Gene Summary

Gene:ITGB2; integrin subunit beta 2
Aliases: LAD, CD18, MF17, MFI7, LCAMB, LFA-1, MAC-1
Summary:This gene encodes an integrin beta chain, which combines with multiple different alpha chains to form different integrin heterodimers. Integrins are integral cell-surface proteins that participate in cell adhesion as well as cell-surface mediated signalling. The encoded protein plays an important role in immune response and defects in this gene cause leukocyte adhesion deficiency. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:integrin beta-2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: ITGB2 (cancer-related)

Cao Y, Zhu W, Chen W, et al.
Prognostic Value of BIRC5 in Lung Adenocarcinoma Lacking EGFR, KRAS, and ALK Mutations by Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis.
Dis Markers. 2019; 2019:5451290 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objective: This study was aimed at investigating the prognostic significance of Baculoviral IAP repeat containing 5 (BIRC5) in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) lacking EGFR, KRAS, and ALK mutations (triple-negative (TN) adenocarcinomas).
Methods: The gene expression profiles were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). The identification of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was performed by GeneSpring GX. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used to execute gene ontology function and pathway enrichment analysis. The protein interaction network was constructed by Cytoscape. The hub genes were extracted by MCODE and cytoHubba plugin from the network. Then, using BIRC5 as a candidate, the prognostic value in LAD and TN adenocarcinomas was verified by the Kaplan-Meier plotter and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, respectively. Finally, the mechanism of BIRC5 was predicted by a coexpressed network and enrichment analysis.
Results: A total of 38 upregulated genes and 121 downregulated genes were identified. 9 hub genes were extracted. Among them, the mRNA expression of 5 genes, namely, BIRC5, MCM4, CDC20, KIAA0101, and TRIP13, were significantly upregulated among TN adenocarcinomas (all
Conclusion: Overexpressed in tumors, BIRC5 is associated with unfavorable overall survival in TN adenocarcinomas. BIRC5 is a potential predictor and therapeutic target in TN adenocarcinomas.

He D, Wu Z, He J, et al.
Up-regulation of C5orf34 promotes lung adenocarcinoma migration and is correlated with worse prognosis.
Gene. 2019; 696:47-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the biological role of C5orf34 in Lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) and the mechanism of such role.
METHODS: The mRNA expression of C5orf34 was analyzed using student's t-test based on the data obtained from TCGA database. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to evaluate the prognosis value of C5orf34. Chi-square (χ
RESULTS: C5orf34 expression was enhanced in LAD and positively correlated with poor prognosis in patients with LAD. χ
CONCLUSION: Our results firstly revealed that C5orf34 might play a facilitating role in LAD development and progression by regulating MAPK signaling pathway. Furthermore, our data implied that C5orf34 may be a potential predictor and treatment target for LAD.

Yu W, Peng W, Sha H, Li J
Hsa_circ_0003998 Promotes Chemoresistance via Modulation of miR-326 in Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells.
Oncol Res. 2019; 27(5):623-628 [PubMed] Related Publications
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) represent a new class of noncoding RNAs that is involved in the development of cancer. However, little is known about their role in chemoresistance. In the present study, we found that hsa_circ_0003998 expression levels in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) tissues and docetaxel-resistant cell lines (A549/DTX and H1299/DTX) were upregulated. Knockdown of hsa_circ_0003998 decreased chemoresistance, inhibited proliferation, and enhanced apoptosis in docetaxel-resistant LAD cells. Moreover, by using bioinformatics and luciferase reporter assays, we found that miR-326 was a direct target of hsa_circ_0003998. Functional analysis revealed that miR-326 mediated the effect of hsa_circ_0003998 on chemosensitivity. Our findings provide a molecular insight on understanding drug resistance in LAD cells. Therefore, inactivation of hsa_circ_0003998 or activation of miR-326 could be a novel approach for the treatment of LAD.

Sun G, Ding X, Bi N, et al.
Molecular predictors of brain metastasis-related microRNAs in lung adenocarcinoma.
PLoS Genet. 2019; 15(2):e1007888 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Brain metastasis (BM) is a major complication of lung adenocarcinoma (LAD). An investigation of the pathogenic mechanisms of BM, as well as the identification of appropriate molecular markers, is necessary. The aim of this study was to determine the expression patterns of microRNAs (miRNAs) in LAD with BM, and to investigate the biological role of these miRNAs during tumorigenesis. miRNA array profiles were used to identify BM-associated miRNAs. These miRNAs were independently validated in 155 LAD patients. Several in vivo and in vitro assays were performed to verify the effects of miRNAs on BM. We identified six miRNAs differentially expressed in patients with BM as compared to patients with BM. Of these, miR-4270 and miR-423-3p were further investigated. miR-4270 and miR-423-3p directly targeted MMP19 and P21, respectively, to influence cell viability, migration, and colony formation in vitro. miR-4270 downregulation and miR-423-3p upregulation was associated with an increased risk of BM in LAD patients. Thus, our results suggested that miR-4270 and miR-423-3p might play an important role in BM pathogenesis in LAD patients, and that these miRNAs might be useful prognostic and clinical treatment targets.

