3 in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.
Toxicol Lett. 2018; 289:63-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sirtuins (SIRTs) 1 and 2 deacetylases are overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and are associated with tumoral progression and multidrug resistance (MDR). In this study we analyzed whether SIRTs 1 and 2 activities blockage was able to affect cellular survival and migration and to modulate p53 and FoxO1 acetylation in HepG2 and Huh7 cells. Moreover, we analyzed ABC transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (MRP3) expression. We used cambinol and EX-527 as SIRTs inhibitors. Both drugs reduced cellular viability, number of colonies and cellular migration and augmented apoptosis. In 3D cultures, SIRTs inhibitors diminished spheroid growth and viability. 3D culture was less sensitive to drugs than 2D culture. The levels of acetylated p53 and FoxO1 increased after treatments. Drugs induced a decrease in ABC transporters mRNA and protein levels in HepG2 cells; however, only EX-527 was able to reduce MRP3 mRNA and protein levels in Huh7 cells. This is the first work demonstrating the regulation of MRP3 by SIRTs. In conclusion, both drugs decreased HCC cells survival and migration, suggesting SIRTs 1 and 2 activities blockage could be beneficial during HCC therapy. Downregulation of the expression of P-gp and MRP3 supports the potential application of SIRTs 1 and 2 inhibitions in combination with conventional chemotherapy.

Soliman SE, D'Silva CN, Dimaras H, et al.
Clinical and genetic associations for carboplatin-related ototoxicity in children treated for retinoblastoma: A retrospective noncomparative single-institute experience.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2018; 65(5):e26931 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Children with retinoblastoma treated with carboplatin chemotherapy risk moderate to severe, irreversible hearing loss. Based on published evidence, we hypothesized that ototoxicity risk is associated with clinical parameters and variants in candidate genes in drug metabolism pathways (methyltransferases [thiopurine S-methyltransferase, TPMT] and [catechol-O-methyltransferase, COMT], and drug transporter ABCC3).
PROCEDURE: We retrospectively reviewed clinical records of patients with retinoblastoma treated with carboplatin chemotherapy regarding age (at diagnosis and chemotherapy initiation), chemotherapy sessions (cycles number, drug doses, and cumulative carboplatin dose), and hearing loss (defined as ototoxicity ≥grade 2 by at least one classification system). Blood samples were genotyped for genetic variants in TPMT (rs12201199, rs1800460), COMT (rs4646316, rs9332377), and ABCC3 (rs1051640) by quantitative PCR and confirmed by allele-specific PCR. Univariate statistical tests, receiver-operating characteristic analysis, and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to examine the association between hearing loss, clinical factors, and variants in candidate genes.
RESULTS: Audiometric data and stored DNA were available for 71 patients with retinoblastoma (88% carried an RB1 pathogenic variant allele). Median carboplatin cumulative dose was 1,400 mg/m
CONCLUSIONS: We observed a 25% prevalence of ototoxicity in patients with retinoblastoma treated with carboplatin, higher than previously published. Age at chemotherapy initiation was associated with carboplatin-induced ototoxicity, with children <4.25 months of age at highest risk.

Xu J, Wu J, Fu C, et al.
Multidrug resistant lncRNA profile in chemotherapeutic sensitive and resistant ovarian cancer cells.
J Cell Physiol. 2018; 233(6):5034-5043 [PubMed] Related Publications
Most ovarian cancer patients are chemosensitive initially, but finally relapse with acquired chemoresistance. Multidrug-resistance is the extremely terrible situation. The mechanism for the acquired chemoresistance of ovarian cancer patients is still not clear. LncRNAs have been recognized as the important regulator of a variety of biological processes, including the multidrug-resistant process. Here, we carried out the lncRNA sequencing of the ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and the paxitaxel resistant cell line A2780/PTX which is also cross resistant to the cisplatin and epirubicin. Through integrating the published data with the cisplatin resistant lncRNAs in ovarian cancer cell line or ovarian cancer patients, 5 up-regulated and 21 down-regulated lncRNAs are considered as the multidrug-resistant lncRNAs. By real-time PCR analysis, we confirmed the 5 up-regulated and 4 down-regulated multidrug resistant lncRNAs were similarly changed in both the multidrug resistant ovarian cancer cell lines and the multidrug resistant colon cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we conducted the lncRNA-mRNA co-expression network to predict the potential multidrug resistant lncRNAs' targets. Interestingly, the multidrug resistant genes ABCB1, ABCB4, ABCC3, and ABCG2 are all co-expressed with lncRNA CTD-2589M5.4. Our results provide the valuable information for the understanding of the lncRNA function in the multidrug resistant process.

