Gene Summary

Gene:PTPN1; protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 1
Aliases: PTP1B
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is the founding member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family, which was isolated and identified based on its enzymatic activity and amino acid sequence. PTPs catalyze the hydrolysis of the phosphate monoesters specifically on tyrosine residues. Members of the PTP family share a highly conserved catalytic motif, which is essential for the catalytic activity. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP has been shown to act as a negative regulator of insulin signaling by dephosphorylating the phosphotryosine residues of insulin receptor kinase. This PTP was also reported to dephosphorylate epidermal growth factor receptor kinase, as well as JAK2 and TYK2 kinases, which implicated the role of this PTP in cell growth control, and cell response to interferon stimulation. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 20 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 20 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 20 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Breast CancerPTPN1 and Breast Cancer View Publications6
Ovarian CancerPTPN1 and Ovarian Cancer View Publications4
Esophageal CancerPTPN1 and Esophageal Cancer View Publications4
Hodgkin LymphomaPTPN1 mutations in Hodgkin Lymphoma and PMBCL
In a whole-genome and whole-transcriptome sequencing study Gunawardana J et al (2014) found recurrent somatic coding-sequence mutations in the PTPN1 gene. Mutations were found in 6/30 (20%) Hodgkin lymphoma cases, and 17/77 (22%)primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBCL) cases.
View Publications2

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PTPN1 (cancer-related)

Shin M, Lee KE, Yang EG, et al.
PEA-15 facilitates EGFR dephosphorylation via ERK sequestration at increased ER-PM contacts in TNBC cells.
FEBS Lett. 2015; 589(9):1033-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes of 15 kDa (PEA-15) is known to sequester extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the cytoplasm, inhibiting tumorigenesis of human breast cancer cells. Here, we describe how PEA-15 expression affects the dephosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) through endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-plasma membrane (PM) contacts in MDA-MB-468, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. The increased intracellular calcium concentration resulting from increased cytoplasmic phosphorylated ERK facilitates movement of ER-anchored calcium sensors to the PM. The driving force of trans-localization of calcium-dependent proteins enhances the contact between the activated EGFR and ER-localized phosphatase, PTP1B. Consequently, our findings suggest a mechanism underneath the facilitation of EGFR dephosphorylation by cytoplasmic PEA-15 expression inside TNBC cells, which may be one of the dynamic mechanisms for down-regulation of activated EGFR in cancer cells.

Mußbach F, Henklein P, Westermann M, et al.
Proteinase-activated receptor 1- and 4-promoted migration of Hep3B hepatocellular carcinoma cells depends on ROS formation and RTK transactivation.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2015; 141(5):813-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: There is growing evidence for a role of proteinase-activated receptors (PARs), a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors, in cancer. We have previously shown that PAR1 and PAR4 are able to promote the migration of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells suggesting a function in HCC progression. In this study, we assessed the underlying signalling mechanisms.
METHODS: Using Hep3B liver carcinoma cells, RTK activation was assessed by Western blot employing phospho-RTK specific antibodies, ROS level were estimated by H2DCF-DA using confocal laser scanning microscopy, and measurement of PTP activity was performed in cell lysates using 6,8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (DiFMUP) as a substrate.
RESULTS: Thrombin, the PAR1 selective agonist peptide TFLLRN-NH2 (PAR1-AP), and the PAR4 selective agonist peptide, AYPGKF-NH2 (PAR4-AP), induced a significant increase in Hep3B cell migration that could be blocked by inhibitors targeting formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), or activation of hepatocyte-growth factor receptor (Met), or platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), respectively. The involvement of these intracellular effectors in PAR1/4-initiated migratory signalling was further supported by the findings that individual stimulation of Hep3B cells with the PAR1-AP and the PAR4-AP induced an increase in ROS production and the transactivation of Met and PDGFR. In addition, PAR1- and PAR4-mediated inhibition of total PTP activity and specifically PTP1B. ROS inhibition by N-acetyl-L-cysteine prevented the inhibition of PTP1B phosphatase activity induced by PAR1-AP and the PAR4-AP, but had no effect on PAR1/4-mediated activation of Met and PDGFR in Hep3B cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our data indicate that PAR1 and PAR4 activate common promigratory signalling pathways in Hep3B liver carcinoma cells including activation of the receptor tyrosine kinases Met and PDGFR, the formation of ROS and the inactivation of PTP1B. However, PAR1/4-triggered Met and PDGFR transactivation seem to be mediated independently from the ROS-PTP1B signalling module.

Krishnan N, Koveal D, Miller DH, et al.
Targeting the disordered C terminus of PTP1B with an allosteric inhibitor.
Nat Chem Biol. 2014; 10(7):558-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PTP1B, a validated therapeutic target for diabetes and obesity, has a critical positive role in HER2 signaling in breast tumorigenesis. Efforts to develop therapeutic inhibitors of PTP1B have been frustrated by the chemical properties of the active site. We define a new mechanism of allosteric inhibition that targets the C-terminal, noncatalytic segment of PTP1B. We present what is to our knowledge the first ensemble structure of PTP1B containing this intrinsically disordered segment, within which we identified a binding site for the small-molecule inhibitor MSI-1436. We demonstrate binding to a second site close to the catalytic domain, with cooperative effects between the two sites locking PTP1B in an inactive state. MSI-1436 antagonized HER2 signaling, inhibited tumorigenesis in xenografts and abrogated metastasis in the NDL2 mouse model of breast cancer, validating inhibition of PTP1B as a therapeutic strategy in breast cancer. This new approach to inhibition of PTP1B emphasizes the potential of disordered segments of proteins as specific binding sites for therapeutic small molecules.