Saxena S, Purohit A, Varney ML, et al.
Semaphorin-5A maintains epithelial phenotype of malignant pancreatic cancer cells.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1283 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly aggressive disease, and the lethality of this disease stems from early metastatic dissemination where surgical removal cannot provide a cure. Improvement of the therapeutic outcome and overall survival of PC patients requires to understand the fundamental processes that lead to metastasis such as the gain of cellular migration ability. One such family of proteins, which are essential players of cellular migration, is Semaphorin. Previously, we have identified one of the Semaphorin family member, Semaphorin-5A (SEMA5A) to be involved in organ-specific homing during PC metastasis. We have also demonstrated that SEMA5A has a constitutive expression in PC cell lines derived from metastatic sites in comparison with low endogenous expression in the primary tumor-derived cell line. In this study, we examined whether constitutive SEMA5A expression in metastatic PC cells regulates tumor growth and metastatic potential.
METHODS: We generated SEMA5A knockdown in T3M-4 and CD18/HPAF cells and assessed their phenotypes on in vitro motility, tumor growth, and metastatic progression.
RESULTS: In contrary to our initial expectations, orthotopic injection of SEMA5A knockdown cells into nude mice resulted in a significant increase in both tumor burden and liver metastases in comparison with the Control cells. Similarly, we observed higher in vitro migratory potential with pronounced morphological changes associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a decrease in the expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin (E-Cad), increase in the expression of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin (N-Cad) and Snail and the activation of the Wnt-signaling pathway in SEMA5A knockdown cells. Furthermore, re-establishing SEMA5A expression with a knockdown resistant mouse Sema5A in SEMA5A knockdown cells resulted in a reversion to the epithelial state (mesenchymal-epithelial transition; MET), as indicated by the rescue of E-Cad expression and a decrease in N-Cad and Snail expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our data suggest that SEMA5A expression maintains epithelial phenotype in the metastatic microenvironment.

Liu C, Ren L, Deng J, Wang S
LncRNA TP73-AS1 promoted the progression of lung adenocarcinoma via PI3K/AKT pathway.
Biosci Rep. 2019; 39(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) is one of the most common malignancies that threats human health worldwide. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to play significant roles in tumorigenesis and might be novel biomarkers and targets for diagnosis and treatment of cancers. TP73-AS1 is a newly discovered lncRNA involved in the tumorigenesis and development of several cancers. However, its role in LAD has not been investigated yet. In the present study, we first found that TP73-AS1 expression was markedly increased in LAD tissues and cell lines and its overexpression was strongly associated with poor clinical outcomes. Then the loss/gain-of-function assays elucidated that TP73-AS1 contributed to cell proliferation, migration, and invasion

Zhang N, Jiang W
Long non‑coding RNA DANCR promotes HMGA2‑mediated invasion in lung adenocarcinoma cells.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(2):1083-1090 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to be key regulators in various types of cancer, including lung adenocarcinoma (LAD). The roles of the lncRNA differentiation antagonizing non‑protein coding RNA (DANCR) and high mobility group AT‑hook 2 (HMGA2) in LAD remain unclear. In the present study, it was revealed that the lncRNA DANCR was upregulated in LAD tissue and cell lines, compared with para‑tumor tissue and a normal lung cell line. Additionally, elevated DANCR expression was associated with poor prognosis in the patients with LAD. Functionally, the study revealed that knockdown of DANCR inhibited invasion and HMGA2 expression in the LAD cell lines, SPCA1 and A549. Furthermore, HMGA2 was overexpressed in LAD tissue and in SPCA1 and A549 cells, compared with para‑tumor tissue and a normal lung cell line. Inhibition of HMGA2 suppressed the invasive ability of SPCA1 and A549 cells, and DANCR promoted the invasive ability via regulation of HMGA2 in SPCA1 and A549 cells. The findings of the present study revealed that DANCR promoted the invasion of LAD cells by positively regulating HMGA2. Thus, a DANCR/HMGA2 axis may be a novel potential target in the molecular treatment of LAD.

