Research IndicatorsGraph generated 28 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: INHBA (cancer-related)
Murakami M, Hashida Y, Imajoh M, et al.PCR array analysis of gene expression profiles in chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection.
Microbes Infect. 2014; 16(7):581-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
To determine the host cellular gene expression profiles in chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV), peripheral blood samples were obtained from three patients with CAEBV and investigated using a PCR array analysis that focused on T-cell/B-cell activation. We identified six genes with expression levels that were tenfold higher in CAEBV patients compared with those in healthy controls. These results were verified by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. We identified four highly upregulated genes, i.e., IL-10, IL-2, IFNGR1, and INHBA. These genes may be involved in inflammatory responses and cell proliferation, and they may contribute to the development and progression of CAEBV.
Oshima T, Yoshihara K, Aoyama T, et al.Relation of INHBA gene expression to outcomes in gastric cancer after curative surgery.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(5):2303-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Inhibin-βA (INHBA), a ligand belonging to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is associated with cell proliferation in cancer. We studied the relations of INHBA gene expression to clinicopathological factors and outcomes in 168 patients with gastric cancer who underwent curative surgery. Relative INHBA gene expression was measured in surgical specimens of cancer tissue and adjacent normal mucosa by quantitative real-time, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. INHBA expression levels were significantly higher in cancer tissue than in adjacent normal mucosa and were related to TNM stage and venous invasion. High INHBA gene expression was associated with significantly poorer 5-year overall survival than was low expression. On multivariate analysis, INHBA gene expression was an independent prognostic factor. Overexpression of the INHBA gene is considered a useful independent predictor of outcomes in patients with gastric cancer after curative surgery.
Hogg K, Robinson WP, Beristain AGActivation of endocrine-related gene expression in placental choriocarcinoma cell lines following DNA methylation knock-down.
Mol Hum Reprod. 2014; 20(7):677-89 [PubMed
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Increasingly, placental DNA methylation is assessed as a factor in pregnancy-related complications, yet the transcriptional impact of such findings is not always clear. Using a proliferative in vitro placental model, the effect of DNA methylation loss on gene activation was evaluated at a number of genes selected for being differentially methylated in pre-eclampsia-associated placentae in vivo. We aimed to determine whether reduced DNA methylation at specific loci was associated with transcriptional changes at the corresponding gene, thus providing mechanistic underpinnings for previous clinical findings and to assess the degree of transcriptional response amongst our candidate genes. BeWo and JEG3 choriocarcinoma cells were exposed to 1 μM 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) or vehicle control for 48 h, and re-plated and cultured for a further 72 h in normal media before cells were harvested for RNA and DNA. Bisulphite pyrosequencing confirmed that DNA methylation was reduced by ∼30-50% points at the selected loci studied in both cell lines. Gene activation, measured by qRT-PCR, was highly variable and transcript specific, indicating differential sensitivity to DNA methylation. Most notably, loss of DNA methylation at the leptin (LEP) promoter corresponded to a 200-fold and 40-fold increase in LEP expression in BeWo and JEG3 cells, respectively (P < 0.01). Transcripts of steroidogenic pathway enzymes CYP11A1 and HSD3B1 were up-regulated ∼40-fold in response to 5-Aza-CdR exposure in BeWo cells (P < 0.01). Other transcripts, including aromatase (CYP19), HSD11B2, inhibin (INHBA) and glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) were more moderately, although significantly, affected by loss of associated DNA methylation. These data present a mixed effect of DNA methylation changes at selected loci supporting cautionary interpretation of DNA methylation results in the absence of functional data.
It is widely accepted that most colorectal cancers (CRCs) arise from colorectal adenomas (CRAs), but transcriptomic data characterizing the progression from colorectal normal mucosa to adenoma, and then to adenocarcinoma are scarce. These transition steps were investigated using microarrays, both at the level of gene expression and alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Many genes and exons were abnormally expressed in CRAs, even more than in CRCs, as compared to normal mucosae. Known biological pathways involved in CRC were altered in CRA, but several new enriched pathways were also recognized, such as the complement and coagulation cascades. We also identified four intersectional transcriptional signatures that could distinguish CRAs from normal mucosae or CRCs, including a signature of 40 genes differentially deregulated in both CRA and CRC samples. A majority of these genes had been described in different cancers, including FBLN1 or INHBA, but only a few in CRC. Several of these changes were also observed at the protein level. In addition, 20% of these genes (i.e. CFH, CRYAB, DPT, FBLN1, ITIH5, NR3C2, SLIT3 and TIMP1) showed altered pre-mRNA splicing in CRAs. As a global variation occurring since the CRA stage, and maintained in CRC, the expression and splicing changes of this 40-gene set may mark the risk of cancer occurrence from analysis of CRA biopsies.
