JAZF1

Gene Summary

Gene:JAZF1; JAZF zinc finger 1
Aliases: TIP27, ZNF802
Location:7p15.2-p15.1
Summary:This gene encodes a nuclear protein with three C2H2-type zinc fingers, and functions as a transcriptional repressor. Chromosomal aberrations involving this gene are associated with endometrial stromal tumors. Alternatively spliced variants which encode different protein isoforms have been described; however, not all variants have been fully characterized [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:juxtaposed with another zinc finger protein 1
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (7)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Genetic Predisposition
  • beta Catenin
  • Uterine Cancer
  • Linkage Disequilibrium
  • Cell Nucleus
  • FISH
  • Tissue Array Analysis
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
  • Messenger RNA
  • Transcription Factors
  • Genome, Human
  • Chromosome 17
  • Soft Tissue Sarcoma
  • Artificial Gene Fusion
  • Staging
  • Survival Rate
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Gene Fusion
  • Endometrial Stromal Tumors
  • Alleles
  • Prostate Cancer
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Base Sequence
  • Tumor Markers
  • 14-3-3 Proteins
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Sarcoma, Endometrial Stromal
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • RTPCR
  • Chromosome 7
  • Endometrial Cancer
  • Translocation
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: JAZF1 (cancer-related)

Ali RH, Al-Safi R, Al-Waheeb S, et al.
Molecular characterization of a population-based series of endometrial stromal sarcomas in Kuwait.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(12):2453-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESSs) frequently harbor genetic fusions, including JAZF1-SUZ12 and equivalent fusions in low-grade ESS (LGESS) and YWHAE-NUTM2 in high-grade ESS (HGESS). This study aims to classify a population-based series of ESSs in Kuwait based on the 2014 World Health Organization classification system and to assess the diagnostic use of interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) immunomarker for ESSs. Twenty ESSs including 19 LGESSs and 1 HGESS treated during the period between 2002 and 2013 were identified, and the cases were reviewed and characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies. Thirteen (81.3%) of 16 LGESSs with interpretable results showed JAZF1 and/or PHF1 genetic rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the only HGESS in the series showed YWHAE genetic rearrangement. All LGESSs with interpretable results showed positive immunostaining for CD10 compared with 11 (61%) of 18 that showed positive immunostaining for IFITM1; 4 of 7 IFITM1-negative LGESSs showed JAZF1 and/or PHF1 rearrangements. A series of uterine leiomyomas, leiomyosarcomas, adenosarcomas, and carcinosarcomas were included for comparison, and positive IFITM1 staining was found in 1 of 10 leiomyomas, 3 of 13 leiomyosarcomas, 3 of 4 adenosarcomas, and 3 of 8 carcinosarcomas, compared to 0 of 10 leiomyomas, 9 of 13 leiomyosarcomas, 3 of 4 adenosarcomas, and 5 of 8 carcinosarcomas that were positive for CD10. Our results demonstrated characteristic genetic rearrangements in a high percentage of LGESSs in this Middle Eastern population, and IFITM1 antibody appears to be less sensitive than CD10 for LGESS.

Neslund-Dudas C, Levin AM, Beebe-Dimmer JL, et al.
Gene-environment interactions between JAZF1 and occupational and household lead exposure in prostate cancer among African American men.
Cancer Causes Control. 2014; 25(7):869-79 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: A single nucleotide polymorphism, rs10486567, in JAZF1 has consistently been associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. The physical interaction of zinc finger proteins, such as JAZF1, with heavy metals may play a role in carcinogenesis. This study assessed potential gene-environment statistical interactions (G×E) between rs10486567 and heavy metals in prostate cancer.
METHODS: In a case-only study of 228 African American prostate cancer cases, G×E between rs10486567 and sources of cadmium and lead (Pb) were assessed. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate interaction odds ratios (IORs), and generalized estimating equations were used for models containing nested data. Case-control validation of IORs was performed, using 82 controls frequency matched to cases on age-race.
RESULTS: Among cases, a potential G×E interaction was observed between rs10486567 CC genotype and living in a Census tract with a high proportion of housing built before 1950, a proxy for household Pb exposure, when compared to CT or TT carriers (OR 1.81; 95% CI 1.04-3.16; p = 0.036). A stronger G×E interaction was observed when both housing and occupational Pb exposure were taken into account (OR 2.62; 95% CI 1.03-6.68; p = 0.04). Case-control stratified analyses showed the odds of being a CC carrier were higher in cases compared to controls among men living in areas with older housing (OR 2.03; CI 0.99-4.19; p = 0.05) or having high occupational Pb exposure (OR 2.50; CI 1.01-6.18; p = 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: In African American men, the association between JAZF1 rs10486567 and prostate cancer may be modified by exposure to heavy metals such as Pb.

Tokinaga A, Furuya M, Niino H, et al.
Colonic low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma and orthotopic endometrial stromal tumor with limited infiltration sharing the JAZF1-SUZ12 gene fusion.
Pathol Int. 2014; 64(4):178-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endometrial stromal tumors (ESTs) are composed of cells resembling endometrial stroma, and are divided into benign and malignant types based on morphology. Endometrial stromal nodule (ESN) is a benign localized tumor, and endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is an infiltrative and potentially metastatic neoplasm. A series of genetic aberrations contribute to pathological diagnosis of ESTs. At present, subsets of ESN and ESS-low grade (ESS-LG) are characterized as JAZF1-SUZ12/JJAZ1 gene fusion. The ESTs that show higher grade atypia but lack nuclear pleomorphism include YWHAE-FAM22 ESS. Here we report an unusual case of ESTs. Sudden colonic perforation occurred to the patient, and emergency surgery was performed. Pathological findings suggested metastatic ESS. Thorough medical examination of the genital organs detected a 1 cm-sized well-demarcated uterine tumor. Microscopically, the tumor lacked infiltrative features, conforming to the definition of ESN. Both lesions demonstrated identical cytology and shared JAZF1-SUZ12 gene fusion. Endometriosis was not found in any areas of the resected organs, strongly suggesting that the uterine orthotopic tumor metastasized. The current case uncovered the problems of differential diagnosis between ESN and ESS-LG. We demonstrate detailed pathological features of the two lesions, and discuss the possibility of orthotopic EST with limited infiltration to develop into ESS-LG.