Zhang ZL, Jiang QC, Wang SR
Schisandrin A reverses doxorubicin-resistant human breast cancer cell line by the inhibition of P65 and Stat3 phosphorylation.
Breast Cancer. 2018; 25(2):233-242 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistance (MDR) in breast cancer therapy occurs frequently. Thus, anti-MDR agents from natural products or synthetic compounds were tested extensively. We have also explored the reverse effect and mechanism of Schisandrin A (Sch A), a natural product, on MCF-7 breast cancer doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant subline MCF-7/DOX.
METHODS: MTT assay was performed to measure the viability of MCF-7 cells to assess the reverse effect of Sch A. Western blot analysis was used to study the protein levels. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was performed to detect the intercellular DOX and Rhodamine 123 accumulation. The qRT-PCR was used to analysis the target gene expression. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was performed to test the transcriptional activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp).
RESULTS: Sch A, at the concentration of 20 µM, showed selective reverse effect (better than the positive control, verapamil at 5 µM) on MCF-7/DOX cell line but not on BEL-7402/DOX, Hep G2/DOX, and K-562/DOX cells. In addition, Sch A enhanced DOX-induced cleavage of Caspase-9 and PARP levels by increasing intracellular DOX accumulation and inhibiting P-gp function. Furthermore, Sch A selectively suppressed P-gp at gene and protein levels in MCF-7/DOX cells which express high level of MDR1 but not MRP1, MRP3, or BCRP. Besides, Sch A showed inhibitory effect on P-gp transcriptional activity. Sch A significantly reduced p-IκB-α (Ser32) and p-Stat3 (Tyr705) levels which mediate P-gp expression. In addition, Stat3 knockdown enhanced the reverse effect of siP65. The combined effect of siStat3 and siP65 was better than Sch A single treatment in MCF-7/DOX cells.
CONCLUSION: Sch A specifically reverses P-gp-mediated DOX resistance in MCF-7/DOX cells by blocking P-gp, NF-κB, and Stat3 signaling. Inhibition of P65 and Stat3 shows potent anti-MDR effect on MCF-7/DOX cells.

Megias-Vericat JE, Martinez-Cuadron D, Herrero MJ, et al.
Pharmacogenetics of Metabolic Genes of Anthracyclines in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Curr Drug Metab. 2018; 19(1):55-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Anthracyclines in combination with cytarabine have been the standard therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) for decades with high efficacy. However, the majority of patients will show initial resistance or will relapse after initial complete remission. Genetic variability in genes involved in anthracyclines metabolic pathway could be one of the causes of the interindividual differences in clinical outcomes.
METHODS: A systematic review of published studies in AML cohorts was carried out in order to analyze the influence of polymorphisms in genes of anthracycline metabolism on efficacy and toxicity.
RESULTS: Polymorphisms in the main enzymes of anthracyclines metabolism (CBR, AKR, NQO1, NOS3) have been related to lower enzymatic activity and higher cardiotoxicity. Moreover, variant alleles in the genes of carcinogens and chemotherapy neutralizing enzymes (GST, SULT, NADP(H) oxidase) have been associated with ROS generation and drug efficacy, influencing the survival rates and cardiac toxicities. In addition, genetic variability in the transporters of anthracyclines could affect the intake in cells, including influx (SLC28A3, SLC22A12, SLCO1B1) and efflux transporters (ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC3, ABCG2).
CONCLUSION: The knowledge of the role of pharmacogenetics in anthracyclines metabolism could explain the differences observed in their disposition in leukemic cells. These genetic variants are proposed biomarkers in clinical practice in order to individualize chemotherapy schemes, potentially increasing the effectiveness and reducing the toxicities.

Li PC, Tu MJ, Ho PY, et al.
Bioengineered NRF2-siRNA Is Effective to Interfere with NRF2 Pathways and Improve Chemosensitivity of Human Cancer Cells.
Drug Metab Dispos. 2018; 46(1):2-10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) is a transcription factor in the regulation of many oxidative enzymes and efflux transporters critical for oxidative stress and cellular defense against xenobiotics. NRF2 is dysregulated in patient osteosarcoma (OS) tissues and correlates with therapeutic outcomes. Nevertheless, research on the NRF2 regulatory pathways and its potential as a therapeutic target is limited to the use of synthetic small interfering RNA (siRNA) carrying extensive artificial modifications. Herein, we report successful high-level expression of recombinant siRNA against NRF2 in