Li L, Huang K, You Y, et al.
Hypoxia-induced miR-210 in epithelial ovarian cancer enhances cancer cell viability via promoting proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(6):2111-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
miR-210 is upregulated in a HIF-1α-dependent way in several types of cancers. In addition, upregulated miR-210 promotes cancer proliferation, via its anti-apoptotic effects. It is blind to the regulation of miR-210 under hypoxia conditions for ovarian cancer cells and to the effect of miR-210 on ovarian cancer growth. In the present study, we determined the expression of miR-210 in epithelial ovarian cancer specimens, and in ovarian cancer cell lines under hypoxia conditions, and determined in detail the effect of miR-210 overexpression on tumor cell proliferation, and the possible mechanisms of tumor growth by miR-210 regulation. It was shown that miR-210 expression is upregulated, in response to hypoxia conditions in epithelial ovarian cancer specimens as well as epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines, with an association to HIF-1α overexpression. Furthermore, upregulated miR-210 promoted tumor growth in vitro via targeting PTPN1 and inhibiting apoptosis. Therefore, our findings shed light on the mechanism of ovarian cancer adaptation to hypoxia.

Gunawardana J, Chan FC, Telenius A, et al.
Recurrent somatic mutations of PTPN1 in primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma.
Nat Genet. 2014; 46(4):329-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Classical Hodgkin lymphoma and primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBCL) are related lymphomas sharing pathological, molecular and clinical characteristics. Here we discovered by whole-genome and whole-transcriptome sequencing recurrent somatic coding-sequence mutations in the PTPN1 gene. Mutations were found in 6 of 30 (20%) Hodgkin lymphoma cases, in 6 of 9 (67%) Hodgkin lymphoma-derived cell lines, in 17 of 77 (22%) PMBCL cases and in 1 of 3 (33%) PMBCL-derived cell lines, consisting of nonsense, missense and frameshift mutations. We demonstrate that PTPN1 mutations lead to reduced phosphatase activity and increased phosphorylation of JAK-STAT pathway members. Moreover, silencing of PTPN1 by RNA interference in Hodgkin lymphoma cell line KM-H2 resulted in hyperphosphorylation and overexpression of downstream oncogenic targets. Our data establish PTPN1 mutations as new drivers in lymphomagenesis.

Radhakrishnan VM, Kojs P, Young G, et al.
pTyr421 cortactin is overexpressed in colon cancer and is dephosphorylated by curcumin: involvement of non-receptor type 1 protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPN1).
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e85796 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cortactin (CTTN), first identified as a major substrate of the Src tyrosine kinase, actively participates in branching F-actin assembly and in cell motility and invasion. CTTN gene is amplified and its protein is overexpressed in several types of cancer. The phosphorylated form of cortactin (pTyr(421)) is required for cancer cell motility and invasion. In this study, we demonstrate that a majority of the tested primary colorectal tumor specimens show greatly enhanced expression of pTyr(421)-CTTN, but no change at the mRNA level as compared to healthy subjects, thus suggesting post-translational activation rather than gene amplification in these tumors. Curcumin (diferulolylmethane), a natural compound with promising chemopreventive and chemosensitizing effects, reduced the indirect association of cortactin with the plasma membrane protein fraction in colon adenocarcinoma cells as measured by surface biotinylation, mass spectrometry, and Western blotting. Curcumin significantly decreased the pTyr(421)-CTTN in HCT116 cells and SW480 cells, but was ineffective in HT-29 cells. Curcumin physically interacted with PTPN1 tyrosine phosphatases to increase its activity and lead to dephosphorylation of pTyr(421)-CTTN. PTPN1 inhibition eliminated the effects of curcumin on pTyr(421)-CTTN. Transduction with adenovirally-encoded CTTN increased migration of HCT116, SW480, and HT-29. Curcumin decreased migration of HCT116 and SW480 cells which highly express PTPN1, but not of HT-29 cells with significantly reduced endogenous expression of PTPN1. Curcumin significantly reduced the physical interaction of CTTN and pTyr(421)-CTTN with p120 catenin (CTNND1). Collectively, these data suggest that curcumin is an activator of PTPN1 and can reduce cell motility in colon cancer via dephosphorylation of pTyr(421)-CTTN which could be exploited for novel therapeutic approaches in colon cancer therapy based on tumor pTyr(421)-CTTN expression.

Pinto-Leite R, Carreira I, Melo J, et al.
Genomic characterization of three urinary bladder cancer cell lines: understanding genomic types of urinary bladder cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4599-617 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several genomic regions are frequently altered and associated with the type, stage and progression of urinary bladder cancer (UBC). We present the characterization of 5637, T24 and HT1376 UBC cell lines by karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis. Some cytogenetic anomalies present in UBC were found in the three cell lines, such as chromosome 20 aneuploidy and the loss of 9p21. Some gene loci losses (e.g. CDKN2A) and gains (e.g. HRAS, BCL2L1 and PTPN1) were coincident across all cell lines. Although some significant heterogeneity and complexity were detected between them, their genomic profiles exhibited a similar pattern to UBC. We suggest that 5637 and HT1376 represent the E2F3/RB1 pathway due to amplification of 6p22.3, concomitant with loss of one copy of RB1 and mutation of the remaining copy. The HT1376 presented a 10q deletion involving PTEN region and no alteration of PIK3CA region which, in combination with the inactivation of TP53, bears more invasive and metastatic properties than 5637. The T24 belongs to the alternative pathway of FGFR3/CCND1 by presenting mutated HRAS and over-represented CCND1. These cell lines cover the more frequent subtypes of UBC and are reliable models that can be used, as a group, in preclinical studies.