Umeda S, Tateno M, Miyagi E, et al.
Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCT) with metastasis: clinicopathological study of two cases.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(3):1051-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Uterine tumors with sex cord-like elements are divided in two groups; uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCT), and endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements (ESTSCLE). UTROSCT is currently defined as the neoplasm predominantly or exclusively composed of sex cord-like elements, and generally behaves in a benign fashion. We studied two unusual cases of UTROSCT with metastasis. One case was a 38-year-old multiparous woman presented with hypermenorrhea. The tumor grew as an intramural mass, and metastasized to a pelvic lymph node. Another case was a 57-year-old woman presented with genital bleeding. The tumor grew as a submucosal exophytic mass, and metastasized to the epiploic appendix. Microscopic examination of the 2 cases revealed that they were composed of sex cord-like cells, epithelioid cells and spindle cells. They exhibited solid pattern in predominance. Both solid and sex cord-like elements showed similar immunoreactivities for more than 3 sex cord markers, but simultaneously showed different staining patterns for some other markers. Characteristic features of endometrial stroma such as tongue-like infiltration and spiral arteries-like arterioles were not observed. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the absence of JAZF1-SUZ12 gene fusion, supporting the histopathological diagnosis of UTROSCT rather than ESTSCLE. The current cases warned the potential risk of UTROSCT whose biological behavior is still uncertain. We discuss histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular findings of UTROSCT with metastasis.

Micci F, Gorunova L, Gatius S, et al.
MEAF6/PHF1 is a recurrent gene fusion in endometrial stromal sarcoma.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 347(1):75-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The chimeric transcripts described in endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS) are JAZF1/SUZ12, YWHAE/FAM22, ZC3H7/BCOR, MBTD1/CXorf67, and recombinations of PHF1 with JAZF1, EPC1, and MEAF6. The MEAF6/PHF1 fusion had hitherto been identified in only one tumor. We present two more ESS with MEAF6/PHF1 detected by transcriptome sequencing (case 1) and RT-PCR (case 2), proving that this fusion is recurrent in ESS. The transcript of both cases was an in-frame fusion between exon 5 of MEAF6 and exon 2 of PHF1. Both genes are involved in epigenetic modification, and this may well be their main pathogenetic theme also in ESS tumorigenesis.

Hazelett DJ, Rhie SK, Gaddis M, et al.
Comprehensive functional annotation of 77 prostate cancer risk loci.
PLoS Genet. 2014; 10(1):e1004102 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revolutionized the field of cancer genetics, but the causal links between increased genetic risk and onset/progression of disease processes remain to be identified. Here we report the first step in such an endeavor for prostate cancer. We provide a comprehensive annotation of the 77 known risk loci, based upon highly correlated variants in biologically relevant chromatin annotations--we identified 727 such potentially functional SNPs. We also provide a detailed account of possible protein disruption, microRNA target sequence disruption and regulatory response element disruption of all correlated SNPs at r(2) ≥ 0.88%. 88% of the 727 SNPs fall within putative enhancers, and many alter critical residues in the response elements of transcription factors known to be involved in prostate biology. We define as risk enhancers those regions with enhancer chromatin biofeatures in prostate-derived cell lines with prostate-cancer correlated SNPs. To aid the identification of these enhancers, we performed genomewide ChIP-seq for H3K27-acetylation, a mark of actively engaged enhancers, as well as the transcription factor TCF7L2. We analyzed in depth three variants in risk enhancers, two of which show significantly altered androgen sensitivity in LNCaP cells. This includes rs4907792, that is in linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 0.91) with an eQTL for NUDT11 (on the X chromosome) in prostate tissue, and rs10486567, the index SNP in intron 3 of the JAZF1 gene on chromosome 7. Rs4907792 is within a critical residue of a strong consensus androgen response element that is interrupted in the protective allele, resulting in a 56% decrease in its androgen sensitivity, whereas rs10486567 affects both NKX3-1 and FOXA-AR motifs where the risk allele results in a 39% increase in basal activity and a 28% fold-increase in androgen stimulated enhancer activity. Identification of such enhancer variants and their potential target genes represents a preliminary step in connecting risk to disease process.

Shui IM, Lindström S, Kibel AS, et al.
Prostate cancer (PCa) risk variants and risk of fatal PCa in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium.
Eur Urol. 2014; 65(6):1069-75 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Screening and diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) is hampered by an inability to predict who has the potential to develop fatal disease and who has indolent cancer. Studies have identified multiple genetic risk loci for PCa incidence, but it is unknown whether they could be used as biomarkers for PCa-specific mortality (PCSM).
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of 47 established PCa risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with PCSM.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We included 10 487 men who had PCa and 11 024 controls, with a median follow-up of 8.3 yr, during which 1053 PCa deaths occurred.
OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The main outcome was PCSM. The risk allele was defined as the allele associated with an increased risk for PCa in the literature. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate the hazard ratios of each SNP with time to progression to PCSM after diagnosis. We also used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios for each risk SNP, comparing fatal PCa cases to controls.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Among the cases, we found that 8 of the 47 SNPs were significantly associated (p<0.05) with time to PCSM. The risk allele of rs11672691 (intergenic) was associated with an increased risk for PCSM, while 7 SNPs had risk alleles inversely associated (rs13385191 [C2orf43], rs17021918 [PDLIM5], rs10486567 [JAZF1], rs6465657 [LMTK2], rs7127900 (intergenic), rs2735839 [KLK3], rs10993994 [MSMB], rs13385191 [C2orf43]). In the case-control analysis, 22 SNPs were associated (p<0.05) with the risk of fatal PCa, but most did not differentiate between fatal and nonfatal PCa. Rs11672691 and rs10993994 were associated with both fatal and nonfatal PCa, while rs6465657, rs7127900, rs2735839, and rs13385191 were associated with nonfatal PCa only.
CONCLUSIONS: Eight established risk loci were associated with progression to PCSM after diagnosis. Twenty-two SNPs were associated with fatal PCa incidence, but most did not differentiate between fatal and nonfatal PCa. The relatively small magnitudes of the associations do not translate well into risk prediction, but these findings merit further follow-up, because they may yield important clues about the complex biology of fatal PCa.
PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we assessed whether established PCa risk variants could predict PCSM. We found eight risk variants associated with PCSM: One predicted an increased risk of PCSM, while seven were associated with decreased risk. Larger studies that focus on fatal PCa are needed to identify more markers that could aid prediction.

