Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: ST7 (cancer-related)
BACKGROUND: Rapid changes in the expression of many messenger RNA (mRNA) species follow exposure of cells to ionizing radiation. One of the hypothetical mechanisms of this response may include microRNA (miRNA) regulation, since the amounts of miRNAs in cells also vary upon irradiation. To address this possibility, we designed experiments using cancer-derived cell lines transfected with luciferase reporter gene containing sequences targeted by different miRNA species in its 3'- untranslated region. We focus on the early time-course response (1 h past irradiation) to eliminate secondary mRNA expression waves.
RESULTS: Experiments revealed that the irradiation-induced changes in the mRNA expression depend on the miRNAs which interact with mRNA. To identify the strongest interactions, we propose a mathematical model which predicts the mRNA fold expression changes, caused by perturbation of microRNA-mRNA interactions. Model was applied to experimental data including various cell lines, irradiation doses and observation times, both ours and literature-based. Comparison of modelled and experimental mRNA expression levels given miRNA level changes allows estimating how many and which miRNAs play a significant role in transcriptome response to stress conditions in different cell types. As an example, in the human melanoma cell line the comparison suggests that, globally, a major part of the irradiation-induced changes of mRNA expression can be explained by perturbed miRNA-mRNA interactions. A subset of about 30 out of a few hundred miRNAs expressed in these cells appears to account for the changes. These miRNAs play crucial roles in regulatory mechanisms observed after irradiation. In addition, these miRNAs have a higher average content of GC and a higher number of targeted transcripts, and many have been reported to play a role in the development of cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Our proposed mathematical modeling approach may be used to identify miRNAs which participate in responses of cells to ionizing radiation, and other stress factors such as extremes of temperature, exposure to toxins, and drugs.
Saunus JM, Quinn MC, Patch AM, et al.Integrated genomic and transcriptomic analysis of human brain metastases identifies alterations of potential clinical significance.
J Pathol. 2015; 237(3):363-78 [PubMed
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Treatment options for patients with brain metastases (BMs) have limited efficacy and the mortality rate is virtually 100%. Targeted therapy is critically under-utilized, and our understanding of mechanisms underpinning metastatic outgrowth in the brain is limited. To address these deficiencies, we investigated the genomic and transcriptomic landscapes of 36 BMs from breast, lung, melanoma and oesophageal cancers, using DNA copy-number analysis and exome- and RNA-sequencing. The key findings were as follows. (a) Identification of novel candidates with possible roles in BM development, including the significantly mutated genes DSC2, ST7, PIK3R1 and SMC5, and the DNA repair, ERBB-HER signalling, axon guidance and protein kinase-A signalling pathways. (b) Mutational signature analysis was applied to successfully identify the primary cancer type for two BMs with unknown origins. (c) Actionable genomic alterations were identified in 31/36 BMs (86%); in one case we retrospectively identified ERBB2 amplification representing apparent HER2 status conversion, then confirmed progressive enrichment for HER2-positivity across four consecutive metastatic deposits by IHC and SISH, resulting in the deployment of HER2-targeted therapy for the patient. (d) In the ERBB/HER pathway, ERBB2 expression correlated with ERBB3 (r(2) = 0.496; p < 0.0001) and HER3 and HER4 were frequently activated in an independent cohort of 167 archival BM from seven primary cancer types: 57.6% and 52.6% of cases were phospho-HER3(Y1222) or phospho-HER4(Y1162) membrane-positive, respectively. The HER3 ligands NRG1/2 were barely detectable by RNAseq, with NRG1 (8p12) genomic loss in 63.6% breast cancer-BMs, suggesting a microenvironmental source of ligand. In summary, this is the first study to characterize the genomic landscapes of BM. The data revealed novel candidates, potential clinical applications for genomic profiling of resectable BMs, and highlighted the possibility of therapeutically targeting HER3, which is broadly over-expressed and activated in BMs, independent of primary site and systemic therapy.