Hiraga R, Kato M, Miyagawa S, Kamata T
Nox4-derived ROS signaling contributes to TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells.
Anticancer Res. 2013; 33(10):4431-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In this study, we investigated how NADPH oxidase (Nox) 4-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate TGF-β-induced EMT in pancreatic cancer cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pancreatic cancer cells were transfected with Nox4 siRNAs or PTP1B mutants and subjected to TGF-β-induced EMT assay. Expression of Nox4, TGF-β, and N-cadherin was immunohistochemically-examined with patient tumor samples.
RESULTS: Treatment of pancreatic cancer cells with TGF-β induced Nox4 expression, indicating that Nox4 represents a major source for ROS production. The Nox4 inhibitor diphenylene iodonium and Nox4 siRNAs blocked TGF-β-induced EMT phenotype including morphological changes, augmented migration, and altered expression of E-cadherin and Snail. Furthermore, PTP1B as a redox-sensor for Nox4-derived ROS participated in TGF-β-promoted EMT. Nox4, TGF-β, and N-cadherin were up-regulated in tumors from pancreatic cancer patients.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that Nox4-derived ROS, at least in part, transmit TGF-β-triggered EMT signals through PTP1B in pancreatic cancer.

Chen Q, Li Y, Li Z, et al.
Overexpression of PTP1B in human colorectal cancer and its association with tumor progression and prognosis.
J Mol Histol. 2014; 45(2):153-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a non-transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase that has been implicated in cancer pathogenesis. However, the expression level and the role of PTP1B in the development and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unclear. In this study, the expression of PTP1B in CRC tissues and matched noncancerous tissues were detected by using immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blotting. The correlations between PTP1B expression level and clinicopathologic characteristics and patient survival were analyzed. We found that PTP1B expression was significantly higher in CRC tissues compared with matched non-tumour tissues. Statistical analysis showed that the PTP1B expression was correlated with tumor differentiation, tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, and TNM stage. Patients with higher expressions of PTP1B had the lower survival (P = 0.012). Taken together, our results suggest that PTP1B expression might play a critical role in the progression of CRC and may serve as a valuable prognostic biomarker for CRC.

Al-Aidaroos AQ, Yuen HF, Guo K, et al.
Metastasis-associated PRL-3 induces EGFR activation and addiction in cancer cells.
J Clin Invest. 2013; 123(8):3459-71 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastasis-associated phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) has pleiotropic effects in driving cancer progression, yet the signaling mechanisms of PRL-3 are still not fully understood. Here, we provide evidence for PRL-3-induced hyperactivation of EGFR and its downstream signaling cascades in multiple human cancer cell lines. Mechanistically, PRL-3-induced activation of EGFR was attributed primarily to transcriptional downregulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), an inhibitory phosphatase for EGFR. Functionally, PRL-3-induced hyperactivation of EGFR correlated with increased cell growth, promigratory characteristics, and tumorigenicity. Moreover, PRL-3 induced cellular addiction to EGFR signaling, as evidenced by the pronounced reversion of these oncogenic attributes upon EGFR-specific inhibition. Of clinical significance, we verified elevated PRL-3 expression as a predictive marker for favorable therapeutic response in a heterogeneous colorectal cancer (CRC) patient cohort treated with the clinically approved anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab. The identification of PRL-3-driven EGFR hyperactivation and consequential addiction to EGFR signaling opens new avenues for inhibiting PRL-3-driven cancer progression. We propose that elevated PRL-3 expression is an important clinical predictive biomarker for favorable anti-EGFR cancer therapy.

Fan G, Lin G, Lucito R, Tonks NK
Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B antagonized signaling by insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and kinase BRK/PTK6 in ovarian cancer cells.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(34):24923-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ovarian cancer, which is the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies, is a heterogeneous disease known to be associated with disruption of multiple signaling pathways. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the role of protein phosphatases in the signaling events that underlie the disease; such knowledge will be essential to gain a complete understanding of the etiology of the disease and how to treat it. We have demonstrated that protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) was underexpressed in a panel of ovarian carcinoma-derived cell lines, compared with immortalized human ovarian surface epithelial cell lines. Stable restoration of PTP1B in those cancer cell lines substantially decreased cell migration and invasion, as well as proliferation and anchorage-independent survival. Mechanistically, the pro-survival IGF-1R signaling pathway was attenuated upon ectopic expression of PTP1B. This was due to dephosphorylation by PTP1B of IGF-1R β-subunit and BRK/PTK6, an SRC-like protein-tyrosine kinase that physically and functionally interacts with the IGF-1R β-subunit. Restoration of PTP1B expression led to enhanced activation of BAD, one of the major pro-death members of the BCL-2 family, which triggered cell death through apoptosis. Conversely, inhibition of PTP1B with a small molecular inhibitor, MSI-1436, increased proliferation and migration of immortalized HOSE cell lines. These data reveal an important role for PTP1B as a negative regulator of BRK and IGF-1Rβ signaling in ovarian cancer cells.