Antonescu CR, Sung YS, Chen CL, et al.
Novel ZC3H7B-BCOR, MEAF6-PHF1, and EPC1-PHF1 fusions in ossifying fibromyxoid tumors--molecular characterization shows genetic overlap with endometrial stromal sarcoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2014; 53(2):183-93 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
PHF1 gene rearrangements have been recently described in around 50% of ossifying fibromyxoid tumors (OFMT) including benign and malignant cases, with a small subset showing EP400-PHF1 fusions. In the remaining cases no alternative gene fusions have been identified. PHF1-negative OFMT, especially if lacking S100 protein staining or peripheral ossification, are difficult to diagnose and distinguish from other soft tissue mimics. In seeking more comprehensive molecular characterization, we investigated a large cohort of 39 OFMT of various anatomic sites, immunoprofiles and grades of malignancy. Tumors were screened for PHF1 and EP400 rearrangements by FISH. RNA sequencing was performed in two index cases (OFMT1, OFMT3), negative for EP400-PHF1 fusions, followed by FusionSeq data analysis, a modular computational tool developed to discover gene fusions from paired-end RNA-seq data. Two novel fusions were identified ZC3H7B-BCOR in OFMT1 and MEAF6-PHF1 in OFMT3. After being validated by FISH and RT-PCR, these abnormalities were screened on the remaining cases. With these additional gene fusions, 33/39 (85%) of OFMTs demonstrated recurrent gene rearrangements, which can be used as molecular markers in challenging cases. The most common abnormality is PHF1 gene rearrangement (80%), being present in benign, atypical and malignant lesions, with fusion to EP400 in 44% of cases. ZC3H7B-BCOR and MEAF6-PHF1 fusions occurred predominantly in S100 protein-negative and malignant OFMT. As similar gene fusions were reported in endometrial stromal sarcomas, we screened for potential gene abnormalities in JAZF1 and EPC1 by FISH and found two additional cases with EPC1-PHF1 fusions.

Lee CH, Hoang LN, Yip S, et al.
Frequent expression of KIT in endometrial stromal sarcoma with YWHAE genetic rearrangement.
Mod Pathol. 2014; 27(5):751-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endometrial stromal sarcomas with the YWHAE-NUTM2A/B genetic fusion characteristically contain high-grade round to epithelioid cell component that is strongly and diffusely cyclin D1-positive and it may or may not show an associated low-grade fibroblastic/myxoid cell component. They are clinically more aggressive than endometrial stromal sarcomas with the JAZF1-SUZ12 genetic fusion and frequently demonstrate extrauterine extension at initial clinical presentation. In this setting, the tumor may be misdiagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumor. This study examines the expression of KIT and ANO1 in 14 YWHAE-NUTM2A/B tumors by immunohistochemistry. Staining localization was determined as membranous and/or cytoplasmic, and the staining intensity was assessed (negative, weak, moderate and strong). Of the 14 tumors, 6 contained only a high-grade round cell component, 2 only a low-grade fibroblastic component and 6 had both components in the slides evaluated. The high-grade round cell component displayed moderate to strong membranous/cytoplasmic KIT staining in all tumors (12 of 12). The low-grade fibroblastic cell component showed only weak cytoplasmic KIT staining in 3 of 8 tumors. In contrast, ANO1 was negative in all 14 neoplasms, irrespective of the component evaluated. Sanger sequencing analysis (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17) and Ampliseq Cancer Panel mutation screen (Ion Torrent) demonstrated no KIT mutations in three KIT-positive YWHAE-NUTM2A/B tumors. This study shows that the high-grade round cell component of YWHAE-NUTM2A/B endometrial stromal sarcoma consistently expresses KIT but lacks KIT hotspot mutations. KIT expression may represent a potential diagnostic pitfall in the evaluation of YWHAE-NUTM2A/B endometrial stromal sarcoma presenting with pelvic/abdominal mass, particularly in situations where its uterine origin is not definitive, and thus a panel of antibodies that includes ANO1 and cyclin D1 is necessary.

Fang LT, Lee S, Choi H, et al.
Comprehensive genomic analyses of a metastatic colon cancer to the lung by whole exome sequencing and gene expression analysis.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(1):211-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
We performed whole exome sequencing and gene expression analysis on a metastatic colon cancer to the lung, along with the adjacent normal tissue of the lung. Whole exome sequencing uncovered 71 high-confidence non‑synonymous mutations. We selected 16 mutation candidates, and 13 out of 16 mutations were validated by targeted deep sequencing using the Ion Torrent PGM customized AmpliSeq panel. By integrating mutation, copy number and gene expression microarray data, we identified a JAZF1 mutation with a gain-of-copy, suggesting its oncogenic potential for the lung metastasis from colon cancer. Our pathway analyses showed that the identified mutations closely reflected characteristics of the metastatic site (lung) while mRNA gene expression patterns kept genetic information of its primary tumor (colon). The most significant gene expression network was the 'Colorectal Cancer Metastasis Signaling', containing 6 (ADCY2, ADCY9, APC, GNB5, K-ras and LRP6) out of the 71 mutated genes. Some of these mutated genes (ADCY9, ADCY2, GNB5, K-ras, HDAC6 and ARHGEF17) also belong to the 'Phospholipase C Signaling' network, which suggests that this pathway and its mutated genes may contribute to a lung metastasis from colon cancer.

Dewaele B, Przybyl J, Quattrone A, et al.
Identification of a novel, recurrent MBTD1-CXorf67 fusion in low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 134(5):1112-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESSs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of rare uterine neoplasms that are commonly driven by recurrent gene rearrangements. In conventional low-grade ESS, JAZF1-SUZ12, PHF1-JAZF1, EPC1-PHF1 and MEAF6-PHF1, and recently described ZC3H7-BCOR chimeric fusions have been reported in > 50% of cases. Conversely, oncogenic t(10;17)(q22;p13) translocation yields YWHAE-FAM22A/B chimeric proteins that are associated with histologically high-grade and clinically more aggressive ESS. Integrating whole-transcriptome paired-end RNA sequencing with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and banding cytogenetics, we identified MBTD1 (malignant brain tumor domain-containing 1) and CXorf67 (chromosome X open reading frame 67) as the genes involved in the novel reciprocal t(X;17)(p11.2;q21.33) translocation in two independent low-grade ESS of classical histology. The presence of the MBTD1-CXorf67 fusion transcript was validated in both cases using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction followed by Sanger sequencing. A specific FISH assay was developed to detect the novel t(X;17) translocation in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material, and resulted in identification of an additional low-grade ESS case positive for the MBTD1-CXorf67 fusion among 25 uterine stromal tumors [14 ESS and 11 undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas (UESs)] that were negative for JAZF1 and YWHAE rearrangements. Gene expression profiles of seven ESS (including three with YWHAE and two with JAZF1 rearrangements) and four UES without specific chromosomal aberrations indicated clustering of tumors with MBTD1-CXorf67 fusion together with low-grade JAZF1-associated ESS. The chimeric MBTD1-CXorf67 fusion identifies yet another cytogenetically distinct subgroup of low-grade ESS and offers the opportunity to shed light on the functions of two poorly characterized genes.