Zhang Y, Yang SH, Guo XL
New insights into Vinca alkaloids resistance mechanism and circumvention in lung cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 96:659-666 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nowadays, lung cancer, as a health problem in worldwide, has high mortality both in men and women. Despite advances in diagnosis and surgical techniques of lung cancer in recent decades, chemotherapy is still a fundamentally and extensively useful strategy. Vinca alkaloids are a class of important and widely used drugs in the treatment of lung cancer, targeting on the Vinca binding site at the exterior of microtubule plus ends. Either intrinsic or acquired resistance to chemotherapy of Vinca alkaloids has been a major obstacle to the treatment of lung cancer, which arose great interests in studies of understanding and overcoming resistance. In this review, we focused on the application and resistance mechanisms of the Vinca alkaloids such as vinblastine, vincristine, vinorelbine and vinflunine in lung cancer. We reviewed characteristic resistance mechanisms in lung cancer including over-expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters P-glycoprotein and structural, functional or expression alterations of β-tubulin (βII, βIII, βIV) which may devote to the development of acquired resistance to the Vinca alkaloids; multidrug-resistance proteins (MRP1, MRP2, MRP3) and RLIP76 protein have also been identified that probably play a significant role in intrinsic resistance. Lung resistance-related protein (LRP) is contributed to lung cancer therapy resistance, but is not deal with the Vinca alkaloids resistance in lung cancer. Understanding the principle of the Vinca alkaloids in clinical application and mechanisms of drug resistance will support individualized lung cancer therapy and improve future therapies.

Kishimoto S, Yasuda M, Fukushima S
Changes in the Expression of Various Transporters as Influencing Factors of Resistance to Cisplatin.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(10):5477-5484 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Changes in the expression of transporters have been reported as factors in resistance to cisplatin (CDDP). This study was designed to clarify whether CDDP-resistant strains isolated from a cell line had the same characteristics, and whether these characteristics could be therapeutic targets.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intracellular platinum levels were determined by the inductively-coupled plasma method. mRNA expression levels were determined using the real-time polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: Some CDDP-resistant HepG2 cell lines exhibited changes in the expression of copper transporter 1, multidrug resistant protein (MRP)2, and/or MRP3, resulting in decreased intracellular platinum amounts, while others showed no change in platinum accumulation. Expression of these transporters was not necessarily maintained in a constant direction within the cell population isolated from the same origin.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the CDDP-resistant tumors caused by a decrease in intracellular platinum content consist of a heterogeneous cell population showing expression changes of several transporters.

Dong Y, Wang Z, Xie GF, et al.
Pregnane X receptor is associated with unfavorable survival and induces chemotherapeutic resistance by transcriptional activating multidrug resistance-related protein 3 in colorectal cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2017; 16(1):71 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although chemotherapy represents a predominant anti-cancer therapeutic modality, drug treatment efficacy is often limited due to the development of resistant tumor cells. The pregnane X receptor (PXR) affects chemotherapeutic effects by regulating targets involved in drug metabolism and transportation, but the regulatory mechanism is poorly understood.
METHODS: Oxaliplatin (L-OHP) content in tumor cells was analyzed by mass cytometry. The roles of PXR on cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis and tumor growth with L-OHP-treated were investigated by MTS, colony formation, flow cytometry and xenograft tumor assays. Luciferase reporter, Chromatin-immunoprecipitation and Site-directed mutagenesis were evaluated the mechanisms. The PXR and multidrug resistance-related protein 3 (MRP3) expressions were examined by western blot, RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry of TMA. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression were adopted to analyze the prognostic value of PXR in colorectal cancer (CRC).
RESULTS: PXR over-expression significantly increased oxaliplatin (L-OHP) transport capacity with a reduction of its content and repressed the effects of L-OHP on tumour cell proliferation and apoptosis. Conversely, PXR knockdown augments L-OHP-mediated cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Moreover, PXR significantly reduced the therapeutic effects of L-OHP on tumor growth in nude mice. Further studies indicated a positive correlation between PXR and MRP3 expression and this finding was confirmed in two independent cohorts. Significantly increased MRP3 expression was also found in PXR over-expressing cell lines. Mechanistically, PXR could directly bind to the MRP3 promoter, activating its transcription. The PXR binding sites were determined to be at -796 to -782bp (CTGAAGCAGAGGGAA) and the key binding sites were the "AGGGA" (-787 to -783bp) on the MRP3 promoter. Accordingly, blockade of MRP3 diminishes the effects on drug resistance of PXR. In addition, PXR expression is significantly associated with poor overall survival and represents an unfavorable and independent factor for male or stage I + II CRC patient prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS: PXR is a potential biomarker for predicting outcome and activates MRP3 transcription by directly binding to its promoter resulting in an increased L-OHP efflux capacity, and resistance to L-OHP or platinum drugs in CRC. Our work reveals a novel and unique mechanism of drug resistance in CRC.