Wang XM, Shang L, Zhang Y, et al.
PTP1B contributes to calreticulin-induced metastatic phenotypes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Mol Cancer Res. 2013; 11(9):986-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Calreticulin (CRT) is a Ca(2+)-binding chaperone protein that alters cellular Ca(2+)-homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Previously it was shown that CRT was overexpressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and elevated CRT expression promoted the migration and invasion of ESCC cells. In the present study, the mechanisms underlying the role of CRT in esophageal carcinoma progression were investigated. Critically, depletion of CRT or protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) reduced ESCC cell migration and metastasis to the lung, whereas restoration of PTP1B protein levels rescued cell migration in CRT-silenced cells. Knockdown of CRT decreased PTP1B protein expression by reducing phosphorylation at the Y694 site of STAT5A, whereas knockdown of PTP1B reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation at T204. Immunohistochemical analysis of CRT and PTP1B expression in ESCC patient tissues was strongly correlated. Importantly, PTP1B expression was associated with poor survival in patients with CRT overexpression. Overall, these data indicate a novel signaling pathway connecting CRT, STAT5A, PTP1B, and ERK1/2 in the regulation of ESCC cell migration.
IMPLICATIONS: These findings suggest that PTP1B is a downstream effector of CRT signaling, promotes tumor progression, and can potentially be used as a new drug target for ESCC.

Christensen LL, Tobiasen H, Holm A, et al.
MiRNA-362-3p induces cell cycle arrest through targeting of E2F1, USF2 and PTPN1 and is associated with recurrence of colorectal cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 133(1):67-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in Western countries. A significant number of CRC patients undergoing curatively intended surgery subsequently develop recurrence and die from the disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are aberrantly expressed in cancers and appear to have both diagnostic and prognostic significance. In this study, we identified novel miRNAs associated with recurrence of CRC, and their possible mechanism of action. TaqMan(®) Human MicroRNA Array Set v2.0 was used to profile the expression of 667 miRNAs in 14 normal colon mucosas and 46 microsatellite stable CRC tumors. Four miRNAs (miR-362-3p, miR-570, miR-148 a* and miR-944) were expressed at a higher level in tumors from patients with no recurrence (p<0.015), compared with tumors from patients with recurrence. A significant association with increased disease free survival was confirmed for miR-362-3p in a second independent cohort of 43 CRC patients, using single TaqMan(®) microRNA assays. In vitro functional analysis showed that over-expression of miR-362-3p in colon cancer cell lines reduced cell viability, and proliferation mainly due to cell cycle arrest. E2F1, USF2 and PTPN1 were identified as potential miR-362-3p targets by mRNA profiling of HCT116 cells over-expressing miR-362-3p. Subsequently, these genes were confirmed as direct targets by Luciferase reporter assays and their knockdown in vitro phenocopied the effects of miR-362-3p over-expression. We conclude that miR-362-3p may be a novel prognostic marker in CRC, and hypothesize that the positive effects of augmented miR-362-3p expression may in part be mediated through the targets E2F1, USF2 and PTPN1.

Noman MZ, Buart S, Romero P, et al.
Hypoxia-inducible miR-210 regulates the susceptibility of tumor cells to lysis by cytotoxic T cells.
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(18):4629-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment plays a central role in the evolution of immune escape mechanisms by tumor cells. In this study, we report the definition of miR-210 as a miRNA regulated by hypoxia in lung cancer and melanoma, documenting its involvement in blunting the susceptibility of tumor cells to lysis by antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). miR-210 was induced in hypoxic zones of human tumor tissues. Its attenuation in hypoxic cells significantly restored susceptibility to autologous CTL-mediated lysis, independent of tumor cell recognition and CTL reactivity. A comprehensive approach using transcriptome analysis, argonaute protein immunoprecipitation, and luciferase reporter assay revealed that the genes PTPN1, HOXA1, and TP53I11 were miR-210 target genes regulated in hypoxic cells. In support of their primary importance in mediating the immunosuppressive effects of miR-210, coordinate silencing of PTPN1, HOXA1, and TP53I11 dramatically decreased tumor cell susceptibility to CTL-mediated lysis. Our findings show how miR-210 induction links hypoxia to immune escape from CTL-mediated lysis, by providing a mechanistic understanding of how this miRNA mediates immunosuppression in oxygen-deprived regions of tumors where cancer stem-like cells and metastatic cellular behaviors are known to evolve.

Flossbach L, Holzmann K, Mattfeldt T, et al.
High-resolution genomic profiling reveals clonal evolution and competition in gastrointestinal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma and its large cell variant.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 132(3):E116-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
We studied marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract including seven small cell lymphomas, eight large cell areas of composite lymphomas and 13 large cell variants using SNP array profiling. We found an increase of genomic complexity with lymphoma progression from small to large cytology, and identified gains of prominent (proto) oncogenes such as REL, BCL11A, ETS1, PTPN1, PTEN and KRAS which were found exclusively in the large cell variants. Copy numbers of ADAM3A, SCAPER and SIRPB1 were varying between the three different modes of presentation, hence suggestive for aberrations associated with progression from small to large cell lymphoma. The number of aberrations was slightly higher in the large cell part of composite lymphomas than in large cell lymphomas, suggesting that clonal selection takes place and that composite lymphomas are in a transition state. To further investigate this, we comparatively analyzed samples of two morphologically different regions of the same small cell tumor with a BIRC3-MALT1 translocation, as well as material acquired at two different time points from one composite lymphoma. We found genomic heterogeneity in both cases, supporting the theory of competing subclones in the evolution and progression of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma.