Epigenetic events that are essential drivers of lymphocyte transformation remain incompletely characterized. We used models of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced B-cell transformation to document the relevance of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) to regulation of epigenetic-repressive marks during lymphomagenesis. EBV(+) lymphomas and transformed cell lines exhibited abundant expression of PRMT5, a type II PRMT enzyme that promotes transcriptional silencing of target genes by methylating arginine residues on histone tails. PRMT5 expression was limited to EBV-transformed cells, not resting or activated B lymphocytes, validating it as an ideal therapeutic target. We developed a first-in-class, small-molecule PRMT5 inhibitor that blocked EBV-driven B-lymphocyte transformation and survival while leaving normal B cells unaffected. Inhibition of PRMT5 led to lost recruitment of a PRMT5/p65/HDAC3-repressive complex on the miR96 promoter, restored miR96 expression, and PRMT5 downregulation. RNA-sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments identified several tumor suppressor genes, including the protein tyrosine phosphatase gene PTPROt, which became silenced during EBV-driven B-cell transformation. Enhanced PTPROt expression following PRMT5 inhibition led to dephosphorylation of kinases that regulate B-cell receptor signaling. We conclude that PRMT5 is critical to EBV-driven B-cell transformation and maintenance of the malignant phenotype, and that PRMT5 inhibition shows promise as a novel therapeutic approach for B-cell lymphomas.
Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive histologic subtype of brain cancer with poor outcomes and limited treatment options. Here, we report the selective overexpression of the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 as a novel candidate theranostic target in this disease. PRMT5 silences the transcription of regulatory genes by catalyzing symmetric dimethylation of arginine residues on histone tails. PRMT5 overexpression in patient-derived primary tumors and cell lines correlated with cell line growth rate and inversely with overall patient survival. Genetic attenuation of PRMT5 led to cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and loss of cell migratory activity. Cell death was p53-independent but caspase-dependent and enhanced with temozolomide, a chemotherapeutic agent used as a present standard of care. Global gene profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation identified the tumor suppressor ST7 as a key gene silenced by PRMT5. Diminished ST7 expression was associated with reduced patient survival. PRMT5 attenuation limited PRMT5 recruitment to the ST7 promoter, led to restored expression of ST7 and cell growth inhibition. Finally, PRMT5 attenuation enhanced glioblastoma cell survival in a mouse xenograft model of aggressive glioblastoma. Together, our findings defined PRMT5 as a candidate prognostic factor and therapeutic target in glioblastoma, offering a preclinical justification for targeting PRMT5-driven oncogenic pathways in this deadly disease.
It is already known that the Maitake (D-Fraction) mushroom is involved in stimulating the immune system and activating certain cells that attack cancer, including macrophages, T-cells, and natural killer cells. According to the U.S. National Cancer Institute, polysaccharide complexes present in Maitake mushrooms appear to have significant anticancer activity. However, the exact molecular mechanism of the Maitake antitumoral effect is still unclear. Previously, we have reported that Maitake (D-Fraction) induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by activation of BCL2-antagonist/killer 1 (BAK1) gene expression. At the present work, we are identifying which genes are responsible for the suppression of the tumoral phenotype mechanism induced by Maitake (D-Fraction) in breast cancer cells. Human breast cancer MCF-7 cells were treated with and without increased concentrations of Maitake D-Fraction (36, 91, 183, 367 μg/mL) for 24 h. Total RNA were isolated and cDNA microarrays were hybridized containing 25,000 human genes. Employing the cDNA microarray analysis, we found that Maitake D-Fraction modified the expression of 4068 genes (2420 were upmodulated and 1648 were downmodulated) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner during 24 h of treatment. The present data shows that Maitake D-Fraction suppresses the breast tumoral phenotype through a putative molecular mechanism modifying the expression of certain genes (such as IGFBP-7, ITGA2, ICAM3, SOD2, CAV-1, Cul-3, NRF2, Cycline E, ST7, and SPARC) that are involved in apoptosis stimulation, inhibition of cell growth and proliferation, cell cycle arrest, blocking migration and metastasis of tumoral cells, and inducing multidrug sensitivity. Altogether, these results suggest that Maitake D-Fraction could be a potential new target for breast cancer chemoprevention and treatment.