Lee HS, Park SB, Kim SA, et al.
A novel HDAC inhibitor, CG200745, inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth and overcomes gemcitabine resistance.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7:41615 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer is predominantly lethal, and is primarily treated using gemcitabine, with increasing resistance. Therefore, novel agents that increase tumor sensitivity to gemcitabine are needed. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are emerging therapeutic agents, since HDAC plays an important role in cancer initiation and progression. We evaluated the antitumor effect of a novel HDAC inhibitor, CG200745, combined with gemcitabine/erlotinib on pancreatic cancer cells and gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells. Three pancreatic cancer-cell lines were used to evaluate the antitumor effect of CG200745 combined with gemcitabine/erlotinib. CG200745 induced the expression of apoptotic proteins (PARP and caspase-3) and increased the levels of acetylated histone H3. CG200745 with gemcitabine/erlotinib showed significant growth inhibition and synergistic antitumor effects in vitro. In vivo, gemcitabine/erlotinib and CG200745 reduced tumor size up to 50%. CG200745 enhanced the sensitivity of gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine, and decreased the level of ATP-binding cassette-transporter genes, especially multidrug resistance protein 3 (MRP3) and MRP4. The novel HDAC inhibitor, CG200745, with gemcitabine/erlotinib had a synergistic anti-tumor effect on pancreatic cancer cells. CG200745 significantly improved pancreatic cancer sensitivity to gemcitabine, with a prominent antitumor effect on gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells. Therefore, improved clinical outcome is expected in the future.

Varatharajan S, Abraham A, Karathedath S, et al.
ATP-binding casette transporter expression in acute myeloid leukemia: association with in vitro cytotoxicity and prognostic markers.
Pharmacogenomics. 2017; 18(3):235-244 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Drug resistance and relapse are considered to be the major reasons for treatment failure in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). There is limited data on the role of ABC transporter expression on in vitro sensitivity to cytarabine (Ara-C) and daunorubicin (Dnr) in primary AML cells.
PATIENTS & METHODS: RNA expression levels of 12 ABC transporters were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR in 233 de novo adult acute myeloid leukemia patients. Based on cytarabine or Dnr IC
RESULTS: Expression of ABCC3 and ABCB6 were significantly higher in Dnr-resistant samples when compared with Dnr-sensitive samples. Increased ABCC1 expression was associated with poor disease-free survival in this cohort of patients.
CONCLUSION: This comprehensive analysis suggests ABCC1, ABCC3, ABCB6 and ABCA5 as probable targets which can be modulated for improving chemotherapeutic responses.

Park GB, Chung YH, Kim D
2-Deoxy-D-glucose suppresses the migration and reverses the drug resistance of colon cancer cells through ADAM expression regulation.
Anticancer Drugs. 2017; 28(4):410-420 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer cell resistance to chemotherapy is associated with a poor prognosis. The compound 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) enhances the effect of chemotherapy against cancer cells lines in vitro and in vivo. However, its effect on the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in drug-resistant cancer cells has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether treatment of 5-fluorouracil or oxaliplatin-resistant colorectal cancer (CRC) cells with 2-DG suppressed their migratory activity and enhanced their susceptibility to chemotherapy. Chemoresistant CRC cells stably expressed drug resistance-related proteins (MDR1, MRP1, MRP2, and MRP3) and showed mesenchymal characteristics and a migratory phenotype. 2-DG treatment attenuated glycolysis-related enzyme expression, invasion activity, and EMT-related cytokine secretion in drug-resistant CRC cells. In addition, 2-DG inhibited the activation of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) and ADAM17. Gene silencing of ADAM10 and ADAM17 with small interfering RNA downregulated mesenchymal properties, reduced EMT-associated cytokine secretion, and rendered chemoresistant cells susceptible to anticancer drug treatment. Collectively, these findings suggest that increased glycolytic metabolism in drug-resistant cells has an effect on both migratory activity and cell viability through the activation of ADAM10 and ADAM17.