Lessard L, Labbé DP, Deblois G, et al.
PTP1B is an androgen receptor-regulated phosphatase that promotes the progression of prostate cancer.
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(6):1529-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
The androgen receptor (AR) signaling axis plays a key role in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. In this study, we found that the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B, a well-established regulator of metabolic signaling, was induced after androgen stimulation of AR-expressing prostate cancer cells. PTP1B induction by androgen occurred at the mRNA and protein levels to increase PTP1B activity. High-resolution chromosome mapping revealed AR recruitment to two response elements within the first intron of the PTP1B encoding gene PTPN1, correlating with an AR-mediated increase in RNA polymerase II recruitment to the PTPN1 transcriptional start site. We found that PTPN1 and AR genes were coamplified in metastatic tumors and that PTPN1 amplification was associated with a subset of high-risk primary tumors. Functionally, PTP1B depletion delayed the growth of androgen-dependent human prostate tumors and impaired androgen-induced cell migration and invasion in vitro. However, PTP1B was also required for optimal cell migration of androgen-independent cells. Collectively, our results established the AR as a transcriptional regulator of PTPN1 transcription and implicated PTP1B in a tumor-promoting role in prostate cancer. Our findings support the preclinical testing of PTP1B inhibitors for prostate cancer treatment.

Gutiérrez VF, Marcos CÁ, Llorente JL, et al.
Genetic profile of second primary tumors and recurrences in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.
Head Neck. 2012; 34(6):830-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Second primary tumors and recurrences are an important problem in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic changes in tumor samples to improve knowledge of tumor progression.
METHODS: Copy number changes of 37 genes were analyzed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in 36 primary tumors and their corresponding 21 second primary tumors and 15 recurrences.
RESULTS: CCND1 and EMS1 amplifications and gain of BCL2L1 were the most common genetic alterations in the primary tumor, second primary tumor, and recurrence samples. Gains of ERBB2 and PTPN1 were associated with recurrences.
CONCLUSION: Specific genetic profiles for each group have been found. Similarities between primary tumor and second primary tumor and dissimilarity between primary tumor and recurrence suggest that clinicopathological criteria do not always accurately differentiate these entities. Genetic profiling may aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of these difficult cases.

Alvira D, Naughton R, Bhatt L, et al.
Inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) mediates ubiquitination and degradation of Bcr-Abl protein.
J Biol Chem. 2011; 286(37):32313-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized at the molecular level by the expression of Bcr-Abl, a chimeric protein with deregulated tyrosine kinase activity. The protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is up-regulated in Bcr-Abl-expressing cells, suggesting a regulatory link between the two proteins. To investigate the interplay between these two proteins, we inhibited the activity of PTP1B in Bcr-Abl-expressing TonB.210 cells by either pharmacological or siRNA means and examined the effects of such inhibition on Bcr-Abl expression and function. Herein we describe a novel mechanism by which the phosphatase activity of PTP1B is required for Bcr-Abl protein stability. Inhibition of PTP1B elicits tyrosine phosphorylation of Bcr-Abl that triggers the degradation of Bcr-Abl through ubiquitination via the lysosomal pathway. The degradation of Bcr-Abl consequently inhibits tyrosine phosphorylation of Bcr-Abl substrates and the downstream production of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, PTP1B inhibition reduces cell viability and the IC(50) of the Bcr-Abl inhibitor imatinib mesylate. Degradation of Bcr-Abl via PTP1B inhibition is also observed in human CML cell lines K562 and LAMA-84. These results suggest that inhibition of PTP1B may be a useful strategy to explore in the development of novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of CML, particularly because host drugs currently used in CML such as imatinib focus on inhibiting the kinase activity of Bcr-Abl.

Shi H, Bevier M, Johansson R, et al.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the 20q13 amplicon genes in relation to breast cancer risk and clinical outcome.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011; 130(3):905-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
The 20q13 region is frequently amplified/overexpressed in breast tumours. However, the nature of this amplification/overexpression is unknown. Here, we investigated genetic variation in five 20q13 amplicon genes (MYBL2, AURKA, ZNF217, STK4 and PTPN1) and its impact on breast cancer (BC) susceptibility and clinical outcome. As a novel finding, four polymorphisms in STK4 (rs6017452, rs7271519) and AURKA (rs2273535, rs8173) associated with steroid hormone receptor status both in a Swedish population-based cohort of 783 BC cases and in a Polish familial/early onset cohort of 506 BC cases. In the joint analysis, the minor allele carriers of rs6017452 had more often hormone receptor positive tumours (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.40-0.81), while homozygotes for the minor allele of rs7271519, rs2273535 and rs8173 had more often hormone receptor negative tumours (2.26, 1.30-3.39; 2.39, 1.14-5.01; 2.39, 1.19-4.80, respectively) than homozygotes for the common allele. BC-specific survival analysis of AURKA suggested that the Swedish carriers of the minor allele of rs16979877, rs2273535 and rs8173 might have a worse survival compared with the major homozygotes. The survival probabilities associated with the AURKA genotypes depended on the tumour phenotype. In the Swedish case-control study, associations with BC susceptibility were observed in a dominant model for three MYBL2 promoter polymorphisms (rs619289, P = 0.02; rs826943, P = 0.03 and rs826944, P = 0.02), two AURKA promoter polymorphisms (rs6064389, P = 0.04 and rs16979877, P = 0.02) and one 3'UTR polymorphism in ZNF217 (rs1056948, P = 0.01). In conclusion, our data confirmed the impact of the previously identified susceptibility locus and provided preliminary evidence for novel susceptibility variants in BC. We provided evidence for the first time that genetic variants at 20q13 may affect hormone receptor status in breast tumours and influence tumour aggressiveness and survival of the patients. Future studies are needed to confirm the prognostic value of our findings in the clinic.

