Research IndicatorsGraph generated 16 March 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (2)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: SLC5A5 (cancer-related)
B-RafV600E mutant is found in 40-70% of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and has an important role in the pathogenesis of PTC. The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is an integral plasma membrane glycoprotein that mediates active iodide transport into the thyroid follicular cells, and B-RafV600E has been known to be associated with the loss of NIS expression. In this study, we found that B-RafV600E inhibited NIS expression by the upregulation of its promoter methylation, and that specific regions of CpG islands of NIS promoter in B-RafV600E harboring PTC were highly methylated compared with surrounding normal tissue. Although DNA methyltransferase 3a and 3b (DNMT3a,3b) were not increased by B-RafV600E, DNMT1 expression was markedly upregulated in PTC and B-RafV600E expressing thyrocytes. Furthermore, DNMT1 expression was upregulated by B-RafV600E induced NF-κB activation. These results led us to conclude that NIS promoter methylation, which was induced by B-RafV600E, is one of the possible mechanisms involved in NIS downregulation in PTC.
BACKGROUND: Expression and function of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is requisite for efficient iodide transport in thyrocytes, and its presence in cancer cells allows the use of radioiodine as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in thyroid neoplasia. Discovery of NIS expression in extrathyroidal tissues, including transformed cells, has opened a novel field of research regarding NIS-expressing extrathyroidal neoplasia. Indeed, expression of NIS may be used as a biomarker for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic purposes. Moreover, stimulation of endogenous NIS expression may permit the radioiodine treatment of extrathyroidal lesions by concentrating this radioisotope.
RESULTS: This review describes recent findings in NIS research in extrathyroidal malignancies, focusing on breast and urological cancer, emphasizing the most relevant developments that may have clinical impact.
CONCLUSIONS: Given the recent progress in the study of NIS regulation as molecular basis for new therapeutic approaches in extrathyroidal cancers, particular attention is given to studies regarding the relationship between NIS and clinical-pathological aspects of the tumors and the regulation of NIS expression in the experimental models.
BACKGROUND: Both tumor cells and their supporting endothelial cells should be considered for targeted cell killing when designing cancer treatments. Here we investigated the feasibility of combining radioiodide and antiangiogenic therapies after baculovirus-mediated transfer of genes encoding the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and plasminogen kringle 5 (K5).
METHODS: A recombinant baculovirus containing the NIS gene under control of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter and the K5 gene driven by the early growth response 1 (Egr1) promoter was developed. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was performed to confirm the activation of hTERT transcription. NIS and K5 gene expression were identified by Western blot and Real-Time PCR. Functional NIS activity in baculovirus-infected Hela cells was confirmed by the uptake of 125I and cytotoxicity of 131I. The apoptotic effect of 131I-induced K5 on baculovirus-infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was analyzed by a flow cytometry-based assay. In vivo, NIS reporter gene imaging and therapeutic experiments with 131I were performed. Finally, the microvessel density (MVD) in tumors after treatment was determined by CD31 immunostaining.
RESULTS: The activation of hTERT transcription was specifically up-regulated in tumor cells. NIS gene expression markedly increased in baculovirus-infected HeLa cells, but not in MRC5 cells. The Hela cells showed a significant increase of 125I uptake, which was inhibited by NaClO4, and a notably decreased cell survival rate by 131I treatment. Expression of the K5 gene induced by 131I was elevated in a dose- and time-dependent manner and resulted in the apoptosis of HUVECs. Furthermore, 131I SPECT imaging clearly showed cervical tumor xenografts infected with recombinant baculovirus. Following therapy, tumor growth was significantly retarded. CD31 immunostaining confirmed a significant decrease of MVD.
CONCLUSION: The recombinant baculovirus supports a promising strategy of NIS-based raidoiodide therapy combined with K5-based antiangiogenic therapy by targeting both the tumor and its supporting vessels.
Messuti I, Corvisieri S, Bardesono F, et al.Impact of pregnancy on prognosis of differentiated thyroid cancer: clinical and molecular features.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2014; 170(5):659-66 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) commonly occurs in women of child-bearing age and represents the second most frequent tumor diagnosed during pregnancy only behind breast cancer. It is possible that associated physiological changes could favor tumor development and growth. However, few data are available about the outcome of DTC related to pregnancy, leading to conflicting results.
METHODS: Among the study population, 340 patients with DTC <45 years old were retrospectively studied. Patients were divided into three groups according to the time of tumor diagnosis in respect of pregnancy. Group 1, diagnosis of DTC at least 2 years after delivery; group 2, diagnosis during pregnancy or within the second year after delivery; and group 3, nulliparous patients at the time of diagnosis. We evaluated clinical outcome and immunohistochemical expression of estrogen receptor α (ERα), ERβ, progesterone receptor, and aromatase. We also analyzed the gene expression of NIS (SLC5A5) and the prevalence of BRAF(V600E) mutations.
RESULTS: Persistence/recurrence of disease was significantly higher in group 2 patients than control groups (P=0.023). No significant differences were observed in other clinical parameters. Furthermore, no differences among the groups were recorded about ER pattern, NIS expression, and BRAF mutations.
CONCLUSIONS: Persistence/recurrence of DTC is significantly higher in pregnant patients, suggesting that pregnancy could really exert a negative prognostic role in patients with DTC. The underlying mechanisms are not yet clarified and further studies are required. Our results suggest that a more careful follow-up is needed when diagnosis of DTC occurs during pregnancy or shortly after.
OBJECTIVE: Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising modality in endometrial cancer (EC) therapy. In this study, we compared the efficacy of the Copenhagen and Wyeth strains of oncolytic vaccinia virus (VV) incorporating the human thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) as a reporter gene (VVNIS-C and VVNIS-W) in EC.