Schoolmeester JK, Sukov WR, Maleszewski JJ, et al.
JAZF1 rearrangement in a mesenchymal tumor of nonendometrial stromal origin: report of an unusual ossifying sarcoma of the heart demonstrating JAZF1/PHF1 fusion.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2013; 37(6):938-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rearrangements of JAZF1 are a frequent genetic aberration in endometrial stromal tumors. We report a distinct primary cardiac ossifying sarcoma that harbored a JAZF1/PHF1 fusion. The patient was a 70-year-old man with a history of a 6.8 cm calcific intramural left ventricular mass. Six years after his initial evaluation, the patient developed multiple lung metastases and ultimately died of disease-related complications. Histologically, the cardiac tumor and lung metastases demonstrated an infiltrative, malignant spindle cell neoplasm that grew in short fascicles with areas of bone formation, nuclear palisading, and necrosis. The neoplastic cells were relatively monomorphic in a background of an amorphous collagenous matrix. Immunohistochemical analysis was positive for vimentin and negative for wide-spectrum cytokeratins, S100 protein, desmin, smooth muscle actin, and CD34. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using a dual-color, single-fusion probe set identified the JAZF1/PHF1 fusion. The unique morphology and the presence of a JAZF1/PHF1 rearrangement suggest that this distinctive ossifying sarcoma is not part of a currently established diagnostic entity, representing instead a novel primary cardiac sarcoma. This case also represents the first description of a JAZF1 fusion in a tumor outside the spectrum of endometrial stromal neoplasms.

Croce S, Hostein I, Ribeiro A, et al.
YWHAE rearrangement identified by FISH and RT-PCR in endometrial stromal sarcomas: genetic and pathological correlations.
Mod Pathol. 2013; 26(10):1390-400 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endometrial stromal sarcomas represent the second most common mesenchymal uterine tumor. The 2003 WHO classification distinguishes low-grade and undifferentiated endometrial stromal sarcomas with different prognoses. Endometrial stromal sarcomas are a genetically heterogeneous group of sarcomas harboring different cytogenetic anomalies. Recently, a fusion between the YWHAE and FAM22A/B genes subsequent to a t(10;17) (q22;p13) has been described in endometrial sarcomas with high-grade histology. We examined YWHAE rearrangements by FISH break-apart and RT-PCR in a series of 27 undifferentiated uterine stromal sarcoma without JAZF1 rearrangements. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was carried out with a panel of antibodies (estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors, CD10, Cyclin D1, β-catenin, p53, and Ki-67). We identified a subgroup of endometrial sarcomas with high-grade histology and uniform morphology harboring YWHAE rearrangements. FISH break-apart was interpretable in 20 cases (74%). Twelve cases (60%) showed <10% of tumor cells with a YWHAE rearrangement, 4 cases (20%) showed between 10 and ≤20%, and 4 (20%) >20%. RT-PCR was tested on 24/27 cases (88%) and 19 cases were interpretable (79%). Five cases (26%) showed a specific fusion transcript YWHAE-FAM22A/B sequence. The best concordance rate between FISH and RT-PCR (94%) was obtained with the threshold of 20% of cells with a YWHAE rearrangement. The YWHAE-rearranged cases showed high-grade morphology with uniform appearance, spindle or round epithelioid cells, low ER and PR, CD10 expression, and a high and diffuse positivity for Cyclin D1, p53, and nuclear β-catenin negativity. Cyclin D1 was the most sensitive marker for high-grade endometrial sarcomas with YWHAE rearrangement. All undifferentiated uterine sarcomas with pleomorphic appearances did not harbor any YWHAE rearrangements, except for one case. Overall, for endometrial sarcoma cases with high-grade morphology we recommend to test for YWHAE rearrangements by FISH break-apart, a cost- and time-efficient method, and to complete the investigation by RT-PCR in borderline cases.

Panagopoulos I, Thorsen J, Gorunova L, et al.
Fusion of the ZC3H7B and BCOR genes in endometrial stromal sarcomas carrying an X;22-translocation.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013; 52(7):610-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS) are genetically heterogeneous uterine tumors in which a JAZF1-SUZ12 chimeric gene resulting from the chromosomal translocation t(7;17)(p15;q21) as well as PHF1 rearrangements (in chromosomal band 6p21) with formation of JAZF1-PHF1, EPC1-PHF1, and MEAF6-PHF1 chimeras have been described. Here, we investigated two ESS characterized cytogenetically by the presence of a der(22)t(X;22)(p11;q13). Whole transcriptome sequencing one of the tumors identified a ZC3H7-BCOR chimeric transcript. Reverse transciptase-PCR with the ZC3H7B forward and BCOR reverse primer combinations confirmed the presence of a ZC3H7-BCOR chimeric transcript in both ESS carrying a der(22)t(X;22) but not in a control ESS with t(1;6) and the MEAF6-PHF1 fusion. Sequencing of the amplified cDNA fragments showed that in both cases ESS exon 10 of ZC3H7B (from 22q13; accession number NM_017590 version 4) was fused to exon 8 of BCOR (from Xp11; accession number NM_001123385 version 1). Reciprocal multiple BCOR-ZC3H7B cDNA fragments were amplified in only one case suggesting that ZC3H7B-BCOR, on the der(22)t(X;22), is the pathogenetically important fusion gene. The putative ZC3H7B-BCOR protein would contain the tetratricopeptide repeats and LD motif from ZC3H7B and the AF9 binding site (1093-1233aa), the 3 ankyrin repeats (1410-1509 aa), and the NSPC1 binding site of BCOR. Although the presence of these motifs suggests various functions of the chimeric protein, it is possible that its most important role may be in epigenetic regulation. Whether or not the (patho)genetic subsets JAZF1-SUZ12, PHF1 rearrangements, and ZC3H7B-BCOR correspond to any phenotypic, let alone clinically important, differences in ESS remain unknown.