Histone modification regulates gene expression, and one major regulatory step in this process is the ability of proteins that recognize epigenetic marks to recruit enzymes required to specify transcriptional outcome. Here we show that BRD7 is a component of hSWI-SNF complexes that interacts with PRMT5 and PRC2. Recruitment studies revealed that BRD7 co-localizes with PRMT5 and PRC2 on 'suppressor of tumorigenecity 7' (ST7) and retinoblastoma-like protein 2 (RBL2) promoters in patient-derived B cell lines, and that its association with these target genes correlates with hypermethylation of H3R8, H4R3 and H3K27. Furthermore, inhibition of BRD7 expression reduces PRMT5 and PRC2 recruitment to ST7 and RBL2 promoters; however, only ST7 becomes transcriptionally derepressed. Evaluation of the PRMT5- and PRC2-induced epigenetic marks revealed that while H3(Me(2))R8, H4(Me(2))R3 and H3(Me(3))K27 marks are erased from the ST7 promoter, demethylation of RBL2 promoter histones is incomplete. We also show that the arginine demethylase (RDM) JMJD6, which can erase PRMT5-induced H4R3 methylation, and the H3K27-lysine-specific demethylases, KDM6A/UTX and KDM6B/JMJD3, are differentially recruited to ST7 and RBL2. These findings highlight the role played by BRD7 in PRMT5- and PRC2-induced transcriptional silencing, and indicate that recruitment of specific RDMs and KDMs is required for efficient transcriptional derepression.
Poirier P, Wawrzyniak I, Albert A, et al.Development and evaluation of a real-time PCR assay for detection and quantification of blastocystis parasites in human stool samples: prospective study of patients with hematological malignancies.
J Clin Microbiol. 2011; 49(3):975-83 [PubMed
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Blastocystis anaerobic parasites are widespread worldwide in the digestive tract of many animal species, including humans. Epidemiological Blastocystis studies are often limited by the poor sensitivity of standard parasitological assays for its detection. This report presents a highly sensitive real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay developed to detect Blastocystis parasites in stool samples. The assay targets a partial sequence of the Blastocystis small ribosomal subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, allowing subtyping (ST) of Blastocystis isolates by direct sequencing of qPCR products. This qPCR method was assessed in a prospective study of 186 patients belonging to two cohorts--a group of 94 immunocompromised patients presenting hematological malignancies and a control group of 92 nonimmunocompromised patients. Direct-light microscopy and xenic in vitro stool culture analysis showed only 29% and 52% sensitivity, respectively, compared to our qPCR assay. Of the 27 (14.5%) Blastocystis-positive patients, 8 (4%) experienced digestive symptoms. No correlation was found between symptomatic patients and immune status, parasite load, or parasite subtypes, although subtyping of all isolates revealed a high (63.0%) prevalence of ST4. Two unexpected avian subtypes were found, i.e., ST6 and ST7, which are frequently isolated in Asia but rarely present in Western countries. In conclusion, this qPCR proved by far the most sensitive of the tested methods and allowed subtype determination by direct sequencing of qPCR products. New diagnostic tools such as the qPCR are essential for evaluating the clinical relevance of Blastocystis subtypes and their role in acute or chronic digestive disorders.
BACKGROUND: High frequency of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was found at D7S486 in primary gastric cancer (GC). And we found a high frequency of LOH region on 7q31 in primary GC from China, and identified D7S486 to be the most frequent LOH locus. This study was aimed to determine what genes were affected by the LOH and served as tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) in this region. Here, a high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) microarray fabricated in-house was used to analyze the LOH status around D7S486 on 7q31 in 75 patients with primary GC. Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR were used to assess the protein and mRNA expression of TESTIN (TES) in 50 and 140 primary GC samples, respectively. MTS assay was used to investigate the effect of TES overexpression on the proliferation of GC cell lines. Mutation and methylation analysis were performed to explore possible mechanisms of TES inactivation in GC.