METHODS: Infectivity of VVNIS-C and VVNIS-W in type I (HEC1A, Ishikawa, KLE, RL95-2, and AN3 CA) and type II (ARK-1, ARK-2, and SPEC-2) human EC cell lines was evaluated. Athymic mice with ARK-2 or AN3 CA xenografts were treated with one intravenous dose of VVNIS-C or VVNIS-W. Tumor regression and in vivo infectivity were monitored via NIS expression using SPECT-CT imaging.
RESULTS: All EC cell lines except KLE were susceptible to infection and killing by VVNIS-C and VVNIS-W in vitro. VVNIS-C had higher infectivity and oncolytic activity than VVNIS-W in all cell lines, most notably in AN3 CA. Intravenous VVNIS-C was more effective at controlling AN3 CA xenograft growth than VVNIS-W, while both VVNIS-C and VVNIS-W ceased tumor growth and induced tumor regression in 100% of mice bearing ARK-2 xenografts.
CONCLUSION: Overall, VVNIS-C has more potent oncolytic viral activity than VVSIN-W in EC. VV appears to be most active in type II EC. Novel therapies are needed for the highly lethal type II EC histologies and further development of a VV clinical trial in type II EC is warranted.
Galrão AL, Camargo RY, Friguglietti CU, et al.Hypermethylation of a New Distal Sodium/Iodide Symporter (NIS) enhancer (NDE) is associated with reduced NIS expression in thyroid tumors.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 99(6):E944-52 [PubMed
] Related Publications
CONTEXT: In thyroid tumors, reduced radioiodine uptake is associated with worse patient outcome concomitantly with low sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) mRNA expression. Previous studies showed that CpG-island methylation in the NIS proximal promoter does not correlate with mRNA expression.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to identify new CpG-islands within the NIS 5'region and investigate the involvement of their methylation in NIS expression.
DESIGN: DNA was obtained from 30 pairs of thyroid samples: tumor (T) and surrounding nontumor (NT) samples. All T samples had reduced NIS mRNA expression compared to NT samples.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Methylation degree was quantified by bisulfite sequencing, and NIS expression by real-time PCR and Western blot. Reporter gene assays were performed to determine CpG-island functionality. Tumor cell cultures were treated with 5-Aza demethylating agent to determine NIS expression, methylation status, and (125)I uptake.
RESULTS: We identified a new CpG-island2 with 14 CpG sites, located -2152/-1887 relative to ATG site. CpG-island2 was hypermethylated in T compared to NT samples, in both benign and malignant tumor groups. There was a significant inverse correlation between NIS mRNA expression and degree of CpG-island2 methylation in NT and T samples. This sequence increased the expression of a reporter gene; thus, it was considered a new enhancer. Cell culture treatments with 5-Aza reduced CpG-island2 methylation levels concomitantly with restoration of NIS mRNA and protein expression and (125)I uptake.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified a new distal enhancer, NIS distal enhancer, that regulates gene expression through DNA methylation. This enhancer is hypermethylated in T compared to NT samples and is associated with decreased NIS expression in tumors. This epigenetic deregulation may be an early event in tumorigenesis.
Ahn BCRequisites for successful theranostics with radionuclide-based reporter gene imaging.
J Drug Target. 2014; 22(4):295-303 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Radionuclide-based theranostic strategy has been widely used in diagnosis and treatment of patients with hyperthyroidism or differentiated thyroid cancer for a long time, and sodium iodide symporter gene is the radionuclide-based reporter gene used in theranostics. Theranostics, which is a promising approach, offering the ideal combination of accurate diagnosis and successful therapy in various clinical fields, is expected to become a key area of personalized medicine. Rapid advancements in biotechnologies using theranostic reporter genes and theranostic radiochemistry have led to development of the concept of theranostics using radionuclide-based imaging reporter genes; the theranostic approach is almost ready for application in a limited arena of clinics. In order to fulfill both the diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, theranostics with radionuclide-based imaging reporter requires use of successful combinations of various components, such as radionuclide-based reporter genes, promoters/enhancers that regulate expression of reporter genes, delivery vectors/vehicles, imaging or therapeutic probes and prodrugs, transductional and transcriptional targeting strategies, transgene amplification systems, etc. In this review, overview and recent updates on theranostics using radionuclide-based imaging reporter genes will be discussed.
Jun KH, Gholami S, Song TJ, et al.A novel oncolytic viral therapy and imaging technique for gastric cancer using a genetically engineered vaccinia virus carrying the human sodium iodide symporter.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 33:2 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancers have poor overall survival despite recent advancements in early detection methods, endoscopic resection techniques, and chemotherapy treatments. Vaccinia viral therapy has had promising therapeutic potential for various cancers and has a great safety profile. We investigated the therapeutic efficacy of a novel genetically-engineered vaccinia virus carrying the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene, GLV-1 h153, on gastric cancers and its potential utility for imaging with (99m)Tc pertechnetate scintigraphy and ¹²⁴I positron emission tomography (PET).
METHODS: GLV-1 h153 was tested against five human gastric cancer cell lines using cytotoxicity and standard viral plaque assays. In vivo, subcutaneous flank tumors were generated in nude mice with human gastric cancer cells, MKN-74. Tumors were subsequently injected with either GLV-1 h153 or PBS and followed for tumor growth. (99m)Tc pertechnetate scintigraphy and ¹²⁴I microPET imaging were performed.