To identify novel genetic bases of early-onset epithelial ovarian tumors, we used the trio exome sequencing strategy in a patient without familial history of cancer who presented metastatic serous ovarian adenocarcinomas at 21 years of age. We identified a single de novo mutation (c.1157A>G/p.Asn386Ser) within the INHBA gene encoding the βA-subunit of inhibins/activins, which play a key role in ovarian development. In vitro, this mutation alters the ratio of secreted activins and inhibins. In a second patient with early-onset serous borderline papillary cystadenoma, we identified an unreported germline mutation (c.179G>T/p.Arg60Leu) of the INHA gene encoding the α-subunit, the partner of the βA-subunit. This mutation also alters the secreted activin/inhibin ratio, by disrupting both inhibin A and inhibin B biosynthesis. In a cohort of 62 cases, we detected an additional unreported germline mutation of the INHBA gene (c.839G>A/p.Gly280Glu). Our results strongly suggest that inhibin mutations contribute to the genetic determinism of epithelial ovarian tumors.
Okano M, Yamamoto H, Ohkuma H, et al.Significance of INHBA expression in human colorectal cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(6):2903-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Inhibin β A (INHBA) is a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily. INHBA expression is associated with several types of human cancers; however, its significance in colorectal cancer (CRC) is not fully understood. INHBA expression was studied in 126 primary CRC samples and 4 CRC cell lines. Cell growth was assessed after inhibition of INHBA expression or after exogenous overexpression of INHBA in CRC tissues. INHBA expression was significantly higher in CRC tissues when compared to that in the corresponding normal tissues (P<0.001). Patients in the high expression group showed a poorer overall survival rate when compared to those in the low expression group (P<0.001); the present study did not evaluate for an independent prognostic factor but showed the significance of lymph node metastasis as an independent prognostic factor. The present study suggests that INHBA is useful as a predictive marker for prognosis in CRC patients.
Ludwig K, Tse ES, Wang JYColon cancer cells adopt an invasive phenotype without mesenchymal transition in 3-D but not 2-D culture upon combined stimulation with EGF and crypt growth factors.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:221 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The intestinal crypt homeostasis is maintained by a combination of growth factors including Wnt, R-Spondin1, Noggin and the epidermal growth factor (EGF). In human colorectal cancer, the Wnt pathway is constitutively activated through genetic and epigenetic alterations in as many as 11 genes encoding components of this crypt stem-cell maintenance mechanism. Although the proliferation of colon cancer cells does not require Wnt, it is possible that colon cancer cells can still respond to the crypt growth factors in the colonic microenvironment. A number of studies have shown that epithelial cells behave differently in 3-D versus 2-D cultures. Because the 3-D conditions more closely mimic the in vivo environment, we examined the effects of Wnt and other crypt growth factors on colon cancer cell growth in 3-D culture.
METHODS: Colon cancer cells were grown in 3-D matrigel supplemented with different combinations of crypt growth factors and colonies were examined for morphology and pathways.
RESULTS: When colon cancer cells were cultured in 3-D with EGF, they grew as round spheroid colonies. However, colon cancer cells also grew as flat, disc-like colonies when cultured with EGF plus Wnt, R-Spondin1 and Noggin. Disc colonies were found to have comparable levels of E-cadherin as the spheroid colonies, but showed decreased E-cadherin at the cell-matrix contact sites. Disc colonies also elaborated F-actin rich protrusions (FRP) at the cell-matrix edge, reminiscent of an invasive phenotype but without the expression of vimentin. These E-cadherin and F-actin alterations were not induced by the four growth factors in 2-D culture. Formation of the disc colonies was inhibited by the knockdown of β-catenin and by protein kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib, imatinib and MK-2206. Furthermore, withdrawal of the crypt growth factors was able to revert the disc colonies to spheroid growth, showing that the invasive phenotype was reversible dependent on the availability of growth factors.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that colon cancer cells remain responsive to the growth factors in the crypt microenvironment and can be induced to undergo morphological transformation in the more physiologically relevant 3-D culture.
Gasi Tandefelt D, Boormans JL, van der Korput HA, et al.A 36-gene signature predicts clinical progression in a subgroup of ERG-positive prostate cancers.