Kobayashi M, Funayama R, Ohnuma S, et al.
Wnt-β-catenin signaling regulates ABCC3 (MRP3) transporter expression in colorectal cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(12):1776-1784 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
We determined the gene expression profiles for 48 ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters in matched colon cancer and normal colon tissues in order to provide insight into the mechanisms underlying expression of transporters related to colon carcinogenesis. The expression of ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCC3, and ABCG2 was altered in association with colon carcinogenesis. Among these transporters, the expression of ABCC3 was repressed by Wnt signaling pathway in colon cancer cell lines. Knockdown of the pathway components transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) or β-catenin thus increased ABCC3 expression, whereas activation of Wnt signaling with inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) reduced it. ChIP and luciferase reporter assays also showed that TCF7L2 binds to the ABCC3 locus and regulates its expression. Finally, overexpression of ABCC3 in colon cancer cells conferred resistance to anticancer drug-induced cytotoxicity. Our data thus suggest that Wnt signaling represses ABCC3 expression during colon carcinogenesis, and that subsequent upregulation of ABCC3 expression during drug treatment might contribute to acquired drug resistance.

Hegyi M, Arany A, Semsei AF, et al.
Pharmacogenetic analysis of high-dose methotrexate treatment in children with osteosarcoma.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(6):9388-9398 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
Inter-individual differences in toxic symptoms and pharmacokinetics of high-dose methotrexate (MTX) treatment may be caused by genetic variants in the MTX pathway. Correlations between polymorphisms and pharmacokinetic parameters and the occurrence of hepato- and myelotoxicity were studied. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCC3, ABCC10, ABCG2, GGH, SLC19A1 and NR1I2 genes were analyzed in 59 patients with osteosarcoma. Univariate association analysis and Bayesian network-based Bayesian univariate and multilevel analysis of relevance (BN-BMLA) were applied. Rare alleles of 10 SNPs of ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCC3, ABCG2 and NR1I2 genes showed a correlation with the pharmacokinetic values and univariate association analysis. The risk of toxicity was associated with five SNPs in the ABCC2 and NR1I2 genes. Pharmacokinetic parameters were associated with four SNPs of the ABCB1, ABCC3, NR1I2, and GGH genes, and toxicity was shown to be associated with ABCC1 rs246219 and ABCC2 rs717620 using the univariate and BN-BMLA method. BN-BMLA analysis detected relevant effects on the AUC0-48 in the following SNPs: ABCB1 rs928256, ABCC3 rs4793665, and GGH rs3758149. In both univariate and multivariate analyses the SNPs ABCB1 rs928256, ABCC3 rs4793665, GGH rs3758149, and NR1I2 rs3814058 SNPs were relevant. These SNPs should be considered in future dose individualization during treatment.

Balaji SA, Udupa N, Chamallamudi MR, et al.
Role of the Drug Transporter ABCC3 in Breast Cancer Chemoresistance.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(5):e0155013 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
Increased expression of ABC-family of transporters is associated with chemotherapy failure. Although the drug transporters ABCG2, ABCB1 and ABCC1 have been majorly implicated in cancer drug resistance, recent studies have associated ABCC3 with multi drug resistance and poor clinical response. In this study, we have examined the expression of ABCC3 in breast cancers and studied its role in drug resistance and stemness of breast cancer cells in comparison with the more studied ABCC1. We observed that similar to ABCC1, the transcripts levels of ABCC3 was significantly high in breast cancers compared to adjacent normal tissue. Importantly, expression of both transporters was further increased in chemotherapy treated patient samples. Consistent with this, we observed that treatment of breast cancer cell lines with anti-cancer agents increased their mRNA levels of both ABCC1 and ABCC3. Further, similar to knockdown of ABCC1, knockdown of ABCC3 also significantly increased the retention of chemotherapeutic drugs in breast cancer cells and rendered them more chemo-sensitive. Interestingly, ABCC1 and ABCC3 knockdown cells also showed reduction in the expression of stemness genes, while ABCC3 knockdown additionally led to a reduction in the CD44high/CD24low breast cancer stem-like subpopulation. Consistent with this, their ability to form primary tumours was compromised. Importantly, down-modulation of ABCC3 rendered these cells increasingly susceptible to doxorubicin in xenograft mice models in vivo. Thus, our study highlights the importance of ABCC3 transporters in drug resistance to chemotherapy in the context of breast cancer. Further, these results suggest that combinatorial inhibition of these transporters together with standard chemotherapy can reduce therapy-induced resistance in breast cancer.