An Y, Zhang Q, Li X, et al.
Upregulated microRNA miR-21 promotes the progression of lung adenocarcinoma through inhibition of KIBRA and the Hippo signaling pathway.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 108:1845-1855 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to identify the key pathways and hub genes in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD)
METHODS: Through gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), the enriched KEGG pathways involved in LAD were identified. Weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) was employed to screen out hub genes. The differentially expressed miRNAs related to the hub gene were then screened by the network analysis. The mRNA expression levels of miR-21 and KIBRA were detected by qRT-PCR. The protein expression levels of KIBRA and the pathway related proteins LATS2 and YAP were determined by Western blot assay. The target relationship between miR-21 and KIBRA was confirmed by the dual luciferase reporter assay. Through colony formation assay, the viability of the LAD cells was determined. In addition, the mobility of LAD cells was detected by wound healing assays, and flow cytometry was employed to detect apoptotic cancer cells.
RESULTS: The hub gene identified in the black module was KIBRA, and suppression of the Hippo signaling pathway was detected in LAD. KIBRA was downregulated and miR-21 was upregulated in LAD tissues and cells; moreover, miR-21 was found to target KIBRA. KIBRA reduced the proliferative and invasive ability of LAD cells and induced apoptosis. KIBRA also activated the Hippo signaling pathway in LAD. The role of MiR-21 was opposite that of KIBRA in LAD.
CONCLUSION: MiR-21 suppressed the Hippo signaling pathway and promoted the progression of LAD through targeting KIBRA.

Soda K
Polyamine Metabolism and Gene Methylation in Conjunction with One-Carbon Metabolism.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent investigations have revealed that changes in DNA methylation status play an important role in aging-associated pathologies and lifespan. The methylation of DNA is regulated by DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b) in the presence of

Qian D, Liu H, Wang X, et al.
Potentially functional genetic variants in the complement-related immunity gene-set are associated with non-small cell lung cancer survival.
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(8):1867-1876 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2020 Related Publications
The complement system plays an important role in the innate and adaptive immunity, complement components mediate tumor cytolysis of antibody-based immunotherapy, and complement activation in the tumor microenvironment may promote tumor progression or inhibition, depending on the mechanism of action. In the present study, we conducted a two-phase analysis of two independently published genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for associations between genetic variants in a complement-related immunity gene-set and overall survival of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The GWAS dataset from Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial was used as the discovery, and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression with false-positive report probability for multiple test corrections were performed to evaluate associations between 14,699 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 111 genes and survival of 1,185 NSCLC patients. The identified significant SNPs in a single-locus analysis were further validated with 984 NSCLC patients in the GWAS dataset from the Harvard Lung Cancer Susceptibility (HLCS) Study. The results showed that two independent, potentially functional SNPs in two genes (VWF rs73049469 and ITGB2 rs3788142) were significantly associated with NSCLC survival, with a combined hazards ratio (HR) of 1.22 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.40, P = 0.002] and 1.16 (1.07-1.27, 6.45 × 10

Yang Z, Li H, Wang Z, et al.
Microarray expression profile of long non-coding RNAs in human lung adenocarcinoma.
Thorac Cancer. 2018; 9(10):1312-1322 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) participate in many biological dynamics and play significant roles in gene regulation. LncRNA expression is altered in many cancers; however, the expressions and functions of lncRNA genes in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) remain unknown.
METHODS: LncRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in LAD without lymphatic metastasis versus paired adjacent non-tumor (ANT) lung tissues and LAD with versus without lymphatic metastasis were analyzed using Human LncRNA Arraystar V3.0. The expression levels of four downregulated and four upregulated lncRNAs were verified using quantitative real-time PCR in cells and tissue specimens.
RESULTS: In this study, 949 lncRNAs and 681 mRNAs had differential expression in LAD without lymphatic metastasis compared to ANT lung tissues, while 2740 lncRNAs and 1714 mRNAs were differentially expressed in LAD with lymphatic metastasis compared to LAD without lymphatic metastasis. The expression patterns of selected lncRNAs (LINC00113, AC005009.1, ARHGAP22-IT1, AC009411.1, SRGAP3-AS2, EGFEM1P, FAM66E, and HLA-F-AS1) were consistent with microarray data. Differentially expressed mRNA genes were enriched in crucial Gene Ontology terms and pathways.
CONCLUSION: Our results revealed differentially expressed lncRNAs in LAD, suggesting lncRNAs may be potential indicators for LAD diagnosis and therapy.