Eur Urol. 2013; 64(6):941-50 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: The molecular basis of the clinical heterogeneity of prostate cancer (PCa) is not well understood.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to identify and characterize genes in a clinically relevant gene expression signature in a subgroup of primary PCa positive for transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2)-v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (avian) (ERG).
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We studied gene expression profiles by unsupervised hierarchical clustering in 48 primary PCas from patients with a long clinical follow-up. Results were correlated with clinical outcome and validated in an independent patient cohort. Selected genes from a defined classifier were tested in vitro for biologic properties.
INTERVENTION: Initial treatment of primary tumors was radical prostatectomy.
OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Associations between clinical and histopathologic variables were evaluated by the Pearson χ(2) test, Mann-Whitney U test, or Kruskal-Wallis test, where appropriate. The log-rank test or Breslow method was used for statistical analysis of Kaplan-Meier survival curves.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Most tumors that overexpressed ERG clustered separately from other primary PCas. No differences in any clinical end points between ERG-positive and ERG-negative cancers were detected. Importantly, within the ERG-positive samples, two subgroups were identified, which differed significantly in prostate-specific antigen recurrence-free survival, and cancer-specific and overall survival. From our findings, we defined a gene expression classifier of 36 genes. In a second, completely independent tumor set, the classifier also distinguished ERG-positive subgroups with different clinical outcome. In both patient cohorts, the classifier was not predictive in ERG-negative tumors. Biologic processes regulated by genes in the classifier included cell adhesion and bone remodeling. Tumor growth factor-β signaling was indicated as the main differing signaling pathway between the two ERG subgroups. In vitro biologic assays of two selected genes from the classifier (inhibin, beta A [INHBA] and cadherin 11, type 2, OB-cadherin (osteoblast) [CDH11]) supported a functional role in PCa progression. Possible multifocality and limited number of PCa samples can be limitations of the study.
CONCLUSIONS: The classifier identified can contribute to prediction of tumor progression in ERG-positive primary prostate tumors and might be instrumental in therapy decisions.
Kashyap MK, Pawar HA, Keerthikumar S, et al.Evaluation of protein expression pattern of stanniocalcin 2, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7, inhibin beta A and four and a half LIM domains 1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Cancer Biomark. 2012-2013; 12(1):1-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The pathogenesis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) involves both genetic and environmental factors. Previously, we have carried out gene and protein expression profiling of ESCC using DNA microarrays and mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics, respectively. These studies resulted in identification of several potential biomarkers of ESCC, some with known reports of differential expression in the scientific literature and others that were novel observations from our studies. We report systematic validation of selected markers from our studies on a larger cohort of cancer tissue sections by immunohistochemical labeling of tissue microarrays. We have validated expression of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), stanniocalcin 2 (STC2), inhibin beta A (INHBA) and four and a half LIM domains 1 (FHL1). Immunohistochemical labeling with anti-stanniocalcin 2 antibody demonstrated its overexpression in 132/140 (94%) cases, IGFBP7 showed overexpression in 127/140 (91%) cases and overexpression of INHBA was observed in 62/105 (59%) of ESCC cases. In contrast, FHL1 expression was observed only in 12/143 (8%) of ESCC cases suggesting its possible involvement in tumor suppression. These data suggest that IGFBP7, INHBA, STC2 and FHL1 might play an important role in ESCC tumorigenesis, which can be explored in future studies. Overall, our findings open up new avenues for development of novel therapeutics and/or diagnostic approaches in ESCC.
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy, with more than 280,000 cases occurring annually worldwide. Although previous studies have identified important common somatic mutations in endometrial cancer, they have primarily focused on a small set of known cancer genes and have thus provided a limited view of the molecular basis underlying this disease. Here we have developed an integrated systems-biology approach to identifying novel cancer genes contributing to endometrial tumorigenesis. We first performed whole-exome sequencing on 13 endometrial cancers and matched normal samples, systematically identifying somatic alterations with high precision and sensitivity. We then combined bioinformatics prioritization with high-throughput screening (including both shRNA-mediated knockdown and expression of wild-type and mutant constructs) in a highly sensitive cell viability assay. Our results revealed 12 potential driver cancer genes including 10 tumor-suppressor candidates (ARID1A, INHBA, KMO, TTLL5, GRM8, IGFBP3, AKTIP, PHKA2, TRPS1, and WNT11) and two oncogene candidates (ERBB3 and RPS6KC1). The results in the "sensor" cell line were recapitulated by siRNA-mediated knockdown in endometrial cancer cell lines. Focusing on ARID1A, we integrated mutation profiles with functional proteomics in 222 endometrial cancer samples, demonstrating that ARID1A mutations frequently co-occur with mutations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and are associated with PI3K pathway activation. siRNA knockdown in endometrial cancer cell lines increased AKT phosphorylation supporting ARID1A as a novel regulator of PI3K pathway activity. Our study presents the first unbiased view of somatic coding mutations in endometrial cancer and provides functional evidence for diverse driver genes and mutations in this disease.