RESULTS: GFP expression, a surrogate for viral infectivity, confirmed viral infection by 24 hours. At a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1, GLV-1 h153 achieved > 90% cytotoxicity in MNK-74, OCUM-2MD3, and AGS over 9 days, and >70% cytotoxicity in MNK- 45 and TMK-1. In vivo, GLV-1 h153 was effective in treating xenografts (p < 0.001) after 2 weeks of treatment. GLV-1 h153-infected tumors were readily imaged by (99m)Tc pertechnetate scintigraphy and ¹²⁴I microPET imaging 2 days after treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: GLV-1 h153 is an effective oncolytic virus expressing the hNIS protein that can efficiently regress gastric tumors and allow deep-tissue imaging. These data encourages its continued investigation in clinical settings.
Gao XF, Zhou T, Chen GH, et al.Radioiodine therapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer following prostate-specific membrane antigen promoter-mediated transfer of the human sodium iodide symporter.
Asian J Androl. 2014 Jan-Feb; 16(1):120-3 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Radioiodine therapy, the most effective form of systemic radiotherapy available, is currently useful only for thyroid cancer because of the thyroid-specific expression of the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS). Here, we explore the efficacy of a novel form of gene therapy using prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) promoter-mediated hNIS gene transfer followed by radioiodine administration for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The androgen-dependent C33 LNCaP cell line and the androgen-independent C81 LNCaP cell line were transfected by adenovirus. PSMA promoter-hNIS (Ad.PSMApro-hNIS) or adenovirus.cytomegalovirus-hNIS containing the cytomegalovirus promoter (Ad.CMV-hNIS) or a control virus. The iodide uptake was measured in vitro. The in vivo iodide uptake by C81 cell xenografts in nude mice injected with an adenovirus carrying the hNIS gene linked to PSMA and the corresponding tumor volume fluctuation were assessed. Iodide accumulation was shown in different LNCaP cell lines after Ad.PSMApro-hNIS and Ad.CMV-hNIS infection, but not in different LNCaP cell lines after adenovirus.cytomegalovirus (Ad.CMV) infection. At each time point, higher iodide uptake was shown in the C81 cells infected with Ad.PSMApro-hNIS than in the C33 cells (P < 0.05). An in vivo animal model showed a significant difference in 131 I radioiodine uptake in the tumors infected with Ad.PSMApro-hNIS, Ad.CMV-hNIS and control virus (P < 0.05) and a maximum reduction of tumor volume in mice infected with Ad.PSMApro-hNIS. These results show prostate-specific expression of the hNIS gene delivered by the PSMA promoter and effective radioiodine therapy of CRPC by the PSMA promoter-driven hNIS transfection.
D'Agostino M, Sponziello M, Puppin C, et al.Different expression of TSH receptor and NIS genes in thyroid cancer: role of epigenetics.
J Mol Endocrinol. 2014; 52(2):121-31 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The TSH receptor (TSHR) and sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) are key players in radioiodine-based treatment of differentiated thyroid cancers. While NIS (SLC5AS) expression is diminished/lost in most thyroid tumors, TSHR is usually preserved. To examine the mechanisms that regulate the expression of NIS and TSHR genes in thyroid tumor cells, we analyzed their expression after inhibition of ras-BRAF-MAPK and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways and the epigenetic control occurring at the gene promoter level in four human thyroid cancer cell lines. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure NIS and TSHR mRNA in thyroid cancer cell lines (TPC-1, BCPAP, WRO, and FTC-133). Western blotting was used to assess the levels of total and phosphorylated ERK and Akt. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed for investigating histone post-translational modifications of the TSHR and NIS genes. ERK and Akt inhibitors elicited different responses of the cells in terms of TSHR and NIS mRNA levels. Akt inhibition increased NIS transcript levels and reduced those of TSHR in FTC-133 cells but had no significant effects in BCPAP. ERK inhibition increased the expression of both genes in BCPAP cells but had no effects in FTC-133. Histone post-translational modifications observed in the basal state of the four cell lines as well as in BCPAP treated with ERK inhibitor and FTC-133 treated with Akt inhibitor show cell- and gene-specific differences. In conclusion, our data indicate that in thyroid cancer cells the expression of TSHR and NIS genes is differently controlled by multiple mechanisms, including epigenetic events elicited by major signaling pathways involved in thyroid tumorigenesis.
The Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS) is the plasma membrane glycoprotein that mediates active I(-) transport in the thyroid and other tissues, such as salivary glands, stomach, lactating breast, and small intestine. In the thyroid, NIS-mediated I(-) uptake plays a key role as the first step in the biosynthesis of the thyroid hormones, of which iodine is an essential constituent. These hormones are crucial for the development of the central nervous system and the lungs in the fetus and the newborn and for intermediary metabolism at all ages. Since the cloning of NIS in 1996, NIS research has become a major field of inquiry, with considerable impact on many basic and translational areas. In this article, we review the most recent findings on NIS, I(-) homeostasis, and related topics and place them in historical context. Among many other issues, we discuss the current outlook on iodide deficiency disorders, the present stage of understanding of the structure/function properties of NIS, information gleaned from the characterization of I(-) transport deficiency-causing NIS mutations, insights derived from the newly reported crystal structures of prokaryotic transporters and 3-dimensional homology modeling, and the novel discovery that NIS transports different substrates with different stoichiometries. A review of NIS regulatory mechanisms is provided, including a newly discovered one involving a K(+) channel that is required for NIS function in the thyroid. We also cover current and potential clinical applications of NIS, such as its central role in the treatment of thyroid cancer, its promising use as a reporter gene in imaging and diagnostic procedures, and the latest studies on NIS gene transfer aimed at extending radioiodide treatment to extrathyroidal cancers, including those involving specially engineered NIS molecules.