Chugh S, Barkeer S, Rachagani S, et al.
Disruption of C1galt1 Gene Promotes Development and Metastasis of Pancreatic Adenocarcinomas in Mice.
Gastroenterology. 2018; 155(5):1608-1624 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) produce higher levels of truncated O-glycan structures (such as Tn and sTn) than normal pancreata. Dysregulated activity of core 1 synthase glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-β-galactosyltransferase 1 (C1GALT1) leads to increased expression of these truncated O-glycans. We investigated whether and how truncated O-glycans contributes to the development and progression of PDAC using mice with disruption of C1galt1.
METHODS: We crossed C1galt1 floxed mice (C1galt1
RESULTS: KPCC mice had significantly shorter survival times (median 102 days) than KPC mice (median 200 days) and developed early pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias at 3 weeks, PDAC at 5 weeks, and metastasis at 10 weeks compared with KPC mice. Pancreatic tumors that developed in KPCC mice were more aggressive (more invasive and metastases) than those in KPC mice, had a decreased amount of stroma, and had increased production of Tn. Poorly differentiated PDAC specimens had significantly lower levels of C1GALT1 than well-differentiated PDACs. Human PDAC cells with knockout of C1GALT1 had aberrant glycosylation of MUC16 compared with control cells and increased expression of genes that regulate tumorigenesis and metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: In studies of KPC mice with disruption of C1galt1, we found that loss of C1galt1 promotes development of aggressive PDACs and increased metastasis. Knockout of C1galt1 leads to increased tumorigenicity and truncation of O-glycosylation on MUC16, which could contribute to increased aggressiveness.

Liu M, Gou L, Xia J, et al.
LncRNA ITGB2-AS1 Could Promote the Migration and Invasion of Breast Cancer Cells through Up-Regulating ITGB2.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(7) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
In the previous study, we screened a novel lncRNA-ITGB2-AS1, which was down-regulated by bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) in breast cancer cell. Studying ITGB2-AS1 will lay the foundation for the exploring mechanism of the BMP9 inhibitory effect on breast cancer. The expression analysis related to ITGB2-AS1 in clinical samples was conducted on online websites. The overexpression plasmid or siRNA fragment was transfected into breast cancer cells to alter its gene expression. The MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to measure cell viability and cell cycle. Additionally, cell migration and invasion were detected by wound healing and transwell assay. The results of biological function experiments showed that ITGB2-AS1 could promote the migration and invasion of breast cancer. Furthermore, ITGB2-AS1 increased the mRNA and protein expression of ITGB2. Consistent with ITGB2-AS1, ITGB2 exerted the promotion effect on the migration and invasion of breast cancer and activated integrin-related FAK signaling. The OL plasmid expressing the truncation of ITGB2-AS1, which was complementary to ITGB2, was essential for activation of FAK signaling. In conclusion, LncRNA ITGB2-AS1 could promote the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells by up-regulating ITGB2.

Azimian-Zavareh V, Hossein G, Ebrahimi M, Dehghani-Ghobadi Z
Wnt11 alters integrin and cadherin expression by ovarian cancer spheroids and inhibits tumorigenesis and metastasis.
Exp Cell Res. 2018; 369(1):90-104 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study investigated the role of Wnt11 in multicellular tumor spheroid-like structures (MCTS) ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo tumorigenesis and metastasis in xenograft nude mice model. Moreover, samples from human serous ovarian cancer (SOC) were used to assess the association of Wnt11 with integrins and cadherins. The data showed that Wnt11 overexpressing SKOV-3 cells became more compact accompanied by increased expression of E-and N-cadherin and lower expression of EpCAM and CD44. The α5, β2, β3 and β6 integrin subunits expression levels were significantly reduced in Wnt11 overexpressing cells accompanied with significantly reduced disaggregation of Wnt11 overexpressing SKOV-3 MCTS on ECM components. Moreover, Wnt11 overexpressing SKOV-3 MCTS showed decreased migration, invasion as well as no tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. We found that Wnt11 significantly and negatively correlated with ITGB2, ITGB6, and EpCAM and positively with CDH-1 in high-grade SOC specimens. Our results suggest that Wnt11 impedes MCTS attachment to ECM components and therefore can affect ovarian cancer progression.