RESULTS: LOH analysis discovered five candidate genes (ST7, FOXP2, MDFIC, TES and CAV1) whose frequencies of LOH were higher than 30%. However, only TES showed the potential to be a TSG associated with GC. Among 140 pairs of GC samples, decreased TES mRNA level was found in 96 (68.6%) tumor tissues when compared with matched non-tumor tissues (p < 0.001). Also, reduced TES protein level was detected in 36 (72.0%) of all 50 tumor tissues by Western blot (p = 0.001). In addition, immunohistochemical staining result was in agreement with that of RT-PCR and Western blot. Down regulation of TES was shown to be correlated with tumor differentiation (p = 0.035) and prognosis (p = 0.035, log-rank test). Its overexpression inhibited the growth of three GC cell lines. Hypermethylation of TES promoter was a frequent event in primary GC and GC cell lines. However, no specific gene mutation was observed in the coding region of the TES gene.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, all results support the role of TES as a TSG in gastric carcinogenesis and that TES is inactivated primarily by LOH and CpG island methylation.
Charong N, Patmasiriwat P, Zenklusen JCLocalization and characterization of ST7 in cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2011; 137(1):89-97 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: ST7 has been proposed to be a tumor suppressor gene in the chromosome region 7q31.1-q31.2. In order to gain some insight into its role in cancer, the localization and verification of the ST7 expression levels were determined.
METHODS: Various types of ST7 expression vectors tagged with the sequences of GFP, YFP or V5 were created using a gateway cloning system and full-length ST7 cDNA isolated from a human adult brain cDNA library. Cell cycle synchronization was also performed to analyze the expression of endogenous ST7 and its potentially related genes at each stage of the cell cycle.
RESULTS: Cytosolic ST7 expression in HCT-116, MCF-7 and PC-3 cancer cell lines was detected via the fluorescence signal of the fusion proteins. ST7 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus has not been observed in any of the conditions assayed. A cell cycle synchronization study demonstrated that both ST7 and SERPINE1 were overexpressed when cells were arrested. Expression of these genes was found to be diminished when the cells re-entered cell division status. In addition, we also found that Survivin, MMP-13 and Cyclin D1 were differentially expressed during the cell cycle.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that ST7 mediates tumor suppression through the regulation of the genes involved in maintaining the cellular structure of the cell and involved in oncogenic pathways.
Protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 interacts with human SWI/SNF complexes and methylates histones H3R8 and H4R3. To elucidate the role of PRMT5 in human cancer, we analyzed PRMT5 expression in normal human B lymphocytes and a panel of lymphoid cancer cell lines as well as mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) clinical samples. We show that PRMT5 protein levels are elevated in all cancer cells, including clinical samples examined despite its low rate of transcription and messenger RNA stability. Remarkably, polysome profiling revealed that PRMT5 mRNA is translated more efficiently in Mino and JeKo MCL cells than in normal B cells, and that decreased miR-92b and miR-96 expression augments PRMT5 translation. Consequently, global methylation of H3R8 and H4R3 is increased and is accompanied by repression of suppressor of tumorigenecity 7 (ST7) in lymphoid cancer cells. Furthermore, knockdown of PRMT5 expression reduces proliferation of transformed JeKo and Raji cells. Thus, our studies indicate that aberrant expression of PRMT5 leads to altered epigenetic modification of chromatin, which in turn impacts transcriptional performance of anti-cancer genes and growth of transformed lymphoid cells.
Hooi CF, Blancher C, Qiu W, et al.ST7-mediated suppression of tumorigenicity of prostate cancer cells is characterized by remodeling of the extracellular matrix.
Oncogene. 2006; 25(28):3924-33 [PubMed
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Multiple lines of evidence have provided compelling evidence for the existence of a tumor suppressor gene (TSG) on chromosome 7q31.1. ST7 may be the target of this genetic instability but its designation as a TSG is controversial. In this study, we show that, functionally, ST7 behaves as a tumor suppressor in human cancer. ST7 suppressed growth of PC-3 prostate cancer cells inoculated subcutaneously into severe combined immunodeficient mice, and increased the latency of tumor detection from 13 days in control tumors to 23 days. Re-expression of ST7 was also associated with suppression of colony formation under anchorage-independent conditions in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and ST7 mRNA expression was downregulated in 44% of primary breast cancers. Expression profiling of PC-3 cells revealed that ST7 predominantly induces changes in genes involved in re-modeling the extracellular matrix such as SPARC, IGFBP5 and several matrix metalloproteinases. These data indicate that ST7 may mediate tumor suppression through modification of the tumor microenvironment.