D'Angelo E, Ali RH, Espinosa I, et al.
Endometrial stromal sarcomas with sex cord differentiation are associated with PHF1 rearrangement.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2013; 37(4):514-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endometrial stromal tumors may pose diagnostic challenges particularly when they exhibit variant histologic appearances, involve extrauterine sites, or present as metastatic disease. In such cases, use of immunohistochemical markers and identification of specific nonrandom chromosomal rearrangements may be helpful. Over the last decade, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been progressively incorporated as a diagnostic tool for the evaluation of endometrial stromal tumors. The purpose of this study was to review a series of these tumors and compare the results of FISH analysis with the clinicopathologic characteristics. Three endometrial stromal nodules (ESNs), 13 endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESSs), and 7 undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas (UESs) were reviewed. Three metastases from 1 of the ESS cases were also analyzed. Nine of these tumors (1 ESN, 8 ESSs, and 1 UES) exhibited unusual histologic features, including smooth muscle (3), sex cord (7), epithelioid (1), fibromyxoid (1), and skeletal muscle (2) differentiation. A tissue microarray was prepared, and FISH analysis was performed using break-apart and fusion probes for JAZF1, SUZ12, EPC1, and PHF1 genes. FISH was successful in 22 cases, and rearrangements involving JAZF1, SUZ12, EPC1, and PHF1 genes were detected in 10 of the 22 (45%) uterine tumors, including 2 of the 3 ESNs and 8 of 12 ESSs. Genetic rearrangements were found neither in the 3 metastases of the ESS nor in any of the UESs. It is noteworthy that a correlation between sex cord differentiation and PHF1 rearrangement was encountered in ESSs (P=0.008). In our series, all ESSs showing sex cords had PHF1 genetic rearrangement, suggesting that such rearrangements may induce sex cord differentiation.

van Waas M, Neggers SJ, Uitterlinden AG, et al.
Treatment factors rather than genetic variation determine metabolic syndrome in childhood cancer survivors.
Eur J Cancer. 2013; 49(3):668-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetic variation that regulates insulin resistance, blood pressure and adiposity in the normal population might determine differential vulnerability for metabolic syndrome after treatment for childhood cancer.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contribution of candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) relevant for metabolic syndrome in our single centre cohort of adult long-term childhood cancer survivors.
METHODS: In this retrospective study 532 survivors were analysed. Median age at diagnosis was 5.7 years (range 0.0-17.8 years), median follow-up time was 17.9 years (range 5.0-48.8) and median age at follow-up was 25.6 years (range 18.0-50.8). JAZF1 gene rs864745, THADA gene rs7578597, IRS1 gene rs2943641, TFAP2B gene rs987237, MSRA gene rs7826222, ATP2B1 gene rs2681472 and rs2681492 were genotyped. The association of genotypes with total cholesterol levels, blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference and frequency of diabetes were assessed.
RESULTS: Metabolic syndrome was more frequent in cranially (23.3%, P=0.002) and abdominally (23.4%, P=0.009) irradiated survivors as compared with non-irradiated survivors (10.0%). Association of allelic variants in rs2681472 and rs2681492 with hypertension, rs987237 and rs7826222 with waist circumference and rs864745, rs7578597 and rs2943641 with diabetes were not significant. None of the SNPs was associated with the metabolic syndrome. Adjusting for age, sex, follow-up time, cranial irradiation and abdominal irradiation did not change these results.
CONCLUSIONS: Treatment factors and not genetic variation determine hypertension, waist circumference, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in adult long-term survivors of childhood cancer.

Lee CH, Ali RH, Rouzbahman M, et al.
Cyclin D1 as a diagnostic immunomarker for endometrial stromal sarcoma with YWHAE-FAM22 rearrangement.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2012; 36(10):1562-70 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) characterized by YWHAE-FAM22 genetic fusion is histologically higher grade and clinically more aggressive than ESS with JAZF1-SUZ12 or equivalent genetic rearrangements, hence it is clinically important to recognize this subset of ESS. To identify diagnostic immunomarkers for this biologically defined ESS subset, we compared gene expression profiles between YWHAE-FAM22 ESS and JAZF1-rearranged ESS. These studies showed consistent upregulation of cyclin D1 in YWHAE-FAM22 ESS compared with JAZF1-SUZ12 ESS. Immunohistochemically, the high-grade round cell component of all 12 YWHAE-FAM22 ESS demonstrated diffuse (≥70%) moderate to strong nuclear cyclin D1 staining, and this diffuse positivity was not seen in 34 ESSs with JAZF1 and equivalent genetic rearrangements or in 21 low-grade ESS with no demonstrable genetic rearrangements. In a series of 243 non-ESS pure uterine mesenchymal and mixed epithelial-mesenchymal tumors, only 2 of 8 undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas with nuclear uniformity and 1 of 80 uterine leiomyosarcomas demonstrate diffuse cyclin D1 immunoreactivity. Both cyclin D1-positive undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas showed diffuse strong CD10 staining, which is consistently absent in the high-grade round cell component of YWHAE-FAM22 ESS. The low-grade spindle cell component of YWHAE-FAM22 ESS showed a spatially heterogenous cyclin D1 staining pattern that was weaker and less diffuse overall. Our findings indicate that cyclin D1 is a sensitive and specific diagnostic immunomarker for YWHAE-FAM22 ESS. When evaluating high-grade uterine sarcomas, cyclin D1 can be included in the immunohistochemical panel as an indicator of YWHAE-FAM22 ESS.

Jakate K, Azimi F, Ali RH, et al.
Endometrial sarcomas: an immunohistochemical and JAZF1 re-arrangement study in low-grade and undifferentiated tumors.
Mod Pathol. 2013; 26(1):95-105 [PubMed] Related Publications
The current World Health Organization classification divides endometrial sarcomas into low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma and undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma. Recent studies suggest undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma is a heterogeneous group and a subgroup with uniform nuclei is more akin to low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma in terms of morphologic, immunohistochemical and genetic features. We classified endometrial sarcomas treated at our institution from 1998 to 2011 into low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma and undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma, the latter being further categorized into a group with either uniform or pleomorphic nuclei. Morphological features, immunoprofile and fluorescence in situ hybridization rearrangements of JAZF1 and PHF1 genes were correlated with tumor category and outcome. A total of 40 cases were evaluated comprising 23 low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas, 10 undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas with nuclear uniformity and 7 undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas with nuclear pleomorphism. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas were more often estrogen and progesterone receptor positive (83%) compared with undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma with nuclear uniformity (10%) or with nuclear pleomorphism (0%) (P<0.001). Positivity for p53 was restricted to undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas with more frequent expression in the group with nuclear pleomorphism (57%) than with nuclear uniformity (10%) (P=0.06). Ki-67 proliferation index in >10% of tumor cells more frequent in undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma than low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (P=<0.001). JAZF1 rearrangement was detected in 32% of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas and in none of the undifferentiated sarcomas. Rearrangement of PHF1 was found in two patients, one with JAZF1-PHF1 fusion. There were no significant differences in clinical behavior between undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma with nuclear uniformity versus nuclear pleomorphism. In conclusion, we found undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma subtypes and low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma have distinct immunohistochemical and cytogentic profiles. Our data do not show any difference in clinical behavior between subgroups in undifferentiated sarcomas.