Iodine supplementation exerts antitumor effects in several types of cancer. Iodide (I⁻) and iodine (I₂) reduce cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP and DU-145). Both chemical species decrease tumor growth in athymic mice xenografted with DU-145 cells. The aim of this study was to analyze the uptake and effects of iodine in a preclinical model of prostate cancer (transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate [TRAMP] mice/SV40-TAG antigens), which develops cancer by 12 wks of age. ¹²⁵I⁻ and ¹²⁵I₂ uptake was analyzed in prostates from wild-type and TRAMP mice of 12 and 24 wks in the presence of perchlorate (inhibitor of the Na⁺/I⁻ symporter [NIS]). NIS expression was quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Mice (6 wks old) were supplemented with 0.125 mg I⁻ plus 0.062 mg I₂/mouse/day for 12 or 24 wks. The weight of the genitourinary tract (GUT), the number of acini with lesions, cell proliferation (levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA] by immunohistochemistry), p53 and p21 expression (by qPCR) and apoptosis (relative amount of nucleosomes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were evaluated. In both age-groups, normal and tumoral prostates take up both forms of iodine, but only I⁻ uptake was blocked by perchlorate. Iodine supplementation prevented the overexpression of NIS in the TRAMP mice, but had no effect on the GUT weight, cell phenotype, proliferation or apoptosis. In TRAMP mice, iodine increased p53 expression but had no effect on p21 (a p53-dependent gene). Our data corroborate NIS involvement in I⁻ uptake and support the notion that another transporter mediates I₂ uptake. Iodine did not prevent cancer progression. This result could be explained by a strong inactivation of the p53 pathway by TAG antigens.
The BRAF V600E mutation causes impaired expression of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and radioiodine refractoriness of thyroid cancer, but the underlying mechanism remains undefined. In this study, we hypothesized that histone deacetylation at the NIS (SLC5A5) promoter was the mechanism. Using the chromatin immunoprecipitation approach, we examined histone acetylation status on the lysine residues H3K9/14, H3K18, total H4, and H4K16 at the NIS promoter under the influence of BRAF V600E. We found that expression of stably or transiently transfected BRAF V600E inhibited NIS expression while the deacetylase inhibitor SAHA stimulated NIS expression in PCCL3 rat thyroid cells. Although BRAF V600E enhanced global histone acetylation, it caused histone deacetylation at the NIS promoter while SAHA caused acetylation in the cells. In human thyroid cancer BCPAP cells harboring homozygous BRAF V600E mutation, BRAF V600E inhibitor, PLX4032, and MEK inhibitor, AZD6244, increased histone acetylation of the NIS promoter, suggesting that BRAF V600E normally maintained histone in a deacetylated state at the NIS promoter. The regions most commonly affected with deacetylation by BRAF V600E were the transcriptionally active areas upstream of the translation start that contained important transcription factor binding sites, including nucleotides -297/-107 in the rat NIS promoter and -692/-370 in the human NIS promoter. Our findings not only reveal an epigenetic mechanism for BRAF V600E-promoted NIS silencing involving histone deacetylation at critical regulatory regions of the NIS promoter but also provide further support for our previously proposed combination therapy targeting major signaling pathways and histone deacetylase to restore thyroid gene expression for radioiodine treatment of thyroid cancer.
We investigated the therapeutic efficacy of a replication-competent oncolytic vaccinia virus, GLV-1h153, carrying human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS), in combination with radioiodine in an orthotopic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) murine model. In vitro viral infection was confirmed by immunoblotting and radioiodine uptake assays. Orthotopic xenografts (MDA-MB-231 cells) received intratumoral injection of GLV-1h153 or PBS. One week after viral injection, xenografts were randomized into 4 treatment groups: GLV-1h153 alone, GLV-1h153 and (131)I (∼ 5 mCi), (131)I alone, or PBS, and followed for tumor growth. Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests were performed for statistical analysis. Radiouptake assay showed a 178-fold increase of radioiodine uptake in hNIS-expressing infected cells compared with PBS control. Systemic (131)I-iodide in combination with GLV-1h153 resulted in a 6-fold increase in tumor regression (24 compared to 146 mm(3) for the virus-only treatment group; P<0.05; d 40). We demonstrated that a novel vaccinia virus, GLV-1h153, expresses hNIS, increases the expression of the symporter in TNBC cells, and serves both as a gene marker for noninvasive imaging of virus and as a vehicle for targeted radionuclide therapy with (131)I.
Targeted sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) gene transfer can be considered as a promising approach for diagnostics of specific types of cancer. For this purpose we used targeted polyplexes based on PEI-PEG-MC1SP block-copolymer containing MC1SP-peptide, a ligand specific for melanocortin receptor-1 (MC1R) overexpressed on melanoma cells. Targeted polyplexes demonstrated enhanced NIS gene transfer compared to non-targeted (lacking MC1SP) ones in vitro. Using dorsal skinfold chamber and intravital microscopy we evaluated accumulation and microdistribution of quantum dot-labeled polyplexes in tumor and normal subcutaneous tissues up to 4 h after intravenous injection. Polyplexes demonstrated significantly higher total accumulation in tumor tissue in comparison with subcutaneous ones (control). Targeted and non-targeted polyplexes extravasated and penetrated into the tumor tissue up to 20 μm from the vessel walls. In contrast, in normal subcutaneous tissue polyplexes penetrated not more than 3 μm from the vessel walls with the level of extravasated polyplexes 400-fold less than in tumor. Accumulated polyplexes in tumor tissue caused NIS gene expression. Subsequent (123)I(-) intravenous injection resulted in 6.8 ± 1.1 and 4.5 ± 0.8% ID/g (p < 0.001) iodide accumulation in tumors in the case of targeted and non-targeted polyplexes, respectively, as was shown using SPECT/CT.