Chêne L, Giroud C, Desgrandchamps F, et al.Extensive analysis of the 7q31 region in human prostate tumors supports TES as the best candidate tumor suppressor gene.
Int J Cancer. 2004; 111(5):798-804 [PubMed
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Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome arm 7q31 is found in many prostate tumors. Such alterations are generally associated with inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. It has been shown previously that the main region of LOH at 7q31 spans the interval between the D7S486 and D7S2460 microsatellite loci, which contains several candidate tumor suppressor genes (TSG) such as TES, CAV2, CAV1, MET, CAPZA2, ST7 and WNT2. We tested 41 human sporadic prostate tumors for 7q31 LOH by using 5 polymorphic markers overlapping the critical region and used a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay to study the expression of the 7 candidate TSGs located in this genomic region. We found that CAV1, CAV2, MET and TES mRNA expression was lower in prostate tumors than in normal prostate tissues. Our immunohistochemical results and previously published data on the compartmental expression of these messenger RNAs in stromal and epithelial cells suggest that TES is the best candidate tumor suppressor gene at 7q31.
Haddad R, Vincent JB, Gryfe R, et al.Chromosome 7q31 allelic imbalance and somatic mutations of RAY1/ST7 gene in colorectal cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2004; 203(1):87-90 [PubMed
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ST7 is a putative tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 7q31. However, the role of ST7 as a tumor suppressor is uncertain as somatic mutations have been difficult to demonstrate. In order to investigate the genetic role of RAY1/ST7 in tumorigenesis, we have screened 135 colorectal cancers for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at chromosome 7q31. The entire RAY1/ST7 gene, including intron/exon boundaries and alternate 5' and 3' sequences of 15/124 (12%) informative cancers with LOH were characterized. No somatic mutations of the RAY1/ST7 gene were observed. Our results do not support a role for RAY1/ST7 as a colorectal cancer tumor suppressor gene.
AIM: To verify the effectiveness of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) in detecting somatic mutation of p53 gene in gastric carcinoma tissues. The superiority of this method has been proved in the detection of germline mutations, but it was not very affirmative with respect to somatic mutations in tumor specimens. ST7 gene, a candidate tumor suppressor gene identified recently at human chromosome 7q31.1, was also detected because LOH at this site has also been widely reported in stomach cancer.
METHODS: DNA was extracted from 39 cases of surgical gastric carcinoma specimen and their correspondent normal mucosa. Seven fragments spanning the 11 exons were used to detect the mutation of p53 gene and the four exons reported to have mutations in ST7 gene were amplified by PCR and directly analyzed by DHPLC without mixing with wild-type allele.
RESULTS: In the analysis of p53 gene mutation, 9 aberrant DHPLC chromatographies were found in tumor tissues, while their normal-adjacent counterparts running in parallel showed a normal shape. Subsequent sequencing revealed nine sequence variations, 1 polymorphism and 8 mutations including 3 mutations not reported before. The mutation rate of p53 gene (21%) was consistent with that previously reported. Furthermore, no additional aberrant chromatography was found when wild-type DNA was added into the DNA of other 30 tumor samples that showed normal shapes previously. The positivity of p53 mutations was significantly higher in intestinal-type carcinomas (40%) than that in diffuse-type (8.33%) carcinomas of the stomach. No mutation of ST7 gene was found.
CONCLUSION: DHPLC is a very convenient method for the detection of somatic mutations in gastric carcinoma. The amount of wild type alleles supplied by the non-tumorous cells in gastric tumor specimens is enough to form heteroduplex with mutant alleles for DHPLC detection. ST7 gene may not be the target gene of inactivation at 7q31 site in gastric carcinoma.
Sivasundaram K, Suzuki H, Seto M, Hosokawa YMutational analysis of the ST7 gene in human myeloid tumor cell lines.