Brobeil A, Bobrich M, Graf M, et al.
PTPIP51 is phosphorylated by Lyn and c-Src kinases lacking dephosphorylation by PTP1B in acute myeloid leukemia.
Leuk Res. 2011; 35(10):1367-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protein tyrosine phosphatase interacting protein 51 (PTPIP51) is known to be expressed in blood cells with restriction to the myeloid lineage. All myeloid progenitor cells are PTPIP51 positive except for the myeloblasts. To define the expression of PTPIP51 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we performed immunohistochemical experiments with peptide specific antibodies (C-terminus, N-terminus and aas 114-129) to PTPIP51 with samples of AML bone marrow trephine biopsy specimens. AML blasts reacted positive for PTPIP51 protein encompassing the C-terminal sequence. Healthy bone marrow displayed an exclusive staining for the N-terminal containing form of PTPIP51. Moreover, PTPIP51 protein was highly phosphorylated at its tyrosine 176 residue. Acquired confocal images of AML cells displayed an absence of PTP1B and revealed a co-localization of PTPIP51 and Lyn. Duolink proximity ligation assays (DPLA) corroborated an interaction for PTPIP51 with Lyn and c-Src. In AML blasts rarely an interaction of PTPIP51 with PTP1B and Raf-1 was seen. Furthermore, DPLA signals were also obtained for PTPIP51 and c-Kit in AML cells. Therefore, PTPIP51 was identified as a new signal molecule of the c-Kit signaling pathway. By the phosphorylation done by Lyn, c-Src and c-Kit, PTPIP51 is prevented to influence mitogen activated protein kinase pathway on Raf-1 level contributing to increased proliferation of AML cells.

Johnson KJ, Peck AR, Liu C, et al.
PTP1B suppresses prolactin activation of Stat5 in breast cancer cells.
Am J Pathol. 2010; 177(6):2971-83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Basal levels of nuclear localized, tyrosine phosphorylated Stat5 are present in healthy human breast epithelia. In contrast, Stat5 phosphorylation is frequently lost during breast cancer progression, a finding that correlates with loss of histological differentiation and poor patient prognosis. Identifying the mechanisms underlying loss of Stat5 phosphorylation could provide novel targets for breast cancer therapy. Pervanadate, a general tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, revealed marked phosphatase regulation of Stat5 activity in breast cancer cells. Lentiviral-mediated shRNA allowed specific examination of the regulatory role of five tyrosine phosphatases (PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP1, SHP2, and VHR), previously implicated in Stat5 regulation in various systems. Enhanced and sustained prolactin-induced Stat5 tyrosine phosphorylation was observed in T47D and MCF7 breast cancer cells selectively in response to PTP1B depletion. Conversely, PTP1B overexpression suppressed prolactin-induced Stat5 tyrosine phosphorylation. Furthermore, PTP1B knockdown increased Stat5 reporter gene activity. Mechanistically, PTP1B suppression of Stat5 phosphorylation was mediated, at least in part, through inhibitory dephosphorylation of the Stat5 tyrosine kinase, Jak2. PTP1B knockdown enhanced sensitivity of T47D cells to prolactin phosphorylation of Stat5 by reducing the EC(50) from 7.2 nmol/L to 2.5 nmol/L. Immunohistochemical analyses of two independent clinical breast cancer materials revealed significant negative correlations between levels of active Stat5 and PTP1B, but not TC-PTP. Collectively, our data implicate PTP1B as an important negative regulator of Stat5 phosphorylation in invasive breast cancer.

Wang J, Chen X, Liu B, Zhu Z
Suppression of PTP1B in gastric cancer cells in vitro induces a change in the genome-wide expression profile and inhibits gastric cancer cell growth.
Cell Biol Int. 2010; 34(7):747-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
PTP1B (protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B) is a member of the superfamily of PTPs (protein tyrosine phosphatases) and has been implicated in cancer pathogenesis. However, the role of PTP1B in gastric cancer is still unknown. Here, we first detected the PTP1B expression in six gastric cancer cell lines and in the immortalized gastric mucosal epithelial cell line GES-1 by RT-PCR and Western blot. Then, we measured the change of the genome-wide expression profile in MKN28 gastric cancer cells transfected with a plasmid expressing PTP1B-specific small interfering RNA by microarray analysis. Our results showed that PTP1B was overexpressed in gastric cancer cells, and inhibition of PTP1B expression dramatically inhibited gastric cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. In addition, microarray analysis revealed that inhibition of PTP1B induced changes in the genome-wide expression profile. These changes may be related to cell growth. Taken together, our data suggested that PTP1B may be a candidate oncogene in gastric cancer.