Kim JE, Hwang MH, Lee HW, et al.Combined RNA interference of adenine nucleotide translocase-2 and ganciclovir therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Nucl Med Biol. 2013; 40(8):987-93 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticancer effects of combined RNA interference (RNAi) of the adenine nucleotide translocase-2 (ANT2) gene and ganciclovir (GCV) therapy for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Huh 7) in an animal model.
METHODS: The Huh 7/NTG stable cell line was established by transfection of a vector with the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS), HSV1-sr39 thymidine kinase (tk), and enhanced green florescent protein (EGFP) fusion gene into Huh 7 cells. mRNA expressions of these genes were evaluated by RT-PCR analysis. The functions of hNIS and HSV1-sr39tk were verified with (125)I uptake and (3)H-penciclovir (PCV) uptake tests. EGFP and hNIS expression was confirmed with confocal microscopy after immunocytochemical staining. We treated the tumor cells with ANT2 shRNA or GCV or both ANT2 shRNA and GCV and treated the in vivo mouse model with a Huh 7/NTG tumor xenograft. The therapeutic effects of the in vivo study were assessed with caliper measurements and gamma camera imaging using (99m)Tc-pertechnetate.
RESULTS: Huh 7/NTG cells showed a cell number-dependent increase in (125)I uptake and a 24-fold higher (3)H-PCV uptake compared to parent Huh 7 cells. Huh 7/NTG cells transfected with ANT2 shRNA had lower ANT2 mRNA expression and more impaired proliferation activity than cells transfected with scramble shRNA. Proliferation of Huh 7/NTG cells was also inhibited by GCV treatment. Combined GCV and ANT2 shRNA therapy further inhibited cell proliferation in the in vitro study. The combined therapy with GCV and ANT2 shRNA showed a further decrease in tumor growth in the mouse model.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the combined RNA interference with ANT2 and GCV therapy inhibited hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation more than single GCV therapy or ANT2 shRNA therapy in vitro and in vivo. Therefore it could be applied treating incurable hepatocellular carcinoma.
Thyroid iodide accumulation via the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS; SLC5A5) has been the basis for the longtime use of radio-iodide in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancers. NIS is also expressed, but poorly functional, in some non-thyroid human cancers. In particular, it is much more strongly expressed in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines than in primary human hepatocytes (PHH). The transcription factors and signaling pathways that control NIS overexpression in these cancers is largely unknown. We identified two putative regulatory clusters of p53-responsive elements (p53REs) in the NIS core promoter, and investigated the regulation of NIS transcription by p53-family members in liver cancer cells. NIS promoter activity and endogenous NIS mRNA expression are stimulated by exogenously expressed p53-family members and significantly reduced by member-specific siRNAs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis shows that the p53-REs clusters in the NIS promoter are differentially occupied by the p53-family members to regulate basal and DNA damage-induced NIS transcription. Doxorubicin strongly induces p53 and p73 binding to the NIS promoter, leading to an increased expression of endogenous NIS mRNA and protein in HCC and CCA cells, but not in PHH. Silencing NIS expression reduced doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in HCC cells, pointing to a possible role of a p53-family-dependent expression of NIS in apoptotic cell death. Altogether, these results indicate that the NIS gene is a direct target of the p53 family and suggests that the modulation of NIS by DNA-damaging agents is potentially exploitable to boost NIS upregulation in vivo.
Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) reporter gene imaging is an excellent technology for noninvasive cell fate determination in living animals unless the NIS-transduced cells reside in perigastric organs such as the spleen, liver, diaphragm, omentum, pancreas, perigastric lymph nodes or perigastric tumor deposits. Here we report that orally administered barium sulfate enhances CT definition of the stomach, masks background gamma ray emissions from the stomach and enhances signal detection from radiotracer uptake in NIS-transduced organs.
A phase II study of NK cell therapy in treatment of patients with recurrent breast cancer has recently been reported. However, because of the complexities of tumor microenvironments, effective therapeutic effects have not been achieved in NK cell therapy. Radioiodine (I-131) therapy inhibits cancer growth by inducing the apoptosis and necrosis of cancer cells. Furthermore, it can modify cancer cell phenotypes and enhance the effect of immunotherapy against cancer cells. The present study showed that I-131 therapy can modulate microenvironment of breast cancer and improve the therapeutic effect by enhancing NK cell cytotoxicity to the tumor cells. The susceptibility of breast cancer cells to NK cell was increased by precedent I-131 treatment in vitro. Tumor burden in mice treated with I-131 plus NK cell was significantly lower than that in mice treated with NK cell or I-131 alone. The up-regulation of Fas, DR5 and MIC A/B on irradiated tumor cells could be the explanation for the enhancement of NK cell cytotoxicity to tumor cells. It can be applied to breast cancer patients with iodine avid metastatic lesions that are non-responsive to conventional treatments.
Pan Y, Wu H, Liu S, et al.Potential usefulness of baculovirus-mediated sodium-iodide symporter reporter gene as non-invasively gene therapy monitoring in liver cancer cells: an in vitro evaluation.
Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2014; 13(2):139-48 [PubMed
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Primary liver cancer has one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, and the main current treatments have a poor prognosis. This study aims to examine the efficiency of baculovirus vectors for transducing target gene into liver cancer cells and to evaluate the feasibility of using baculovirus vectors to deliver the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) gene as a reporter gene through co-vector administration approach to monitor the expression of the target therapeutic gene in liver cancer gene therapy. We constructed (green fluorescent protein) GFP- and NIS-expressing baculovirus vectors (Bac-GFP and Bac-NIS), and measured the baculovirus transduction efficiency in HepG2 cells and other tumor cells (A549, SW1116 and 8505C), and it showed that the transduction efficiency and target gene expression level rose with increasing viral multiplicity of infection (MOI) in HepG2 cells, and HepG2 cells had a significantly higher transduction efficiency (60.8% at MOI = 200) than other tumor cells. Moreover, the baculovirus transduction was not cytotoxic to HepG2 cells at a higher MOI (MOI 5 400). We also performed dynamic iodide uptake trials, and found that Bac-NIS-transduced HepG2 cells exhibited efficient iodide uptake which could be inhibited by sodium perchlorate (NaClO₄). And we measured the correlation of fluorescent intensities and 125I uptake amount in HepG2 cells after co-vector administration with Bac-NIS and Bac-GFP at different MOIs, and found a high correlation coefficient (r(2) = 0.8447), which provides a good basis for successfully evaluating the feasibility of baculovirus-mediated NIS reporter gene monitoring target gene expression in liver cancer therapy. Therefore, this study indicates that baculovirus vector is a potential vehicle for delivering therapeutic genes in studying liver cancer cells. And it is feasible to use a baculovirus vector to deliver NIS gene as a reporter gene to monitor the expression of target genes. It therefore provides an effective approach and a good basis for future baculovirus-mediated therapeutic gene delivering or therapeutic gene expression monitoring in liver cancer cells studies.
We developed here a vaccine-identical measles virus (MV) as an oncolytic agent against mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that is difficult to cure but radiosensitive. We armed the virus with the sodium-iodide symporter, which concentrates iodide within infected cells enabling noninvasive imaging and combination radiovirotherapy. Through high-resolution in vivo and ex vivo imaging, we visualized the spread of infections in primary and metastatic tumors for over 2 weeks after therapy, documenting homogeneous virus seeding and spread restricted to perfused tissue. Infection of metastases was more rapid and intense than primary tumors, achieving isotope uptake within about threefold the efficiency of the thyroid. Virotherapy combined with systemic (131)I resulted in more rapid disease regression than either therapy alone. In addition to ubiquitous CD46, vaccine MV retains cell entry through its immune cell-specific receptor signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM). We asked whether both receptors could sustain effective oncolysis of MCL. Strikingly, only SLAM-dependent entry sustained efficient viral spread, tumor regression, and prolonged survival. These observations shift the focus of future clinical trials to SLAM-expressing hematologic malignancies and suggest that oncolytic vectors may depend on tissue-specific receptors for both cell entry and activation of responses assisting their replication.
Li H, Nakashima H, Decklever TD, et al.HSV-NIS, an oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 encoding human sodium iodide symporter for preclinical prostate cancer radiovirotherapy.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2013; 20(8):478-85 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Several clinical trials have shown that oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (oHSV-1) can be safely administered to patients. However, virus replication in tumor tissue has generally not been monitored in these oHSV clinical trials, and the data suggest that its oncolytic potency needs to be improved. To facilitate noninvasive monitoring of the in vivo spread of an oHSV and to increase its antitumor efficacy, the gene coding for human sodium iodide symporter (NIS) was incorporated into a recombinant oHSV genome and the corresponding virus (oHSV-NIS) rescued in our laboratory. Our data demonstrate that a human prostate cancer cell line, LNCap, efficiently concentrates radioactive iodine after the cells have been infected in vitro or in vivo. In vivo replication of oHSV-NIS in tumors was noninvasively monitored by computed tomography/single-photon emission computed tomography imaging of the biodistribution of pertechnetate and was confirmed. LNCap xenografts in nude mice were eradicated by intratumoral administration of oHSV-NIS. Systemic administration of oHSV-NIS prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice, and the therapeutic effect was further enhanced by administration of (131)I after the intratumoral spread of the virus had peaked. oHSV-NIS has the potential to substantially enhance the outcomes of standard therapy for patients with prostate cancer.
Touchefeu Y, Khan AA, Borst G, et al.Optimising measles virus-guided radiovirotherapy with external beam radiotherapy and specific checkpoint kinase 1 inhibition.
Radiother Oncol. 2013; 108(1):24-31 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We previously reported a therapeutic strategy comprising replication-defective NIS-expressing adenovirus combined with radioiodide, external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and DNA repair inhibition. We have now evaluated NIS-expressing oncolytic measles virus (MV-NIS) combined with NIS-guided radioiodide, EBRT and specific checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) inhibition in head and neck and colorectal models.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anti-proliferative/cytotoxic effects of individual agents and their combinations were measured by MTS, clonogenic and Western analysis. Viral gene expression was measured by radioisotope uptake and replication by one-step growth curves. Potential synergistic interactions were tested in vitro by Bliss independence analysis and in in vivo therapeutic studies.
RESULTS: EBRT and MV-NIS were synergistic in vitro. Furthermore, EBRT increased NIS expression in infected cells. SAR-020106 was synergistic with EBRT, but also with MV-NIS in HN5 cells. MV-NIS mediated (131)I-induced cytotoxicity in HN5 and HCT116 cells and, in the latter, this was enhanced by SAR-020106. In vivo studies confirmed that MV-NIS, EBRT and Chk1 inhibition were effective in HCT116 xenografts. The quadruplet regimen of MV-NIS, virally-directed (131)I, EBRT and SAR-020106 had significant anti-tumour activity in HCT116 xenografts.
CONCLUSION: This study strongly supports translational and clinical research on MV-NIS combined with radiation therapy and radiosensitising agents.