Hofland J, van Weerden WM, Steenbergen J, et al.Activin A stimulates AKR1C3 expression and growth in human prostate cancer.
Endocrinology. 2012; 153(12):5726-34 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Local androgen synthesis in prostate cancer (PC) may contribute to the development of castration-resistant PC (CRPC), but pathways controlling intratumoral steroidogenic enzyme expression in PC are unknown. We investigated the effects of activin, a factor involved in the regulation of PC growth and steroidogenic enzyme expression in other steroidogenic tissues, on intratumoral steroidogenesis in PC. Activin A effects and regulation of the activin-signaling pathway molecules were studied in the PC cell lines LNCaP, VCaP, and PC-3 and in 13 individual PC xenograft models. Also, expression levels of inhibin βA- and βB-subunits (INHBA and INHBB) and of the activin antagonist follistatin were quantitated in patient PC tissues. Activin A induced the expression and enzyme activity of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme AKR1C3 in LNCaP and VCaP cells. Inhibition of endogenous activin A action in the PC-3 cell line decreased AKR1C3 levels and consequently testosterone synthesis. In return, androgens suppressed INHBA expression in both VCaP cells and the PC xenograft models. The antiproliferative effects of activin A were opposed by physiological concentrations of androstenedione in LNCaP cells. In patient PC tissues, expression levels of INHBA were increased in CRPC samples and correlated with AKR1C3 levels. Moreover, a high ratio of activin subunits to follistatin was associated with a worse metastasis-free survival in patients. In conclusion, activin A is controlled by androgens in PC models and regulates local androgen production. Activin A thus seems to mediate (residual) intratumoral androgen levels and could form a novel therapeutic target in CRPC.
Pan J, Xue Y, Chen S, et al.Establishment and characterization of a new human acute myelomonocytic leukemia cell line JIH-3.
Leuk Res. 2012; 36(7):889-94 [PubMed
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Here, a new acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AMML) cell line, JIH-3, is reported, and its biological characteristics are described. JIH-3 cells were maintained without any cytokines for 27 months. The JIH-3 cell line showed typical myelomonocytic morphological features. Additionally, it mainly expressed myeloid and monocytic markers (CD13, CD14, CD11b, CD15 and CD33), although it also expressed other antigens such as the markers of T and B lymphocytic lineage as well as stem cell, progenitor cell, and natural killer cell-related antigens (CD4, CD5, CD7, CD10, CD22, CD34, CD38, HLADR, CD16/CD56 and CD56); the expression of these markers, suggested that this cell line was in the early stage of myelomonocytic differentiation. Cytogenetic analysis initially showed a karyotype of 46, XY, del(7) (p1?3p2?2). During the passage period, the cells with this karyotype gradually decreased and were replaced by cells with a 45,XY,dic(4;7)(p11;p11),del(15)(q2?2) karyotype. Chromosome painting showed a deletion in the short arm of chromosome 7 for del(7)(p1?3p2?2) and der(4;7)(p11;p11). The latter had larger deleted segment than the former. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed the dicentric nature of der(4;7), and Multiplex FISH (M-FISH) confirmed that der(4;7) was an unbalanced translocation. A deletion involving the 7p region on dic(4;7)(p11;p11) harbors many genes, including CDC2L5, C7ORF11, C7ORF10 and INHBA. Haploinsufficiency of the genes on 4p, 7p and 15q caused by deletions of 4p, 7p and 15q2?2 that resulted from dic(4;7)(p11;p11) and del(15)(q2?2) may play important roles in leukemogenesis and in the establishment of the JIH-3 cell line. JIH-3 cells did not express multidrug resistance (MDR)-related genes and apoptosis-related genes such as MDR1, multidrug resistance-related protein, lung resistance protein, BCL-2, Bax, GS-π or Fax, only P21 expression was detected, which probably leads the MDR indirectly through inhibition of the activities of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK). JIH-3 cells had tumorigenic capacity in nude mice. In conclusion, JIH-3 is a new acute myelomonocytic leukemia cell line. It is from a well-characterized background and provides a new useful tool for the study of leukemia patients with a 7p deletion.