Martinelli S, McDowell HP, Vigne SD, et al.
RAS signaling dysregulation in human embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2009; 48(11):975-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a common childhood solid tumor, resulting from dysregulation of the skeletal myogenesis program. Two major histological subtypes occur in childhood RMS, embryonal and alveolar. While chromosomal rearrangements account for the majority of alveolar tumors, the genetic defects underlying the pathogenesis of embryonal RMS remain largely undetermined. A few studies performed on small series of embryonal tumors suggest that dysregulation of RAS function may be relevant to disease pathogenesis. To explore further the biological and clinical relevance of mutations with perturbing consequences on RAS signaling in embryonal RMS, we investigated the prevalence of PTPN11, HRAS, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, MEK1, and MEK2 mutations in a relatively large cohort of primary tumors. While HRAS and KRAS were found to be rarely mutated, we identified somatic NRAS lesions in 20% of cases. All mutations were missense and affected codon 61, with the introduction of a positive charged amino acid residue representing the most common event. PTPN11 was found mutated in one tumor specimen, confirming that somatic defects in this gene are relatively uncommon in RMS, while no mutation was observed in BRAF and MEK genes. Although no clear association of mutations with any clinical variable was observed, comparison of the outcome between mutation-positive and mutation-negative cases indicated a trend for a higher percentage of patients exhibiting a better outcome in the former. Our findings provide evidence that dysregulation of RAS signaling is a major event contributing to embryonal RMS pathogenesis.

Arias-Romero LE, Saha S, Villamar-Cruz O, et al.
Activation of Src by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B Is required for ErbB2 transformation of human breast epithelial cells.
Cancer Res. 2009; 69(11):4582-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) 1B plays a major role in inhibiting signaling from the insulin and leptin receptors. Recently, PTP1B was found to have an unexpected positive role in ErbB2 signaling in a mouse model of breast cancer, but the mechanism underlying this effect has been unclear. Using human breast epithelial cells grown in a three-dimensional matrix, we found that PTP1B, but not the closely related enzyme T-cell PTP, is required for ErbB2 transformation in vitro. Activation of ErbB2, but not ErbB1, increases PTP1B expression, and increased expression of PTP1B activates Src and induces a Src-dependent transformed phenotype. These findings identify a molecular mechanism by which PTP1B links an important oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase to signaling pathways that promote aberrant cell division and survival in human breast epithelial cells.

Sethi S, Benninger MS, Lu M, et al.
Noninvasive molecular detection of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: an exploratory analysis.
Diagn Mol Pathol. 2009; 18(2):81-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a heterogeneous disease evolving through multistep carcinogenesis, one of the steps being genetic alterations. Noninvasive identification of HNSCC-specific genetic alterations using saliva would have immense potential in early diagnosis and screening, particularly among high-risk patients.
DESIGN: In this exploratory study, a prospective cohort of 27 HNSCC and 10 healthy controls was examined to determine whether genetic alterations (losses and gains) in saliva DNA differentiated HNSCC patients from normal controls. Saliva DNA was interrogated by a candidate gene panel comprising 82 genes using the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay.
RESULTS: Eleven genes showed some predictive ability in identifying HNSCC cases from normal controls: PMAIP1, PTPN1, ERBB2, ABCC4, UTY, DNMT1, CDKN2B, CDKN2D, NFKB1, TP53, and DCC. Statistical analysis using the Classification and Regression Tree (CART) identified 2 genes, PMAIP1 and PTPN1, which correctly discriminated all 27 HNSCC patients (100%) from normal controls. Results were validated using the leave-one-out validation approach.
CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive high-throughput multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification identified discrete gene signatures that differentiated HNSCC patients from normal controls providing proof-of-concept for noninvasive HNSCC detection.

Boelens J, Lust S, Van Bockstaele F, et al.
Steroid effects on ZAP-70 and SYK in relation to apoptosis in poor prognosis chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Leuk Res. 2009; 33(10):1335-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
There is resurgent interest in glucocorticoids (GCs) in the treatment of poor prognosis chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Little is known however on how GCs induce apoptosis in CLL. Methylprednisolone (MP) induces apoptosis in ZAP-70 positive CLL more readily than in ZAP-70 negative CLL, which is in contrast to the effects of radiation and chemotherapy. The increased GC sensitivity of ZAP-70+ CLL was studied in relation to the expression status of ZAP-70 and the related signal transducing tyrosine kinase SYK. Both ZAP-70 and SYK were downregulated by GC treatment. Moreover, SYK was dephosphorylated by the phosphatase PTP1B of which the expression and translation levels were induced by GCs. Inhibition of PTP1B successfully restored ZAP-70 expression and SYK phosphorylation but did not interfere with GC-induced apoptosis. Therefore, the downregulation of ZAP-70 and P-SYK per se during treatment with GCs is not sufficient to induce apoptosis, and different mechanisms must therefore be responsible for the increased steroid sensitivity of ZAP-70+ CLL.

Luo B, Cheung HW, Subramanian A, et al.
Highly parallel identification of essential genes in cancer cells.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008; 105(51):20380-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
More complete knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer will improve prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Efforts such as The Cancer Genome Atlas are systematically characterizing the structural basis of cancer, by identifying the genomic mutations associated with each cancer type. A powerful complementary approach is to systematically characterize the functional basis of cancer, by identifying the genes essential for growth and related phenotypes in different cancer cells. Such information would be particularly valuable for identifying potential drug targets. Here, we report the development of an efficient, robust approach to perform genome-scale pooled shRNA screens for both positive and negative selection and its application to systematically identify cell essential genes in 12 cancer cell lines. By integrating these functional data with comprehensive genetic analyses of primary human tumors, we identified known and putative oncogenes such as EGFR, KRAS, MYC, BCR-ABL, MYB, CRKL, and CDK4 that are essential for cancer cell proliferation and also altered in human cancers. We further used this approach to identify genes involved in the response of cancer cells to tumoricidal agents and found 4 genes required for the response of CML cells to imatinib treatment: PTPN1, NF1, SMARCB1, and SMARCE1, and 5 regulators of the response to FAS activation, FAS, FADD, CASP8, ARID1A and CBX1. Broad application of this highly parallel genetic screening strategy will not only facilitate the rapid identification of genes that drive the malignant state and its response to therapeutics but will also enable the discovery of genes that participate in any biological process.