Grünwald GK, Vetter A, Klutz K, et al.Systemic image-guided liver cancer radiovirotherapy using dendrimer-coated adenovirus encoding the sodium iodide symporter as theranostic gene.
J Nucl Med. 2013; 54(8):1450-7 [PubMed
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UNLABELLED: Currently, major limitations for the clinical application of adenovirus-mediated gene therapy are high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies, widespread expression of the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR), and adenovirus sequestration by the liver. In the current study, we used the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) as a theranostic gene to investigate whether coating of adenovirus with synthetic dendrimers could be useful to overcome these hurdles in order to develop adenoviral vectors for combination of systemic oncolytic virotherapy and NIS-mediated radiotherapy.
METHODS: We coated replication-deficient (Ad5-CMV/NIS) (CMV is cytomegalovirus) and replication-selective (Ad5-E1/AFP-E3/NIS) adenovirus serotype 5 carrying the hNIS gene with poly(amidoamine) dendrimers generation 5 (PAMAM-G5) in order to investigate transduction efficacy and altered tropism of these coated virus particles by (123)I scintigraphy and to evaluate their therapeutic potential for systemic radiovirotherapy in a liver cancer xenograft mouse model.
RESULTS: After dendrimer coating, Ad5-CMV/NIS demonstrated partial protection from neutralizing antibodies and enhanced transduction efficacy in CAR-negative cells in vitro. In vivo (123)I scintigraphy of nude mice revealed significantly reduced levels of hepatic transgene expression after intravenous injection of dendrimer-coated Ad5-CMV/NIS (dcAd5-CMV/NIS). Evasion from liver accumulation resulted in significantly reduced liver toxicity and increased transduction efficiency of dcAd5-CMV/NIS in hepatoma xenografts. After PAMAM-G5 coating of the replication-selective Ad5-E1/AFP-E3/NIS, a significantly enhanced oncolytic effect was observed after intravenous application (virotherapy) that was further increased by additional treatment with a therapeutic dose of (131)I (radiovirotherapy) and was associated with markedly improved survival.
CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate efficient liver detargeting and tumor retargeting of adenoviral vectors after coating with synthetic dendrimers, thereby representing a promising innovative strategy for systemic NIS gene therapy. Moreover, our study-based on the function of NIS as a theranostic gene allowing the noninvasive imaging of NIS expression by (123)I scintigraphy-provides detailed characterization of in vivo vector biodistribution and localization, level, and duration of transgene expression, essential prerequisites for exact planning and monitoring of clinical gene therapy trials that aim to individualize the NIS gene therapy concept.
Kogai TSodium iodide symporter in the fight against thyroid cancer.
Future Oncol. 2013; 9(11):1679-82 [PubMed
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Smith VE, Sharma N, Watkins RJ, et al.Manipulation of PBF/PTTG1IP phosphorylation status; a potential new therapeutic strategy for improving radioiodine uptake in thyroid and other tumors.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 98(7):2876-86 [PubMed
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CONTEXT: The clinical effectiveness of ablative radioiodine treatment of thyroid tumors is limited by the availability of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) at the plasma membrane (PM) for uptake of ¹³¹I. A significant proportion of well-differentiated thyroid tumors are unable to concentrate sufficient radioiodine for effective therapy, and in other tumor models such as breast tumors, where radioiodine uptake would be an attractive therapeutic option, uptake is insufficient.
OBJECTIVE: Pituitary tumor-transforming gene-binding factor (PBF; PTTG1IP) is overexpressed in multiple cancers and significantly decreases NIS expression at the PM. The goal of this study was to identify a method by which PBF repression of NIS may be overcome in human tumors.
RESULTS: Here, we identify PBF as a tyrosine phosphoprotein that specifically binds the proto-oncogene tyrosine protein kinase Src in mass spectrometry, glutathione S-transferase pulldown and coimmunoprecipitation assays. Src induction leads to phosphorylation at PBF residue Y174. Abrogation of this residue results in PM retention and a markedly reduced ability to bind NIS. The Src inhibitor PP1 inhibits PBF phosphorylation in multiple cell lines in vitro, including human primary thyroid cells. Of direct clinical importance to the treatment of thyroid cancer, PP1 stimulates iodide uptake by transfected NIS in TPC1 thyroid carcinoma cells and entirely overcomes PBF repression of iodide uptake in human primary thyroid cells.
CONCLUSIONS: We propose that targeting PBF phosphorylation at residue Y174 via tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be a novel therapeutic strategy to enhance the efficacy of ablative radioiodine treatment in thyroid and other endocrine and endocrine-related tumors.
Wang J, Liu S, Wang J, et al.Study on molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells transfected with baculovirus-mediated sodium/iodine symporter gene.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 43(1):177-84 [PubMed
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The non-invasive imaging and radiotherapy by sodium/iodine symporter (NIS) gene transfer have been widely used for many experiments and some clinical studies. Baculovirus is an efficient tool for gene delivery into mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. However, the applications of NIS and/or baculovirus in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells have not been reported yet. In this study, two recombinant baculoviruses expressing, respectively, NIS and green fluorescent protein (GFP), both under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter (Bac-NIS and Bac-GFP) were successfully constructed. The infection efficiency and GFP fluorescence intensity of the human NPC cell line CNE-2Z infected by Bac-GFP at different setting of multiplicity of infection (MOI) were determined by flow cytometry. NIS protein expression was detected by indirect immunofluorescence. The 125I uptake and efflux of infected CNE-2Z cells by Bac-NIS were measured by a γ-counter. The cytotoxicity of baculovirus and sodium butyrate and inhibition of iodine uptake by NaClO4 were examined. The radioactivity and GFP fluorescence intensity in co-infected CNE-2Z cells by Bac-NIS and Bac-GFP were measured. Cell colony formation tests were conducted to evaluate the killing effect of Bac-NIS-mediated 131I. Based on the results, the transduction efficiency of Bac-GFP at the MOI of 200 or 400 reached 91.16 and 94.79%, respectively. NIS protein was expressed accurately on transfected CNE-2Z cell membranes and performed its normal function in iodine transport. Baculovirus had hardly any cytotoxic effects on infected cells, while relatively high concentration of sodium butyrate generated cytotoxicity. The correlation coefficient between the GFP fluorescence intensity and radioactivity in co-infected CNE-2Z cells was 0.917. Treatment coupled Bac-NIS with 131I killed the infected tumour cells dramatically in vitro. These results suggest that baculovirus is an effective vector of the gene delivery into CNE-2Z cells and NIS-mediated iodine transport is a potential approach for molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy of NPC.