Wang Q, Wen YG, Li DP, et al.Upregulated INHBA expression is associated with poor survival in gastric cancer.
Med Oncol. 2012; 29(1):77-83 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Expression microarrays are widely used for investigating the candidate molecular targets in human cancer. While genome-wide expression signatures screened by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) were not performed in Chinese gastric cancer (GC). To gain new molecular targets for GC, GSEA analysis was performed. In the present study, GSEA were used to pick out differentially expressed gene sets of our database. Total RNA of paired tissue samples (n = 48) and a tissue microarray containing 132 paired tissues were used to further validate expression levels of INHBA and its correction with clinicopathological factors. Upregulated INHBA expression in gastric cancer was screened and further confirmed by qPCR and immunostaining analysis. Increased INHBA expression was significantly correlated with the diameter of cancer and depth of tumor invasion. Patients with higher expression levels of INHBA had a shorter disease-free survival rate. It was effective to gain new molecular targets for GC by GSEA analysis. INHBA may be a poor survival indicator of GC.
BACKGROUND: Despite extensive research, the details of the biological mechanisms by which cancer cells acquire motility and invasiveness are largely unknown. This study identifies an invasion associated gene signature shedding light on these mechanisms.
METHODS: We analyze data from multiple cancers using a novel computational method identifying sets of genes whose coordinated overexpression indicates the presence of a particular phenotype, in this case high-stage cancer.
RESULTS: We conclude that there is one shared "core" metastasis-associated gene expression signature corresponding to a specific variant of stromal desmoplastic reaction, present in a large subset of samples that have exceeded a threshold of invasive transition specific to each cancer, indicating that the corresponding biological mechanism is triggered at that point. For example this threshold is reached at stage IIIc in ovarian cancer and at stage II in colorectal cancer. Therefore, its presence indicates that the corresponding stage has been reached. It has several features, such as coordinated overexpression of particular collagens, mainly COL11A1 and other genes, mainly THBS2 and INHBA. The composition of the overexpressed genes indicates invasion-facilitating altered proteolysis in the extracellular matrix. The prominent presence in the signature of INHBA in all cancers strongly suggests a biological mechanism centered on activin A induced TGF-β signaling, because activin A is a member of the TGF-β superfamily consisting of an INHBA homodimer. Furthermore, we establish that the signature is predictive of neoadjuvant therapy response in at least one breast cancer data set.
CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, these results can be used for developing high specificity biomarkers sensing cancer invasion and predicting response to neoadjuvant therapy, as well as potential multi-cancer metastasis inhibiting therapeutics targeting the corresponding biological mechanism.
Zhang DF, Li XG, Su LJ, Meng QLExpression of activin A and follistatin in glioblastoma and their effects on U87 in vitro.
J Int Med Res. 2010 Jul-Aug; 38(4):1343-53 [PubMed
] Related Publications
In some cancer cell lines, the gene encoding activin A (inhibin βA [INHBA]) is over-expressed and enhances cancer proliferation. Protein levels of activin A and follistatin were assessed in glioblastoma and normal brain tissues in this study, and the effect of activin A and follistatin treatment on the proliferation of U87 human glioblastoma cells in vitro was also studied. High levels of activin A were observed in glioblastomas compared with normal brain tissue. In contrast, follistatin levels were similar between the two tissues. [(3)H]Thymidine assay showed that activin A (3 - 30 ng/ml) produced a dose-dependent increase in DNA synthesis of U87 cells compared with controls. Flow cytometric analyses showed that activin A increased the proliferative index of U87 cells compared with controls. Activin A also induced up-regulation of p-SMAD2/3 in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of U87 cells with follistatin blocked these activin A-induced effects. The disequilibrium between activin A and follistatin may play a role in the development of glioblastoma.
Lascorz J, Försti A, Chen B, et al.Genome-wide association study for colorectal cancer identifies risk polymorphisms in German familial cases and implicates MAPK signalling pathways in disease susceptibility.