Sainz-Perez A, Gary-Gouy H, Gaudin F, et al.
IL-24 induces apoptosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells engaged into the cell cycle through dephosphorylation of STAT3 and stabilization of p53 expression.
J Immunol. 2008; 181(9):6051-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the accumulation of long-lived monoclonal B cells mostly arrested at the G(0)/G(1) phase of the cell cycle. CLL cells strongly express intracellular melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7 (MDA7)/IL-24. However, adenovirus-delivered MDA7 was reported to be cytotoxic in several tumor cell lines. We report herein that rIL-24 alone had no effect; however, sequential incubation with rIL-2 and rIL-24 reduced thymidine incorporation by 50% and induced apoptosis of CLL cells in S and G(2)/M phases of the cell cycle, but not of normal adult blood or tonsil B cells. IL-24 stimulated STAT3 phosphorylation in IL-24R1-transfected cells but not in normal or CLL B cells. In contrast, IL-24 reversed the IL-2-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 in CLL, and this effect was neutralized by anti-IL-24 Ab. Phospho- (P)STAT3 inhibition induced by IL-24 was reversed by pervanadate, an inhibitor of tyrosine phosphatases. The addition of rIL-24 to IL-2-activated CLL B cells resulted in increases of transcription, protein synthesis. and phosphorylation of p53. The biological effects of IL-24 were reversed by the p53 inhibitor pifithrin-alpha and partly by the caspase inhibitor zvad. Troglitazone (a protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTP1B activator) phosphatase inhibited PSTAT3 and augmented p53 expression. PSTAT3 is a transcriptional repressor of p53, and therefore IL-24 induction of p53 secondary to PSTAT3 dephosphorylation may be sensed as a stress signal and promote apoptosis in cycling cells. This model explains why IL-24 can protect some resting/differentiated cells and be deleterious to proliferating cells.

Lu X, Malumbres R, Shields B, et al.
PTP1B is a negative regulator of interleukin 4-induced STAT6 signaling.
Blood. 2008; 112(10):4098-108 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme shown to negatively regulate multiple tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent signaling pathways. PTP1B can modulate cytokine signaling pathways by dephosphorylating JAK2, TYK2, and STAT5a/b. Herein, we report that phosphorylated STAT6 may serve as a cytoplasmic substrate for PTP1B. Overexpression of PTP1B led to STAT6 dephosphorylation and the suppression of STAT6 transcriptional activity, whereas PTP1B knockdown or deficiency augmented IL-4-induced STAT6 signaling. Pretreatment of these cells with the PTK inhibitor staurosporine led to sustained STAT6 phosphorylation consistent with STAT6 serving as a direct substrate of PTP1B. Furthermore, PTP1B-D181A "substrate-trapping" mutants formed stable complexes with phosphorylated STAT6 in a cellular context and endogenous PTP1B and STAT6 interacted in an interleukin 4 (IL-4)-inducible manner. We delineate a new negative regulatory loop of IL-4-JAK-STAT6 signaling. We demonstrate that IL-4 induces PTP1B mRNA expression in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent manner and enhances PTP1B protein stability to suppress IL-4-induced STAT6 signaling. Finally, we show that PTP1B expression may be preferentially elevated in activated B cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. These observations identify a novel regulatory loop for the regulation of IL-4-induced STAT6 signaling that may have important implications in both neoplastic and inflammatory processes.

Cimino D, Fuso L, Sfiligoi C, et al.
Identification of new genes associated with breast cancer progression by gene expression analysis of predefined sets of neoplastic tissues.
Int J Cancer. 2008; 123(6):1327-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene expression profiles were studied by microarray analysis in 2 sets of archival breast cancer tissues from patients with distinct clinical outcome. Seventy-seven differentially expressed genes were identified when comparing 30 cases with relapse and 30 cases without relapse within 72 months from surgery. These genes had a specific ontological distribution and some of them have been linked to breast cancer in previous studies: AIB1, the two keratin genes KRT5 and KRT15, RAF1, WIF1 and MSH6. Seven out of 77 differentially expressed genes were selected and analyzed by qRT-PCR in 127 cases of breast cancer. The expression levels of 6 upregulated genes (CKMT1B, DDX21, PRKDC, PTPN1, SLPI, YWHAE) showed a significant association to both disease-free and overall survival. Multivariate analysis using the significant factors (i.e., estrogen receptor and lymph node status) as covariates confirmed the association with survival. There was no correlation between the expression level of these genes and other clinical parameters. In contrast, SERPINA3, the only downregulated gene examined, was not associated with survival, but correlated with steroid receptor status. An indirect validation of our genes was provided by calculating their association with survival in 3 publicly available microarray datasets. CKMT1B expression was an independent prognostic marker in all 3 datasets, whereas other genes confirmed their association with disease-free survival in at least 1 dataset. This work provides a novel set of genes that could be used as independent prognostic markers and potential drug targets for breast cancer.

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