Panagopoulos I, Micci F, Thorsen J, et al.
Novel fusion of MYST/Esa1-associated factor 6 and PHF1 in endometrial stromal sarcoma.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(6):e39354 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
Rearrangement of chromosome band 6p21 is recurrent in endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) and targets the PHF1 gene. So far, PHF1 was found to be the 3' partner in the JAZF1-PHF1 and EPC1-PHF1 chimeras but since the 6p21 rearrangements involve also other chromosomal translocation partners, other PHF1-fusions seem likely. Here, we show that PHF1 is recombined with a novel fusion partner, MEAF6 from 1p34, in an ESS carrying a t(1;6)(p34;p21) translocation as the sole karyotypic anomaly. 5'-RACE, RT-PCR, and sequencing showed the presence of an MEAF6-PHF1 chimera in the tumor with exon 5 of MEAF6 being fused in-frame to exon 2 of PHF1 so that the entire PHF1 coding region becomes the 3' terminal part of the MEAF6-PHF1 fusion. The predicted fusion protein is composed of 750 amino acids and contains the histone acetyltransferase subunit NuA4 domain of MEAF6 and the tudor, PHD zinc finger, and MTF2 domains of PHF1. Although the specific functions of the MEAF6 and PHF1 proteins and why they are targeted by a neoplasia-specific gene fusion are not directly apparent, it seems that rearrangement of genes involved in acetylation (EPC1, MEAF6) and methylation (PHF1), resulting in aberrant gene expression, is a common theme in ESS pathogenesis.

Lee CH, Ou WB, Mariño-Enriquez A, et al.
14-3-3 fusion oncogenes in high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012; 109(3):929-34 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitously expressed regulators of various cellular functions, including proliferation, metabolism, and differentiation, and altered 14-3-3 expression is associated with development and progression of cancer. We report a transforming 14-3-3 oncoprotein, which we identified through conventional cytogenetics and whole-transcriptome sequencing analysis as a highly recurrent genetic mechanism in a clinically aggressive form of uterine sarcoma: high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS). The 14-3-3 oncoprotein results from a t(10;17) genomic rearrangement, leading to fusion between 14-3-3ε (YWHAE) and either of two nearly identical FAM22 family members (FAM22A or FAM22B). Expression of YWHAE-FAM22 fusion oncoproteins was demonstrated by immunoblot in t(10;17)-bearing frozen tumor and cell line samples. YWHAE-FAM22 fusion gene knockdowns were performed with shRNAs and siRNAs targeting various FAM22A exons in an t(10;17)-bearing ESS cell line (ESS1): Fusion protein expression was inhibited, with corresponding reduction in cell growth and migration. YWHAE-FAM22 maintains a structurally and functionally intact 14-3-3ε (YWHAE) protein-binding domain, which is directed to the nucleus by a FAM22 nuclear localization sequence. In contrast to classic ESS, harboring JAZF1 genetic fusions, YWHAE-FAM22 ESS display high-grade histologic features, a distinct gene-expression profile, and a more aggressive clinical course. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated absolute specificity of YWHAE-FAM22A/B genetic rearrangement for high-grade ESS, with no fusions detected in other uterine and nonuterine mesenchymal tumors (55 tumor types, n = 827). These discoveries reveal diagnostically and therapeutically relevant models for characterizing aberrant 14-3-3 oncogenic functions.

Ciampa J, Yeager M, Jacobs K, et al.
Application of a novel score test for genetic association incorporating gene-gene interaction suggests functionality for prostate cancer susceptibility regions.
Hum Hered. 2011; 72(3):182-93 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
AIMS: We introduce an innovative multilocus test for disease association. It is an extension of an existing score test that gains power over alternative methods by incorporating a parsimonious one-degree-of-freedom model for interaction. We use our method in applications designed to detect interactions that generate hypotheses about the functionality of prostate cancer (PRCA) susceptibility regions.
METHODS: Our proposed score test is designed to gain additional power through the use of a retrospective likelihood that exploits an assumption of independence between unlinked loci in the underlying population. Its performance is validated through simulation. The method is used in conditional scans with data from stage II of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility PRCA genome-wide association study.
RESULTS: Our proposed method increases power to detect susceptibility loci in diverse settings. It identified two high-ranking, biologically interesting interactions: (1) rs748120 of NR2C2 and subregions of 8q24 that contain independent susceptibility loci specific to PRCA and (2) rs4810671 of SULF2 and both JAZF1 and HNF1B that are associated with PRCA and type 2 diabetes.
CONCLUSIONS: Our score test is a promising multilocus tool for genetic epidemiology. The results of our applications suggest functionality for poorly understood PRCA susceptibility regions. They motivate replication study.