Sheng K, Lu J, Zhao H
ELK1-induced upregulation of lncRNA HOXA10-AS promotes lung adenocarcinoma progression by increasing Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 501(3):612-618 [PubMed] Related Publications
In recent years, increasing number of lncRNAs have been studied in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD). LncRNA HOXA10-AS was found to be upregulated in LAD tissues. Based on the data of TCGA database, HOXA10-AS was a prognostic factor for lung adenocarcinoma. This study aims to reveal the biological function of HOXA10-AS in LAD. qRT-PCR was applied to test expression levels of HOXA10-AS in both LAD tissues and cell lines. Next, transcription factor ELK1 was demonstrated to upregulate HOXA10-AS in LAD cells through performing bioinformatics analysis and dual luciferase activity. Loss of function assays were performed in two different LAD cell lines. Silenced HOXA10-AS was proved to inhibit LAD progression by affecting cell proliferation, cell apoptosis and cell metastasis and EMT progress. Western blot analysis revealed that HOXA10-AS increased Wnt/β-catenin signaling in LAD cell lines. Finally, rescue assays were carried out to identify the biological function of HOXA10-AS-Wnt/β-catenin signaling in LAD progression. In conclusion, ELK1-induced upregulation of HOXA10-AS improved LAD progression through increasing Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

Yang L, Luo P, Song Q, Fei X
DNMT1/miR-200a/GOLM1 signaling pathway regulates lung adenocarcinoma cells proliferation.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 99:839-847 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) comprises about 80% of all diagnosed lung cancers. However, the underlying regulatory mechanism of LAD cell proliferation is largely unclear. The emergence of microRNAs and molecular-targeted therapies adds a new dimension in our efforts to combat this deadly disease.
METHOD: In this work, the A549 and H1650 human lung cancer cell lines were used in this study. The proliferation was evaluated by the MTT and BrdU assay. The expression level of related proteins was detected by western blot.
RESULT: We reported GOLM1 was highly expressed in LAD cells and associated with low survival ratio and higher grade malignancy. Knockdown of GOLM1 repressed the LAD cell proliferation. Overexpression of GOLM1 promoted the cell proliferation. Further we found that the level of microRNA-200a (miR-200a) expression was low in LAD cells. miR-200a repress GOLM1 expression by directly targeting its 3? UTR. Overexpression of miR-200a repressed the cell proliferation and blocked the increase of LAD cell proliferation caused by GOLM1 overexpression. Further, we found that miR-200 was downregulated by DNMT1.Overexpression of DNMT1 blocked the function of miR-200a on repressing proliferation. We then found that knockdown of DNMT1 repressed LAD cell proliferation, which could be rescued by GOLM1 overexpression.
CONCLUSION: This work revealed the critical function of GOLM1/miR-200a/DNMT1 signaling pathway on regulating LAD cell proliferation, and might lay the foundation for further clinical treatment of LAD.

Liu C, Luo J, Zhao YT, et al.
TWIST1 upregulates miR-214 to promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in lung adenocarcinoma.
Int J Mol Med. 2018; 42(1):461-470 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is essential for the progression of non-invasive tumor cells into malignancy and metastasis. We found that miR-214 was increased in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) and positively associated with metastasis, which was mediated by EMT. However, the mechanism whereby the overexpression of microRNAs (miRNAs), such as miR-214, promote EMT in LAD remains unclear. In this study, we found that TWIST1, an independent prognostic factor for overall survival, was increased in LAD and correlated positively with LAD recurrence and progression. We also found that TWIST1 contributes to the EMT process and metastasis of LAD cells. Most importantly, a positive correlation was found between the expression of miR-214 and TWIST1 in clinical LAD tissue. Additionally, miR-214 expression was decreased and its target gene suppressor of fused homolog (SUFU) was increased in LAD cells in response to the impairment of TWIST1 expression by shRNA. Overall, this study provides the first evidence to show that the high expression of TWIST1 increases the expression of miR-214 to promote the EMT process and metastasis in LAD. These findings contribute to clarify the mechanisms whereby miRNAs regulate the EMT process and implicate a new TWIST1-miR-214 pathway in the control of migration and invasion of LAD.

Shen H, Chai H, Li M, et al.
Robust sparse accelerated failure time model for survival analysis.
Technol Health Care. 2018; 26(S1):55-63 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
To identify the bio-mark genes related to disease with high dimension and low sample size gene expression data, various regression approaches with different regularization methods have been proposed to solve this problem. Nevertheless, high-noises in biological data significantly reduce the performances of methods. The accelerated failure time (AFT) modelwas designed for gene selection and survival time estimation in cancer survival analysis. In this article, we proposed a novel robust sparse accelerated failure time model (RS-AFT) through combining the least absolute deviation (LAD) and Lq regularization. An iterative weighted linear programming algorithm without regularization parameter tuning was proposed to solve this RS-AFT model. The results of the experiments show our method has better performancebothin gene selection and survival time estimationthan some widely used regularization methods such as lasso, elastic net and SCAD. Hence we thought the RS-AFT model may be a competitive regularization method in cancer survival analysis.

