Research IndicatorsGraph generated 21 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 21 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (4)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: NEMF (cancer-related)
Matsuda Y, Yamashita S, Lee YC, et al.Hypomethylation of Alu repetitive elements in esophageal mucosa, and its potential contribution to the epigenetic field for cancerization.
Cancer Causes Control. 2012; 23(6):865-73 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aberrant hypermethylation of specific genes is present in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs). Such hypermethylation is also present in normal-appearing esophageal mucosae of ESCC patients and is considered to contribute to the formation of a field for cancerization. On the other hand, the presence of global hypomethylation in ESCCs or in their background esophageal mucosae is unknown.
METHOD: We collected 184 samples of esophageal mucosae (95 normal mucosae from healthy subjects, and 89 non-cancerous background mucosae from ESCC patients) and 93 samples of ESCCs. Methylation levels of repetitive elements (Alu, LINE1) and cancer/testis antigen genes (NY-ESO-1, MAGE-C1) were measured by bisulfite pyrosequencing and quantitative methylation-specific PCR, respectively.
RESULTS: Methylation levels of Alu, LINE1, NY-ESO-1, and MAGE-C1 were significantly lower in ESCCs than in their background and normal mucosae. Also, in the background mucosae, a significant decrease of the Alu methylation level compared with the normal mucosae was present. In ESCCs, methylation levels of the two repetitive elements and the two cancer/testis antigen genes were correlated with each other.
CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show the presence of global hypomethylation in ESCCs, and even in their non-cancerous background mucosae. Alu hypomethylation might reflect the severity of an epigenetic field for cancerization.
Nesslinger NJ, Sahota RA, Stone B, et al.Standard treatments induce antigen-specific immune responses in prostate cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2007; 13(5):1493-502 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Prostate tumors express antigens that are recognized by the immune system in a significant proportion of patients; however, little is known about the effect of standard treatments on tumor-specific immunity. Radiation therapy induces expression of inflammatory and immune-stimulatory molecules, and neoadjuvant hormone therapy causes prominent T-cell infiltration of prostate tumors. We therefore hypothesized that radiation therapy and hormone therapy may initiate tumor-specific immune responses.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Pretreatment and posttreatment serum samples from 73 men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer and 50 cancer-free controls were evaluated by Western blotting and SEREX (serological identification of antigens by recombinant cDNA expression cloning) antigen arrays to examine whether autoantibody responses to tumor proteins arose during the course of standard treatment.
RESULTS: Western blotting revealed the development of treatment-associated autoantibody responses in patients undergoing neoadjuvant hormone therapy (7 of 24, 29.2%), external beam radiation therapy (4 of 29, 13.8%), and brachytherapy (5 of 20, 25%), compared with 0 of 14 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy and 2 of 36 (5.6%) controls. Responses were seen within 4 to 9 months of initiation of treatment and were equally prevalent across different disease risk groups. Similarly, in the murine Shionogi tumor model, hormone therapy induced tumor-associated autoantibody responses in 5 of 10 animals. In four patients, SEREX immunoscreening of a prostate cancer cDNA expression library identified several antigens recognized by treatment-associated autoantibodies, including PARP1, ZNF707 + PTMA, CEP78, SDCCAG1, and ODF2.
CONCLUSION: We show for the first time that standard treatments induce antigen-specific immune responses in prostate cancer patients. Thus, immunologic mechanisms may contribute to clinical outcomes after hormone and radiation therapy, an effect that could potentially be exploited as a practical, personalized form of immunotherapy.
Bi X, Jones T, Abbasi F, et al.Drosophila caliban, a nuclear export mediator, can function as a tumor suppressor in human lung cancer cells.
Oncogene. 2005; 24(56):8229-39 [PubMed
] Related Publications
We previously showed that the Drosophila DNA binding homeodomain of Prospero included a 28 amino-acid sequence (HDA) that functions as a nuclear export signal. We describe here the identification of a protein we named Caliban, which can directly interact with the HDA. Caliban is homologous to human Sdccag1, which has been implicated in colon and lung cancer. Here we show that Caliban and Sdccag1 are mediators of nuclear export in fly and human cells, as interference RNA abrogates export of EYFP-HDA in normal fly and human lung cells. Caliban functions as a bipartite mediator nuclear export as the carboxy terminus binds HDA and the amino terminus itself functions as an NES, which directly binds the NES receptor Exportin. Finally, while non-cancerous lung cells have functional Sdccag1, five human lung carcinoma cell lines do not, even though Exportin still functions in these cells. Expression of fly Caliban in these human lung cancer cells restores EYFP-HDA nuclear export, reduces a cell's ability to form colonies on soft agar and reduces cell invasiveness. We suggest that Sdccag1 inactivation contributes to the transformed state of human lung cancer cells and that Caliban should be considered a candidate for use in lung cancer gene therapy.
Carbonnelle D, Jacquot C, Lanco X, et al.Up-regulation of a novel mRNA (NY-CO-1) involved in the methyl 4-methoxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenoyl) benzoate (VT1)-induced proliferation arrest of a non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line (NSCLC-N6).
Int J Cancer. 2001; 92(3):388-97 [PubMed
] Related Publications
It is now well known that treatment of tumors, especially non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), remains limited and it is urgent to develop strategies that target tumor cells and their genetic features. In this regard, our work is about genetic modifications arising in an in vitro NSCLC cell line after treatment with a chemical substance, methyl 4-methoxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenoyl) benzoate (VT1). First, we showed that VT1 induces arrest of proliferation by blocking cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Second, we use "differential display" strategy to clarify the genetic mechanisms involved in this proliferation arrest. A novel mRNA, NY-CO-1 (New-York Colon 1), of unknown function showed up-regulated expression after treatment. Application of "antisense" strategy confirmed this novel mRNA induction was effectively linked to growth arrest. Therefore, these data provide new information about mechanisms participating in arrest of proliferation of tumor cells and open new ways of treatment to target tumor growth.
Scanlan MJ, Chen YT, Williamson B, et al.Characterization of human colon cancer antigens recognized by autologous antibodies.
Int J Cancer. 1998; 76(5):652-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The screening of cDNA expression libraries derived from human tumors with autologous antibody (SEREX) has proven to be a powerful method for defining the structure of tumor antigens recognized by the humoral immune system. In the present study, 48 distinct antigens (NY-CO-1-NY-CO-48) reactive with autologous IgG were identified by SEREX analysis in 4 patients with colon cancer. Sequencing analysis showed that 17 of the cDNA clones were previously uncharacterized molecules and 31 represented known gene products. The individual cDNA clones were analyzed in the following manner: a search for mutations or other structural changes; an analysis of mRNA expression in a panel of normal tissues; and a frequency analysis of the antibody response to the expressed product in the sera of colon cancer patients and normal individuals. The initial analysis showed NY-CO-13 to be a mutated version of the p53 tumor suppressor gene. Three of the 48 antigens showed a differential pattern of mRNA expression, with NY-CO-27 (galectin-4) expressed primarily in gastrointestinal tract, and NY-CO-37 and -38 showing a pattern of tissue-specific isoforms. With regard to immunogenicity, 20 of the 48 antigens were detected by allogeneic sera; 14 of these were reactive with sera from both normal donors and cancer patients, and 6 other clones (NY-CO-8, -9, -13, -16, -20 and -38) reacted exclusively with sera from colon cancer patients (ranging from 14% to 27%). Our results on colon cancer illustrate both the complexity and the potential of the SEREX approach for analysis of the humoral immune response against human cancer.