Kataoka J, Shiraha H, Horiguchi S, et al.
Loss of Runt-related transcription factor 3 induces resistance to 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(5):2576-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) is known to function as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer and other types of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its role has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the role of RUNX3 in HCC. We used the human HCC cell lines Hep3B, Huh7 and HLF; RUNX3 cDNA was introduced into Hep3B and Huh7 cells, which were negative for endogenous RUNX3 expression, and RUNX3 siRNA was transfected into HLF cells, which were positive for endogenous RUNX3. We analyzed the expression of RUNX3 and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) by immunoblotting. MTT assays were used to determine the effects of RUNX3 expression on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin (CDDP) sensitivity. Finally, 23 HCC specimens resected from patients with HCC at Okayama University Hospital were analyzed, and correlations among immunohistochemical expression of RUNX3 protein and MRP protein were evaluated in these specimens. Exogenous RUNX3 expression reduced the expression of MRP1, MRP2, MRP3 and MRP5 in the RUNX3-negative cells, whereas knockdown of RUNX3 in the HLF cells stimulated the expression of these MRPs. An inverse correlation between RUNX3 and MRP expression was observed in the HCC tissues. Importantly, loss of RUNX3 expression contributed to 5-FU and CDDP resistance by inducing MRP expression. These data have important implications in the study of chemotherapy resistance in HCC.

Bekele RT, Venkatraman G, Liu RZ, et al.
Oxidative stress contributes to the tamoxifen-induced killing of breast cancer cells: implications for tamoxifen therapy and resistance.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:21164 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
Tamoxifen is the accepted therapy for patients with estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-positive breast cancer. However, clinical resistance to tamoxifen, as demonstrated by recurrence or progression on therapy, is frequent and precedes death from metastases. To improve breast cancer treatment it is vital to understand the mechanisms that result in tamoxifen resistance. This study shows that concentrations of tamoxifen and its metabolites, which accumulate in tumors of patients, killed both ERα-positive and ERα-negative breast cancer cells. This depended on oxidative damage and anti-oxidants rescued the cancer cells from tamoxifen-induced apoptosis. Breast cancer cells responded to tamoxifen-induced oxidation by increasing Nrf2 expression and subsequent activation of the anti-oxidant response element (ARE). This increased the transcription of anti-oxidant genes and multidrug resistance transporters. As a result, breast cancer cells are able to destroy or export toxic oxidation products leading to increased survival from tamoxifen-induced oxidative damage. These responses in cancer cells also occur in breast tumors of tamoxifen-treated mice. Additionally, high levels of expression of Nrf2, ABCC1, ABCC3 plus NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone-1 in breast tumors of patients at the time of diagnosis were prognostic of poor survival after tamoxifen therapy. Therefore, overcoming tamoxifen-induced activation of the ARE could increase the efficacy of tamoxifen in treating breast cancer.

Elsnerova K, Mohelnikova-Duchonova B, Cerovska E, et al.
Gene expression of membrane transporters: Importance for prognosis and progression of ovarian carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(4):2159-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Membrane transporters (such as ABCs, SLCs and ATPases) act in carcinogenesis and chemoresistance development, but their relevance for prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains poorly understood. We evaluated the gene expression profile of 39 ABC and 12 SLC transporters and three ATPases in EOC tissues and addressed their putative role in prognosis and clinical course of EOC patients. Relative gene expression in a set of primary EOC (n=57) and in control ovarian tissues (n=14) was estimated and compared with clinical data and survival of patients. Obtained data were validated in an independent set of patients (n=60). Six ABCs and SLC22A18 gene were significantly overexpressed in carcinomas when compared with controls, while expression of 12 ABCs, five SLCs, ATP7A and ATP11B was decreased. Expression of ABCA12, ABCC3, ABCC6, ABCD3, ABCG1 and SLC22A5 was higher in high grade serous carcinoma compared with other subtypes. ABCA2 gene expression significantly associated with EOC grade in both sets of patients. Notably, expression level of ABCA9, ABCA10, ABCC9 and SLC16A14 significantly associated with progression-free survival (PFS) of the disease in either pilot or validation sets. ABCG2 level associated with PFS in the pooled set of patients. In conclusion, ABCA2, ABCA9, ABCA10, ABCC9, ABCG2 and SLC16A14 present novel putative markers of EOC progression and together with the revealed relationship between ABCA12, ABCC3, ABCC6, ABCD3, ABCG1 and SLC22A5 expression, and high grade serous type of EOC should be further examined by larger follow-up study.