Chiang S, Ali R, Melnyk N, et al.
Frequency of known gene rearrangements in endometrial stromal tumors.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2011; 35(9):1364-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Translocations resulting in gene fusion are characteristic of endometrial stromal tumors (ESTs). Rearrangements of JAZF1, SUZ12, PHF1, and EPC1 have been reported in endometrial stromal nodules (ESNs), endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESSs), and rarely in undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas (UESs). Detection of JAZF1, SUZ12, EPC1, and PHF1 rearrangement by fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on tissue microarrays consisting of 94 ESTs of classic and variant morphology (20 ESNs, 43 primary uterine ESSs, 15 metastatic uterine ESSs, 4 primary extrauterine ESSs, 7 primary uterine UESs, and 5 unclassified ESTs), 16 Müllerian adenosarcomas, 2 malignant mixed Müllerian tumors, 2 uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex-cord tumors, 2 highly cellular leiomyomas, 1 leiomyosarcoma, and 7 polypoid endometriosis. Rearrangements were detected in 42 of 78 (54%) uterine ESTs, with JAZF1-SUZ12 fusion found in 50% of ESNs and in 33% of ESSs and JAZF1-PHF1 and EPC1-PHF1 fusions found in 1% and <1% of ESSs, respectively. PHF1 and JAZF1 were rearranged with unknown partners in 8 uterine ESTs. JAZF1-SUZ12 fusion, EPC1-PHF1 fusion, and PHF1 rearrangement were found in 3 extrauterine ESSs, whereas no rearrangements were observed in UESs or in any other non-EST studied. Our data confirm that gene rearrangements are present in more than 50% of uterine ESTs, with JAZF1-SUZ12 fusion being the most common, followed by rare EPC1-PHF1 and JAZF1-PHF1 fusions. The presence of identical gene rearrangements in both uterine and extrauterine ESTs suggests a similar pathogenesis. The presence of detectable gene rearrangements in uterine ESS may predict better patient outcome.

Amador-Ortiz C, Roma AA, Huettner PC, et al.
JAZF1 and JJAZ1 gene fusion in primary extrauterine endometrial stromal sarcoma.
Hum Pathol. 2011; 42(7):939-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endometrial stromal sarcoma predominantly occurs as a primary tumor of the uterus. The most common cytogenetic abnormality in these tumors is t(7;17)(p15;q21), which occurs in 33% to 80% of cases and results in a JAZF1-JJAZ1 gene fusion. Rare cases of primary extrauterine endometrial stromal sarcoma have been reported, but it remains uncertain whether the genetic features of uterine endometrial stromal sarcoma are also characteristic of extrauterine tumors. The present study evaluates the prevalence of the t(7;17)(p15;q21) and JAZF1-JJAZ1 gene fusion in a series of 6 cases of primary extrauterine endometrial stromal sarcoma. Conventional nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed using primers complementary to sense and antisense JAZF1 and JJAZ1 sequences. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed to detect t(7;17)(p15;q21) using a break-apart strategy for both JAZF1 and JJAZ1. In one of the 6 extrauterine endometrial stromal sarcoma cases, JAZF1-JJAZ1 fusion transcripts were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The same case showed evidence of both JAZF1 and JJAZ1 rearrangements by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization. The remaining 5 cases were negative for the t(7;17)(p15;q21) by both reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. These findings demonstrate that the t(7;17)(p15;q21) and associated JAZF1-JJAZ1 fusion transcripts are present in only a subset of primary extrauterine endometrial stromal sarcoma. Although molecular testing for the t(7;17)(p15;q21) and associated gene fusion may be useful for confirming primary extrauterine endometrial stromal sarcoma, the low prevalence of the genetic aberration limits the clinical utility of the testing.

Prokunina-Olsson L, Fu YP, Tang W, et al.
Refining the prostate cancer genetic association within the JAZF1 gene on chromosome 7p15.2.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010; 19(5):1349-55 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic variants associated with susceptibility to prostate cancer (PrCa). In the two-stage Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility prostate cancer scan, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs10486567, located within intron 2 of JAZF1 gene on chromosome 7p15.2, showed a promising association with PrCa overall (P=2.14x10(-6)), with a suggestion of stronger association with aggressive disease (P=1.2x10(-7)).
METHODS: In the third stage of genome-wide association studies, we genotyped 106 JAZF1 SNPs in 10,286 PrCa cases and 9,135 controls of European ancestry.
RESULTS: The strongest association was observed with the initial marker rs10486567, which now achieves genome-wide significance [P=7.79x10(-11); ORHET, 1.19 (95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.27); ORHOM, 1.37 (95% confidence interval, 1.20-1.56)]. We did not confirm a previous suggestion of a stronger association of rs10486567 with aggressive disease (P=1.60x10(-4) for aggressive cancer, n=4,597; P=3.25x10(-8) for nonaggressive cancer, n=4,514). Based on a multilocus model with adjustment for rs10486567, no additional independent signals were observed at chromosome 7p15.2. There was no association between PrCa risk and SNPs in JAZF1 previously associated with height (rs849140; P=0.587), body stature (rs849141, tagged by rs849136; P=0.171), and risk of type 2 diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosus (rs864745, tagged by rs849142; P=0.657).
CONCLUSION: rs10486567 remains the most significant marker for PrCa risk within JAZF1 in individuals of European ancestry.
IMPACT: Future studies should identify all variants in high linkage disequilibrium with rs10486567 and evaluate their functional significance for PrCa.

Stevens VL, Ahn J, Sun J, et al.
HNF1B and JAZF1 genes, diabetes, and prostate cancer risk.
Prostate. 2010; 70(6):601-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have shown that men with type II diabetes have a lower risk of prostate cancer than non-diabetic men. Recently, common variants in two genes, HNF1B and JAZF1, were found to be associated with both of these diseases.
METHODS: We examined whether the relationship between HNF1B and JAZF1 variants and decreased prostate cancer risk may potentially be mediated through diabetes in two large prospective studies, the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.
RESULTS: Three HNF1B SNPS, rs11649743, rs4430796, and rs7501939, were associated with decreased risk of prostate cancer and were also associated, with marginal statistical significance, with increased risk of diabetes. The JAZF1 SNPs rs6968704 and rs10486567 were associated with decreased risk of prostate cancer but were not associated with diabetes. All five SNP-prostate cancer relationships did not substantially differ when the analyses were stratified by diabetic status or when diabetic status was controlled for in the model. Furthermore, the association of diabetes with prostate cancer was not altered when the SNPs were included in the logistic model.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that the HNF1B variants are directly associated with both diabetes and prostate cancer, that diabetes does not mediate these gene variant-prostate cancer relationships, and the relationship between these diseases is not mediated through these gene variants.