Xu S, Chen G, Peng W, et al.Oestrogen action on thyroid progenitor cells: relevant for the pathogenesis of thyroid nodules?
J Endocrinol. 2013; 218(1):125-33 [PubMed
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Benign and malignant thyroid nodules are more prevalent in females than in males. Experimental data suggest that the proliferative effect of oestrogen rather than polymorphisms is responsible for this gender difference. This study analysed whether both differentiated thyroid cells and thyroid stem and progenitor cells are targets of oestrogen action. In thyroid stem/progenitor cells derived from nodular goitres, the ability of 17β-oestradiol (E₂) to induce the formation of thyrospheres and the expression of oestrogen receptors (ERs) and the effect of E₂ on the growth and expression of markers of stem cells and thyroid differentiation (TSH receptor, thyroperoxidase, thyroglobulin and sodium iodide symporter (NIS)) were analysed. E₂ induced thyrosphere formation, albeit to a lower extent than other growth factors. Thyroid stem and progenitor cells expressed ERα (ESR1) and ERβ (ESR2) with eight times higher expression levels of ERα mRNA compared with the differentiated thyrocytes. E₂ was a potent stimulator of the growth of thyroid stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, TSH-induced differentiation of progenitor cells, in particular, the expression of NIS, was significantly inhibited by E₂. In conclusion, oestrogen stimulated the growth and simultaneously inhibited the differentiation of thyroid nodule-derived stem/progenitor cells. From these data and based on the concept of cellular heterogeneity, we hypothesize a supportive role of oestrogen in the propagation of thyroid stem/progenitor cells leading to the selection of a progeny of growth-prone cells with a decreased differentiation. These cells may be the origin of hypofunctioning or non-functioning thyroid nodules in females.
Maggisano V, Puppin C, Celano M, et al.Cooperation of histone deacetylase inhibitors SAHA and valproic acid in promoting sodium/iodide symporter expression and function in rat Leydig testicular carcinoma cells.
Endocrine. 2014; 45(1):148-52 [PubMed
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The presence of the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) is the prerequisite for the use of the radioiodine in the treatment of thyroid cancer. Thus, stimulators of NIS expression and function are currently investigated in cellular models of various human malignancies, also including extrathyroid cancers. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and valproic acid (VPA), on NIS expression and function in rat Leydig testicular carcinoma cells (LC540). LC540 cells were exposed to SAHA 3 μM and VPA 3 mM (alone and in combination), and cell viability evaluated by MTT assay and cell counting, NIS mRNA and protein levels by using, respectively, real-time RT-PCR and western blotting. NIS function was evaluated by iodide uptake assay. We found that both HDACi were able to stimulate the transcription of NIS gene, but not its protein expression, while the association of SAHA and VPA increased both NIS transcript and protein levels, resulting in significant sixfold enhancement of radioiodine uptake capacity of LC540 cells. These data demonstrate the presence of an epigenetic control of NIS expression in Leydig tumor cells, suggesting the possibility to use the combination of these two HDACi for a radioiodine-based treatment of these malignancies.
Cheng W, Fu H, Feng F, et al.Efficacy of lentiviral-mediated transfection of hTSHR in poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma cell line.
Nucl Med Biol. 2013; 40(4):576-80 [PubMed
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INTRODUCTION: Dedifferentiated thyroid cancer is often incurable because it does not respond to radioiodine. This study aimed to investigate iodide uptake and the expressions of thyroid-specific molecules after the transfection of human thyrotropin receptor (hTSHR) gene in poorly differentiated follicular thyroid cancer cell line (FTC-133).
METHODS: pGC-FU-hTSHR-GFP-lentivirus and pGC-FU-GFP-lentivirus were added into FTC-133 cells respectively. The parental cells were defined as the blank group. Cells transduced with pGC-FU-GFP and pGC-FU-hTSHR-GFP were defined as the control group and experimental group respectively. The efficiency of transfection was observed under a fluorescence microscope. (125)I uptake by FTC-133 was analyzed by measuring the radioactivity. Real time-PCR, western blotting and radioimmunoassay were applied to detect the expressions of mRNAs and proteins of Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS), thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) in FTC-133.
RESULTS: The green fluorescence was present in 80% of the transduced cells under fluorescence microscope. The iodine uptake of cells transduced with pGC-FU-TSHR-GFP was 3.3 times higher than that in the other two groups (P<0.01). NIS, TSHR, TPO and Tg had been significantly up-regulated in the experimental group as compared to the control group (P<0.01) and the blank group (P<0.01).
CONCLUSION: The hTSHR transfection in FTC-133 improved the expression of thyroid-specific molecules including TSHR, NIS, TPO and Tg and radioiodide uptake.