Rumiato E, Boldrin E, Malacrida S, et al.
A germline predictive signature of response to platinum chemotherapy in esophageal cancer.
Transl Res. 2016; 171:29-37.e1 [PubMed] Related Publications
Platinum-based neoadjuvant therapy is the standard treatment for esophageal cancer (EC). At present, no reliable response markers exist, and patient therapeutic outcome is variable and very often unpredictable. The aim of this study was to understand the contribution of host constitutive DNA polymorphisms in discriminating between responder and nonresponder patients. DNA collected from 120 EC patients treated with platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy was analyzed using drug metabolism enzymes and transporters (DMET) array platform that interrogates polymorphisms in 225 genes of drug metabolism and disposition. Four gene variants of DNA repair machinery, 2 in ERCC1 (rs11615; rs3212986), and 2 in XPD (rs1799793; rs13181) were also studied. Association analysis was performed with pTest software and corrected by permutation test. Predictive models of response were created using the receiver-operating characteristics curve approach and adjusted by the bootstrap procedure. Sixteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the DMET array resulted significantly associated with either good or poor response; no association was found for the 4 variants mapping in DNA repair genes. The predictive power of 5 DMET SNPs mapping in ABCC2, ABCC3, CYP2A6, PPARG, and SLC7A8 genes was greater than that of clinical factors alone (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.74 vs 0.62). Interestingly, their combination with the clinical variables significantly increased the predictivity of the model (AUC = 0.78 vs 0.62, P = 0.0016). In conclusion, we identified a genetic signature of response to platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in EC patients. Our results also disclose the potential benefit of combining genetic and clinical variables for personalized EC management.

Tomonari T, Takeishi S, Taniguchi T, et al.
MRP3 as a novel resistance factor for sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(6):7207-15 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
The mechanism of resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to sorafenib is unknown and no useful predictive biomarker for sorafenib treatment has been reported. Accordingly, we established sorafenib-resistant HCC cells and investigated the underlying mechanism of resistance to sorafenib. Sorafenib-resistant cell lines were established from the HCC cell line PLC/PRF5 by cultivation under continuous exposure to increasing concentration of sorafenib. The IC50 values of the 2 resistant clones PLC/PRF5-R1 and PLC-PRF5-R2 were 9.2±0.47 μM (1.8-fold) and 25±5.1 μM (4.6-fold) respectively, which were significantly higher than that of parental PLC/PRF5 cells (5.4±0.17 μM) (p < 0.01 respectively), as determined by MTT assay. Western blot analysis of signal transduction-related proteins showed no significant differences in expression of AKT/pAKT, mTOR/pmTOR, or ERK/pERK between the 2 resistant clones versus parent cells, suggesting no activation of an alternative signal transduction pathway. Likewise, when expression of membrane transporter proteins was determined, there were no significant differences in expression levels of BSEP, MDR1, MRP2, BCRP, MRP4 and OCT1 between resistant clones and parent cells. However, the expression levels of MRP3 in the 2 resistant clones were significantly higher than that of parent cells. When MRP3 gene was knocked down by siRNA in PLC-PRF5-R2 cells, the sensitivity of the cells to sorafenib was restored. In the analysis of gene mutation, there was no mutation in the activation segment of Raf1 kinase in the resistant clones. Our data clearly demonstrate that the efflux transporter MRP3 plays an important role in resistance to sorafenib in HCC cells.

Liu X, Yao D, Liu C, et al.
Overexpression of ABCC3 promotes cell proliferation, drug resistance, and aerobic glycolysis and is associated with poor prognosis in urinary bladder cancer patients.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(6):8367-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is the one of the most common malignancies worldwide and occurs at a higher frequency in male individuals. ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 3 (ABCC3), a member of the ABC transporter family, is highly expressed in tumor cells, where it actively effluxes a broad spectrum of metabolites. However, the expression and role of ABCC3 in human UBC remains unclear. Our study aimed to identify the expression status of ABCC3 in UBC cases and investigate the biological effects on UBC in cells. We found that both mRNA and protein levels of ABCC3 were significantly higher in UBC tissues than normal tissues. Immunochemistry evaluation of ABCC3 expression in 122 UBC clinical specimens showed that high expression of ABCC3 had a positive correlation with UBC tumor size, advanced tumor node metastasis stage, and malignant histology. Moreover, high ABCC3 expression was linked to poor overall survival in UBC. ABCC3 effects on cell proliferation and drug resistance were measured by colony formation and methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. ABCC3-knockdown cells showed a significant decrease in cell growth and drug resistance. RNA interference of ABCC3 also caused downregulation of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), which positively correlated with ABCC3 expression in UBC specimens. In addition, cancer cell glycolytic ability was decreased upon ABCC3 knockdown. The activity of LDHA was also abrogated in ABCC3-deficient UBC cells, and the blockade of LDHA increased UBC cells sensitivity to Cis-diamine dichloroplatinum (CDDP). In summary, our study suggests ABCC3 is an important oncoprotein involved in glycolysis and drug resistance. These data also indicates that ABCC3 could be a potential prognostic marker and promising therapeutic target in UBC.