Kurihara S, Oda Y, Ohishi Y, et al.
Coincident expression of beta-catenin and cyclin D1 in endometrial stromal tumors and related high-grade sarcomas.
Mod Pathol. 2010; 23(2):225-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway has been implicated in tumorigenesis of a wide range of tumors, including colorectal cancer. Regarding endometrial stromal tumors and related high-grade sarcomas, there have been some reports regarding nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin. To clarify the function of the aberrant Wnt signaling pathway in these tumors, we searched for mutations of the CTNNB1 (beta-catenin) gene and APC gene by PCR direct sequencing and analyzed the methylation status of SFRP genes. We also examined overexpression of cyclin D1 and MMP-7, which are direct target genes of beta-catenin. Eight endometrial stromal nodules, 16 low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas, and 13 undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas were examined. PCR and direct sequencing revealed no mutation of the beta-catenin gene or the APC gene. Concerning the promoter methylation status of SFRP genes, methylation-specific PCR revealed no significant difference between the group with nuclear beta-catenin expression and that without nuclear beta-catenin expression. Immunohistochemistry revealed overexpression of cyclin D1 in 2 out of 8 endometrial stromal nodules, 1 out of 17 low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas, and 6 out of 13 undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas, and these 6 undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas simultaneously expressed nuclear beta-catenin. Interestingly, all six undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma cases with cyclin D1 overexpression histologically featured rather uniform nuclei. In contrast, the six cases of undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma with highly pleomorphic nuclei were all negative for cyclin D1. In conclusion, among endometrial stromal tumors and related sarcomas, undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas featuring uniform nuclei were characterized by frequent coincident expression of beta-catenin and cyclin D1. This finding raises the possibility that cyclin D1 is upregulated by beta-catenin in these high-grade sarcomas previously called high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma.

Meenakshisundaram R, Piumelli N, Pierpaoli L, Gragnoli C
CHOP 5'UTR-c.279T>C and +nt30C>T variants are not associated with overweight condition or with tumors/cancer in Italians - a case-control study.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2009; 28:90 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with obesity and has been shown recently to be associated with tumors/cancer. HNF1-beta and JAZF1 genes are associated with T2D and prostate cancer. We have previously shown that CHOP 5'UTR-c.279T>C and +nt30C>T haplotype variants contribute to T2D. CHOP deficiency causes obesity in mice, thus CHOP gene variants may contribute to human obesity. Furthermore, CHOP mediates apoptosis and is implicated in cancer pathogenesis. Hence, we aimed at identifying any potential association of CHOP 5'UTR-c.279T>C and +nt30C>T genotypes and corresponding haplotypes with overweight condition/pre-obesity and tumors/cancer in an Italian dataset.
METHODS: We recruited from Italy 45 overweight subjects (body mass index (BMI) >or= 25) and 44 control subjects (BMI < 25) as well as 54 cases with at least one cancer or at least one tumor and 43 control subjects without tumors/cancer from the general population. We excluded allelic departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in cases and control subjects, separately.
RESULTS: We assessed the power to detect risk odds ratios by association tests in our datasets. We tested the hypothesis of association of CHOP 5'UTR-c.279T>C and +nt30C>T genotypes and haplotypes with tumors/cancer and, separately, with overweight condition. Both associations were not significant.
CONCLUSION: From our study, we may conclude that CHOP 5'UTR-c.279T>C and +nt30C>T genotypes and corresponding haplotypes are not associated with tumors/cancer and pre-obesity. However, more studies are warranted to establish the role of CHOP variants in tumor/cancer predisposition and in overweight condition.

Staats PN, Garcia JJ, Dias-Santagata DC, et al.
Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCT) lack the JAZF1-JJAZ1 translocation frequently seen in endometrial stromal tumors.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2009; 33(8):1206-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor (UTROSCT) is a rare uterine neoplasm composed predominantly or exclusively of cells which resemble those seen in sex cord tumors of the ovary. Since its initial morphologic description, it has been unclear whether UTROSCT represents a variant within the spectrum of endometrial stromal tumors (ESTs), which may rarely exhibit areas of sex cord-like differentiation, or whether it is a distinct uterine neoplasm unrelated to ESTs. Recently, several studies have revealed a recurrent t(7;17) translocation resulting in a JAZF1-JJAZ1 gene fusion in over 60% of EST and its variants, including 2 out of 4 endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements (ESTSCLE). We examined UTROSCTs for evidence of the JAZF1-JJAZ1 gene fusion by fluorescence in situ hybridization and by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in 24 and 20 cases, respectively. The JAZF1-JJAZ1 gene fusion was not identified in any tumor by either method. Although we cannot entirely exclude that UTROSCT represents a variant of ESTSCLE which lacks this translocation, our findings suggest that UTROSCT does not share the genetic mechanism common to the majority of ESTs with or without sex cord-like differentiation, and therefore most likely represents a distinct neoplasm unrelated to ESTSCLE.

Brenner JC, Chinnaiyan AM
Translocations in epithelial cancers.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009; 1796(2):201-15 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2015 Related Publications
Genomic translocations leading to the expression of chimeric transcripts characterize several hematologic, mesenchymal and epithelial malignancies. While several gene fusions have been linked to essential molecular events in hematologic malignancies, the identification and characterization of recurrent chimeric transcripts in epithelial cancers has been limited. However, the recent discovery of the recurrent gene fusions in prostate cancer has sparked a revitalization of the quest to identify novel rearrangements in epithelial malignancies. Here, the molecular mechanisms of gene fusions that drive several epithelial cancers and the recent technological advances that increase the speed and reliability of recurrent gene fusion discovery are explored.

Li H, Wang J, Ma X, Sklar J
Gene fusions and RNA trans-splicing in normal and neoplastic human cells.
Cell Cycle. 2009; 8(2):218-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chimeric gene products, most often resulting from chromosome translocations, have been considered unique features of cancer, or at least of cells at high risk for becoming cancerous. Chimeric JAZF1-JJAZ1 mRNA transcribed from DNA spanning the site of recombination in the (7;17)(p15;q21) chromosomal translocation found in half of endometrial stromal sarcomas and most cases of benign stromal nodules is one such example. The recent finding that chimeric JAZF1-JJAZ1 mRNA can also be detected in normal endometrial stromal cells suggests that chimeric gene products are not limited to cancer or pre-cancerous cells. The JAZF1-JJAZ1 mRNA and the protein encoded by it appear to be identical to that synthesized from the gene fusion in neoplastic cells. In cultured cells, the chimeric protein has anti-apoptotic properties and is pro-proliferative when unrearranged JJAZ1 alleles are silenced, as they are in endometrial stromal sarcomas but not in the stromal nodules. These observations are consistent with the conclusion that chromosomal rearrangements and gene fusions in neoplastic cells may represent mechanisms for the deregulated expression of chimeric gene products that are generated at specific stages in cell development and have physiologic functions in normal cells. Furthermore, it may be possible that other means for abnormal production of chimeric gene products, such as hyperactive transsplicing of RNA, may be another mechanism underlying the neoplastic properties of tumor cells.

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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. JAZF1 gene, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/JAZF1.htm Accessed:

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