Oncol Rep. 2003 Nov-Dec; 10(6):1737-9 [PubMed
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The recently described ST7 (for suppression of tumorigenicity 7) gene has been suggested to be a major target gene on chromosome 7q31 for inactivation in a variety of human neoplasias. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in chromosome 7q31 is frequently observed in a variety of human neoplasias including malignant myeloid tumors. We, therefore, sought to examine a total of 22 human malignant myeloid tumor cell lines comprising 17 of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cell lines and 5 chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cell lines for somatic mutations of the ST7 gene by means of bidirectional direct DNA sequencing analysis. As a result, no mutations were detected in any of these cell lines examined. In addition, our analysis of two breast tumor cell lines, which had been reported to harbour ST7 mutations, provided no evidence for such mutations. Thus, our results strongly suggest that somatic mutations of ST7 do not commonly contribute to the molecular pathogenesis of human malignant myeloid tumors and further raise questions regarding the pathological role of ST7 as a tumor suppressor gene (TSG) in a variety of human neoplasias.
Human cancers frequently show a loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 7q31, which indicates the existence of broad-range tumour-suppressor gene(s) at this locus. Truncating mutations in the ST7 gene at this locus are seen frequently in primary colon cancer and breast cancer cell lines. Therefore, the ST7 gene represents a novel candidate gene for the tumour suppressor at this locus. However, more recent studies have reported that ST7 mutations are infrequent or absent in primary cancer and cell lines. To ascertain the frequency of mutations of the ST7 gene in cancer cells, we examined mutations in the ST7 coding sequence in 48 colorectal, 48 gastric, and 48 hepatocellular carcinomas using polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformational polymorphism and direct sequencing. We detected somatic mutations, which were located near the exon-intron junction in intron 8, in only three out of 144 cases. We conclude that mutations in the ST7 gene are rare in primary colorectal, gastric, and hepatocellular carcinomas.
Wang S, Mori Y, Sato F, et al.An LOH and mutational investigation of the ST7 gene locus in human esophageal carcinoma.
Oncogene. 2003; 22(3):467-70 [PubMed
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Frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on human chromosome 7q31 has been reported in numerous malignancies. Suppressor of tumorigenicity 7 (ST7) has been identified as a candidate tumor suppressor gene in this region. To identify whether 7q31 and genetic alterations of ST7 were involved in human esophageal carcinogenesis, we performed LOH mapping of a 5.4 cM region at 7q31-q35 in 43 primary esophageal carcinomas, as well as mutational analyses of the ST7 gene in tumors with LOH in this region. Of 43 tumors, 12 (28%) showed LOH at 7q31-q35. These included four (22%) of 18 squamous cell carcinomas and eight (32%) of 25 adenocarcinomas. The peak LOH locus was D7S480, lying 4.2 Mb telomeric to ST7 and showing LOH in eight of 37 informative tumors, or 22%. No mutations were found in the entire coding or flanking intronic regions of the ST7 gene among 12 tumors with 7q-LOH. In addition, quantitative RT-PCR analyses of ST7 mRNA expression levels in 11/13 normal-tumor pairs failed to show more than a 50% decrease in tumor ST7 mRNA relative to matched normal tissues. These data suggest that LOH at 7q31-q35 is involved in the origin or progression of at least a subset of esophageal carcinomas, but that ST7 is not the target gene of this somatic event.
Dong SM, Sidransky DAbsence of ST7 gene alterations in human cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2002; 8(9):2939-41 [PubMed
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The ST7 gene was cloned and mapped to chromosome 7q31.1-q31.2, a region suspected of containing a tumor suppressor gene involved in a variety of human cancers. Subsequent investigation described the presence of ST7 mutations in human cell lines derived from breast tumors and primary colon carcinoma. Introduction of the ST7 cDNA into a prostate cancer-derived cell line abrogated in vivo tumorigenecity in nude mice. To clarify the role of the ST7 gene in cancer, we scrutinized primary head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast, and adenocarcinomas of the colon. Loss of heterozygosity of D7S522/D7S677 was detected in 24% (4 of 17) of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, 17% (2 of 12) of invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast, and 33% (8 of 24) of adenocarcinomas of the colon, but no somatic mutations were found in any of these specimens. We then searched for mutations in breast cancer cell lines and found a complete wild-type sequence in all, including cell lines previously reported to harbor mutations. We believe that the ST7 gene is not a primary target of inactivation in most human cancers with loss of heterozygosity at 7q31.1-q31.2.