Karatas OF, Guzel E, Duz MB, et al.
The role of ATP-binding cassette transporter genes in the progression of prostate cancer.
Prostate. 2016; 76(5):434-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among men in developed countries. There is no clear evidence showing the success of current screening tests in reducing mortality of PCa. In this study, we aimed to profile expressions of nine ABC transporters, ABCA5, ABCB1, ABCB6, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCC3, ABCC5, ABCC10, and ABCF2, in recurrent, non-recurrent PCa and normal prostate tissues.
METHODS: A total of 77 (39 recurrent, 38 non-recurrent) radical prostatectomy and 20 normal prostate samples, obtained from Baylor College of Medicine Prostate Cancer program, were included into the study and divided into two independent groups as test and validation sample sets. Differential expression of selected ABC transporters was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Pearson's correlation test, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis and Kaplan-Meier test were used for statistical analysis.
RESULTS: QRT-PCR results demonstrated the elevated expression of ABCA5, ABCB1, ABCB6, ABCC1, and ABCC2 as well as reduced expression of ABCC3 in PCa samples compared to normal prostate tissues. In addition, we found deregulation of ABCB1, ABCB6, ABCC3, and ABCC10 in recurrent PCa samples and validated differential expression of ABCB6, ABCC3, and ABCC10 in recurrent PCa compared to non-recurrent PCa. Pearson's correlation, ROC and Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed the power of these three ABC transporters for estimating prognosis of PCa.
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated differential expression of ABC transporters both in tumor versus normal and recurrent versus non-recurrent comparisons. Our data suggest ABCB6, ABCC3, and ABCC10 as valuable predictors of PCa progression.

Gao CC, Xu XL, Li F, et al.
Silencing pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor (PAUF) increases the sensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(6):7555-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor (PAUF) is a new oncogene that activates signaling pathways that play a critical role in resistance to gemcitabine. We thus speculated that PAUF also plays a role in resistance to gemcitabine of pancreatic cancer cells. We established BxPC-3 cell lines with stable PAUF knockdown (BxPC-3_shPAUF) and controls (BxPC-3_shCtrl) and evaluated sensitivity to gemcitabine in vitro by MTT and flow cytometry. We established a xenograft model of human pancreatic cancer to examine PAUF function in gemcitabine resistance in vivo. Gene chip microarrays were performed to identify differentially expressed genes in BxPC-3_shPAUF and BxPC-3_shCtrl cells. Silencing PAUF increased the sensitivity of BxPC-3 cells to gemcitabine in vitro and in vivo. PAUF-knockdown BxPC-3 cell lines treated with gemcitabine showed increased proliferation inhibition and apoptosis compared with controls. Gemcitabine exhibited a more pronounced effect on reduction of BxPC-3_shPAUF tumors than BxPC-3_shCtrl tumors. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assays confirmed a significantly higher apoptotic rate of BXPC-3_shPAUF tumors compared with BXPC-3_shCtrl tumors. Gene array showed that PAUF function in gemcitabine sensitivity might involve MRP2, MRP3, MDR1, PIK3R1, and NFkB2 genes. PAUF could be considered as a key molecular target for sensitizing pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine.

Bartholomae S, Gruhn B, Debatin KM, et al.
Coexpression of Multiple ABC-Transporters is Strongly Associated with Treatment Response in Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2016; 63(2):242-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To analyze whether expression of ABC-transporters is associated with remission rate and long-term outcome in a prospective clinical trial of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
PROCEDURE: The expression of four ABC-transporter genes (ABCA3 encoding drug transporter ABCA3, ABCB1 encoding multidrug resistance protein 1, ABCC3 encoding multidrug resistance-associated protein 3, and ABCG2 encoding breast cancer resistance protein) was measured by TaqMan real time polymerase chain reaction in pretreatment samples from 112 children with AML. Patients were treated according to multicenter study AML-Berlin, Frankfurt, Munich (BFM) 2004.
RESULTS: ABCC3 (P = 0.009) and ABCG2 (P = 0.03) were associated with a lower chance to achieve remission after the first course of chemotherapy. ABCC3 was associated with lower relapse free survival (RFS) (P = 0.02). ABCG2 was expressed at higher levels in subtypes of AML with favorable outcome but within standard- and high-risk patients, it was associated with poor outcome (P = 0.02). A strong association was observed between the number of overexpressed ABC-transporters and the chance to achieve remission (P = 0.01) or the chance of RFS (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The intensive treatment regimen of AML-BFM 2004 did not readily overcome drug resistance caused by ABC-transporters. Inhibition of ABC-transporters might be particularly useful in patients who express multiple of these genes.

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