Liu H, Dai X, Cao X, et al.
PRDM4 mediates YAP-induced cell invasion by activating leukocyte-specific integrin β2 expression.
EMBO Rep. 2018; 19(6) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a transcriptional co-activator and a major effector of the Hippo pathway that promotes cell proliferation and stemness, while inhibiting apoptosis. YAP plays a central role in organ size control, and its deregulation strongly promotes cancer initiation and progression. However, the mechanisms by which YAP promotes cell invasion and metastasis are not fully understood. Here, we report that YAP induces leukocyte-specific

Wang Z, Pan L, Yu H, Wang Y
The long non-coding RNA SNHG5 regulates gefitinib resistance in lung adenocarcinoma cells by targetting
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(4) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Gefitinib resistance is one of the major obstacles for the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma (LAD). The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), small nucleolar RNA host gene 5SNHG5 on gefitinib resistance in LAD and explore the underlying mechanisms. The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results showed that SNHG5 expression was significantly down-regulated in LAD patients with acquired gefitinib resistance and gefitinib resistant LAD cell lines. SNHG5 overexpression sensitized gefitinib resistant LAD cells to gefitinib treatment, while knockdown of SNHG5 rendered gefitinib sensitive LAD cells to gefitinib treatment. Bioinformatics analysis showed that SNHG5 exerted its function through interaction with

Springer SU, Chen CH, Rodriguez Pena MDC, et al.
Non-invasive detection of urothelial cancer through the analysis of driver gene mutations and aneuploidy.
Elife. 2018; 7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Current non-invasive approaches for detection of urothelial cancers are suboptimal. We developed a test to detect urothelial neoplasms using DNA recovered from cells shed into urine. UroSEEK incorporates massive parallel sequencing assays for mutations in 11 genes and copy number changes on 39 chromosome arms. In 570 patients at risk for bladder cancer (BC), UroSEEK was positive in 83% of those who developed BC. Combined with cytology, UroSEEK detected 95% of patients who developed BC. Of 56 patients with upper tract urothelial cancer, 75% tested positive by UroSEEK, including 79% of those with non-invasive tumors. UroSEEK detected genetic abnormalities in 68% of urines obtained from BC patients under surveillance who demonstrated clinical evidence of recurrence. The advantages of UroSEEK over cytology were evident in low-grade BCs; UroSEEK detected 67% of cases whereas cytology detected none. These results establish the foundation for a new non-invasive approach for detection of urothelial cancer.

Chen W, An J, Guo J, et al.
Sodium selenite attenuates lung adenocarcinoma progression by repressing SOX2-mediated stemness.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2018; 81(5):885-895 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Sodium selenite (SS) has been widely reported to induce apoptosis in various cancer cell types. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms governing SS-mediated repression of lung cancer stem cells remain largely undefined.
METHODS: In vitro assays of cell proliferation, clonal formation, apoptosis, migration and cancer stemness cell sphere formation were performed to examine the inhibitory effects of SS on lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) cells with or without the overexpression of SRY-related high-mobility-group box 2 (SOX2).
RESULTS: SS significantly inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in LAD cells in a dose-dependent manner with marginal effects on normal epithelial cell HBEC. SS dramatically repressed expression of SOX2 and its upstream regulator GLI1 and strongly decreased stemness sphere formation in LAD cells at 10 µM. Forced expression of SOX2 significantly buffered anti-cancer effects of SS.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that SS attenuates lung adenocarcinoma progression by repressing SOX2 and its upstream regulator GLI1, which suggests that SS may be a potential therapeutic drug candidate for lung cancer patients.