ST7 is a candidate tumour suppressor gene at human chromosome locus 7q31.1. We have performed mutational analysis of ST7 in a wide-range of cell lines and primary epithelial cancers and detected only one missense change in a breast cancer cell line. Other mutations previously found in cell lines and primary tumours were not evident in our analysis. These results imply that another tumour suppressor gene at this locus may be more important than ST7 in carcinogenesis.
Kirikoshi H, Katoh MExpression of ST7R (ST7-like, ST7L) in normal tissues and cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2002; 21(1):193-6 [PubMed
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We have recently cloned and characterized ST7R (ST7-like, ST7L), WNT3, WNT3A, WNT5B, WNT6, WNT7B, WNT8A, WNT8B, WNT10A, WNT10B, WNT11, WNT14, WNT14B/WNT15, NKD1, NKD2, ARHU/WRCH1, ARHV/WRCH2, and VANGL1/STB2 using bioinformatics, cDNA-PCR and RACE. ST7R is a paralog of tumor suppressor gene ST7 in the human genome. ST7R gene is clustered with WNT2B gene in human chromo-some 1p13 region, while ST7 gene is clustered with WNT2 gene in human chromosome 7q31 region. Multiple ST7R mRNAs (ST7R1-ST7R4) are transcribed due to alternative splicing. ST7R4 is divergent from ST7R1-ST7R3 in the C-terminal region. Here, we investigated expression of ST7R mRNAs in normal human tissues and human cancer. Northern blot analysis with S7S1 probe corresponding to ST7R1, ST7R2 and ST7R3 isoforms detected 4.2 kb ST7R mRNA in various normal tissues, and also large amounts of 2.2-2.4 kb ST7R mRNAs in testis. Northern blot analysis with S7S4 probe corresponding to ST7R4 isoform detected 2.0 kb ST7R mRNA in testis. Expression of ST7R mRNAs in human cancer was next investigated using cDNA-PCR. Although ST7R mRNAs were almost ubiquitously expressed in 7 gastric cancer cell lines, expression levels of ST7R mRNAs were relatively lower in TMK1 cells. ST7R mRNAs were expressed in most cases of primary gastric cancer, and were up-regulated in 2 out of 10 cases of primary gastric cancer. This is the first report on expression analyses on ST7R.
Thomas NA, Choong DY, Jokubaitis VJ, et al.Mutation of the ST7 tumor suppressor gene on 7q31.1 is rare in breast, ovarian and colorectal cancers.
Nat Genet. 2001; 29(4):379-80 [PubMed
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The gene ST7 has recently been implicated as the broad-range tumor suppressor on human chromosome 7q31.1. We did not detect somatic mutations in ST7 in any of 149 primary ovarian, breast or colon carcinomas. These data suggest that epigenetic downregulation or haploinsufficiency, rather than somatic genetic alterations, may be the primary mechanism of abrogation of ST7 function in these tumor types.
Helg C, Starobinski M, Jeannet M, Chapuis BDonor lymphocyte infusion for the treatment of relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Leuk Lymphoma. 1998; 29(3-4):301-13 [PubMed
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The results of donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) for treatment of relapse after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are reviewed. Durable complete remission can be achieved at the molecular level for a majority (more than 70%) of patients with CML, when treated at early relapse. Results are less favourable for acute leukemias, although useful responses have been reported. Data are scarce though promising for myelodysplastic syndromes and multiple myeloma. Major treatment-associated toxicities are GVHD and bone marrow aplasia. The latter complication can be predicted by evaluating the level of residual donor-derived hematopoiesis. Modification of infused cells (CD8 negative selection or transduction with a suicide gene), addition of peripheral blood stem cells, and early implementation of escalating doses may counteract the complications and increase the response rate. Response rate is variably influenced by the presence of chronic GVHD after initial BMT, T-cell depleted BMT, underlying disease and stage at relapse, and the level of mixed chimerism. DLI is a direct demonstration of the graft-versus-leukemia effect (GVL). Because GVL after BMT is sometimes the predominant cause of cure, it may be advisable in such situations to redirect the conditioning regimens for BMT towards engraftment and less immediate cytotoxicity.