Liu Z, Zhao P, Han Y, Lu S
lncRNA FEZF1-AS1 Is Associated With Prognosis in Lung Adenocarcinoma and Promotes Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion.
Oncol Res. 2018; 27(1):39-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to play important roles in tumorigenesis. In the present study, we demonstrated that lncRNA forebrain embryonic zinc finger protein 1 (FEZF1) antisense RNA1 (FEZF1-AS1) is markedly upregulated in human lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) tissues and cell lines and is associated with poor prognosis. Loss of function revealed that deletion of FEZF1-AS1 expression significantly inhibited the LAD cell proliferation, invasion, and migration. Further studies revealed that downregulation of FEZF1-AS1 reduced mRNA and protein expression of its sense-cognate gene FEZF1 in LAD cells, and vice versa. Correlation analysis indicated that there was a positive correlation between FEZF1-AS1 and FEZF1 expression in LAD tissues. Additionally, rescue assay confirmed that the function of FEZF1-AS1 in LAD was mediated by FEZF1. Our findings suggested that dysregulation of FEZF1-AS1 contributed to the progression of LAD, which might be a potential target for LAD therapy.

Ma T, Ma H, Zou Z, et al.
The Long Intergenic Noncoding RNA 00707 Promotes Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell Proliferation and Migration by Regulating Cdc42.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 45(4):1566-1580 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lung cancer (LC) is a serious disease with high morbidity and mortality. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have garnered attention because they participate in diverse human disorders, including cancer. Our study examined the long intergenic noncoding RNA 00707 (LINC00707). The effects of LINC00707 on lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) and molecular mechanisms are unclear. This study is aimed to investigate the role of LINC00707 in the malignant processes of LAD.
METHODS: Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to examine the expression level of LINC00707 in tissues and cell lines. The association of LINC00707 expression and postoperative prognosis was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Cell proliferation was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Transwell assays were performed to examine cell migration. Cell cycle and apoptosis was determined by flow -cytometric and western blot analyses. Microarray analysis was conducted to screen for the downstream target gene Cdc42 of LINC00707, which was identified by qRT-PCR, functional analysis, and rescue experiment.
RESULTS: The expression level of LINC00707 was clearly upregulated in LAD tissues compared to that in corresponding normal tissues. Its overexpression was related to advanced TNM stage, larger tumor size, lymphatic metastasis, and poor prognosis. Functional assays revealed that LINC00707 knockdown repressed LAD cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. This process may involve the inducing of G1 arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, cell migration was impaired after LINC00707 inhibition. Microarray analysis and rescue assays suggested that Cdc42 is an important target gene involved in the carcinogenesis of LINC00707.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, LINC00707 is a noncoding oncogene that exerts important regulatory functions in LAD, suggesting its potential as a biomarker in the prognosis and treatment of LAD.

Durgeau A, Virk Y, Corgnac S, Mami-Chouaib F
Recent Advances in Targeting CD8 T-Cell Immunity for More Effective Cancer Immunotherapy.
Front Immunol. 2018; 9:14 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Recent advances in cancer treatment have emerged from new immunotherapies targeting T-cell inhibitory receptors, including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen (CTLA)-4 and programmed cell death (PD)-1. In this context, anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies have demonstrated survival benefits in numerous cancers, including melanoma and non-small-cell lung carcinoma. PD-1-expressing CD8

Hu L, Chen J, Zhang F, et al.
Aberrant Long Noncoding RNAs Expression Profiles Affect Cisplatin Resistance in Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Biomed Res Int. 2017; 2017:7498151 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Background: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to be involved in the mechanism of cisplatin resistance in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD). However, the roles of lncRNAs in cisplatin resistance in LAD are not well understood.
Methods: We used a high-throughput microarray to compare the lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles in cisplatin resistance cell A549/DDP and cisplatin sensitive cell A549. Several candidate cisplatin resistance-associated lncRNAs were verified by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis.
Results: We found that 1,543 lncRNAs and 1,713 mRNAs were differentially expressed in A549/DDP cell and A549 cell, hinting that many lncRNAs were irregular from cisplatin resistance in LAD. We also obtain the fact that 12 lncRNAs were aberrantly expressed in A549/DDP cell compared with A549 cell by quantitative PCR. Among these, UCA1 was the aberrantly expressed lncRNA and can significantly reduce the IC50 of cisplatin in A549/DDP cell after knockdown, while it can increase the IC50 of cisplatin after UCA1 was overexpressed in NCI-H1299.
Conclusions: We obtained patterns of irregular lncRNAs and they may play a key role in cisplatin resistance of LAD.

Song E, Song W, Ren M, et al.
Identification of potential crucial genes associated with carcinogenesis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
J Cell Biochem. 2018; 119(7):5163-5174 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a common genitourinary malignancy with high mortality. However, the molecular pathogenesis of ccRCC remains unclear and effective biomarkers for daily practice are still limited. Thus, we aimed to identify the potential crucial genes and pathways associated with carcinogenesis of ccRCC and further analyze the molecular mechanisms implicated in tumorigenesis. In the present study, expression profiles GSE 66270, GSE 53757, GSE 36895, and GSE 76351 were downloaded from GEO database, including 244 matched primary and adjacent normal tissues, furthermore, the level 3 RNAseq dataset (RNAseqV2 RSEM) of KIRC was also downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), which consist of 529 ccRCC tumors and 72 normal tissues. Then, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and pathway enrichment were analyzed by using R software. A total of 129 up- and 123 down-regulated genes were identified, which were aberrantly expressed both in GEO and TCGA data. Second, Gene ontology (GO) analyses revealed that most of the DEGs were significantly enriched in integral component of membrane, extracellular exosome, plasma membrane, cell adhesion, and receptor binding. Signaling pathway analyses indicated that DEGs had common pathways in signal transduction, metabolism, and immune system. Third, hub genes were identified with protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, including PTPRC, TGFB1, EGF, MYC, ITGB2, CTSS, FN1, CCL5, KNG1, and CD86. Additionally, sub-networks analyse was also performed by using MCODE plugin. In conclusion, the novel DEGs and pathways in ccRCC identified in this study may provide new insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms that facilitates RCC carcinogenesis.

Chen W, Pilling D, Gomer RH
C-reactive protein (CRP) but not the related pentraxins serum amyloid P and PTX3 inhibits the proliferation and induces apoptosis of the leukemia cell line Mono Mac 6.
BMC Immunol. 2017; 18(1):47 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pentraxins are a family of highly conserved secreted proteins that regulate the innate immune system, including monocytes and macrophages. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a plasma protein whose levels can rise to 1000 μg/ml from the normal <3 μg/ ml during inflammation.
RESULTS: We find that CRP inhibits proliferation of the human myeloid leukemia cell line Mono Mac 6 with an IC50 of 75 μg/ ml by inducing apoptosis of these cells. The related proteins serum amyloid P (SAP) and pentraxin 3 (PTX3) do not inhibit Mono Mac 6 proliferation. CRP has no significant effect on the proliferation of other leukemia cell lines such as HL-60, Mono Mac 1, K562, U937, or THP-1, or the survival of normal peripheral blood cells. The effect of CRP appears to be dependent on the CRP receptor FcγRI, and is negatively regulated by a phosphatidylinositol -3-kinase pathway.
CONCLUSION: These data reveal differential signaling by pentraxins on immune cells, and suggest that CRP can regulate the proliferation of some myeloid leukemia cells.

Xu Q, Junttila S, Scherer A, et al.
Renal carcinoma/kidney progenitor cell chimera organoid as a novel tumorigenesis gene discovery model.
Dis Model Mech. 2017; 10(12):1503-1515 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Three-dimensional (3D) organoids provide a new way to model various diseases, including cancer. We made use of recently developed kidney-organ-primordia tissue-engineering technologies to create novel renal organoids for cancer gene discovery. We then tested whether our novel assays can be used to examine kidney cancer development. First, we identified the transcriptomic profiles of quiescent embryonic mouse metanephric mesenchyme (MM) and of MM in which the nephrogenesis program had been induced

Sun J, Pan LM, Chen LB, Wang Y
LncRNA XIST promotes human lung adenocarcinoma cells to cisplatin resistance via let-7i/BAG-1 axis.
Cell Cycle. 2017; 16(21):2100-2107 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified as oncogenes or tumor suppressors that are involved in tumorigenesis and chemoresistance. LncRNA XIST expression is upregulated in several cancers, however, its biologic role in the development of the chemotherapy of human lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) has not been elucidated. This study aimed to observe the expression of LncRNA XIST in LAD and to evaluate its biologic role and clinical significance in the resistance of LAD cells to cisplatin. LncRNA XIST expression was markedly increased in cisplatin-resistant A549/DDP cells compared with parental A549 cells as shown by qRT-PCR. LncRNA XIST overexpression in A549 cells increased their chemosensitivity to cisplatin both in vitro and in vivo by protecting cells from apoptosis and promoting cell proliferation. By contrast, LncRNA XIST knockdown in A549/DDP cells decreased the chemoresistance. We revealed that XIST functioned as competing endogenous RNA to repress let-7i, which controlled its down-stream target BAG-1. We proposed that XIST was responsible for cisplatin resistance of LAD cells and XIST exerted its function through the let-7i/BAG-1 axis. Our findings suggested that lncRNA XIST may be a new marker of poor response to cisplatin and could be a potential therapeutic target for LAD chemotherapy.

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