Carcinogenesis. 2010; 31(9):1612-9 [PubMed
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Genetic susceptibility accounts for approximately 35% of all colorectal cancer (CRC). Ten common low-risk variants contributing to CRC risk have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWASs). In our GWAS, 610 664 genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) passed the quality control filtering in 371 German familial CRC patients and 1263 controls, and replication studies were conducted in four additional case-control sets (4915 cases and 5607 controls). Known risk loci at 8q24.21 and 11q23 were confirmed, and a previously unreported association, rs12701937, located between the genes GLI3 (GLI family zinc finger 3) and INHBA (inhibin, beta A) [P = 1.1 x 10(-3), odds ratio (OR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.23, dominant model in the combined cohort], was identified. The association was stronger in familial cases compared with unselected cases (P = 2.0 x 10(-4), OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.16-1.60, dominant model). Two other unreported SNPs, rs6038071, 40 kb upstream of CSNK2A1 (casein kinase 2, alpha 1 polypeptide) and an intronic marker in MYO3A (myosin IIIA), rs11014993, associated with CRC only in the familial CRC cases (P = 2.5 x 10(-3), recessive model, and P = 2.7 x 10(-4), dominant model). Three software tools successfully pointed to the overrepresentation of genes related to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathways among the 1340 most strongly associated markers from the GWAS (allelic P value < 10(-3)). The risk of CRC increased significantly with an increasing number of risk alleles in seven genes involved in MAPK signalling events (P(trend) = 2.2 x 10(-16), OR(per allele) = 1.34, 95% CI 1.11-1.61).
BACKGROUND: Germline mutations in the FLCN gene are responsible for the development of fibrofolliculomas, lung cysts and renal neoplasia in Birt-Hogg-Dube' (BHD) syndrome. The encoded protein folliculin (FLCN) is conserved across species but contains no classic motifs or domains and its function remains unknown. Somatic mutations or loss of heterozygosity in the remaining wild type copy of the FLCN gene have been found in renal tumors from BHD patients suggesting that FLCN is a classic tumor suppressor gene.
RESULTS: To examine the tumor suppressor function of FLCN, wild-type or mutant FLCN (H255R) was stably expressed in a FLCN-null renal tumor cell line, UOK257, derived from a BHD patient. When these cells were injected into nude mice, tumor development was inversely dependent upon the level of wild-type FLCN expression. We identified genes that were differentially expressed in the cell lines with or without wild-type FLCN, many of which are involved in TGF-beta signaling, including TGF-beta2 (TGFB2), inhibin beta A chain (INHBA), thrombospondin 1 (THBS1), gremlin (GREM1), and SMAD3. In support of the in vitro data, TGFB2, INHBA, THBS1 and SMAD3 expression levels were significantly lower in BHD-associated renal tumors compared with normal kidney tissue. Although receptor mediated SMAD phosphorylation was not affected, basal and maximal TGF-beta-induced levels of TGFB2, INHBA and SMAD7 were dramatically reduced in FLCN-null cells compared with FLCN-restored cells. Secreted TGF-beta2 and activin A (homo-dimer of INHBA) protein levels were also lower in FLCN-null cells compared with FLCN-restored cells. Consistent with a growth suppressive function, activin A (but not TGF-beta2) completely suppressed anchorage-independent growth of FLCN-null UOK257 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate a role for FLCN in the regulation of key molecules in TGF-beta signaling and confirm deregulation of their expression in BHD-associated renal tumors. Thus, deregulation of genes involved in TGF-beta signaling by FLCN inactivation is likely to be an important step for tumorigenesis in BHD syndrome.
Zhang X, Yang JJ, Kim YS, et al.An 8-gene signature, including methylated and down-regulated glutathione peroxidase 3, of gastric cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2010; 36(2):405-14 [PubMed
] Related Publications
We have identified an 8-gene signature with significant expression differences between gastric cancer and normal gastric tissues. This 8-gene set can predict the normal and cancer status of gastric tissues with more than 96% accuracy in a totally independent microarray dataset. The 8 genes are composed of down-regulated KLF4, GPX3, SST and LIPF, together with up-regulated SERPINH1, THY1 and INHBA in gastric cancer. To corroborate the differential gene expression pattern, we chose GPX3 and examined its expression pattern in detail. A comparison of GPX3 expression pattern shows a broader down-regulated pattern in multiple types of cancers, including cervical, thyroid, head and neck, lung cancers and melanoma than in healthy controls. An immuno-histostaining analysis in tissue microarrays confirms GPX3 down-regulation in gastric cancer. Mechanism-wise GPX3 down-regulation in gastric cancer is due to promoter hypermethylation. Collectively, these results show a correct identification of 8 genes as gastric cancer biomarkers.
INTRODUCTION: The expression, mechanisms of regulation, and functional impact of INHBA (activin A) in lung adenocarcinoma (AD) have not been fully elucidated.
METHODS: INHBA expression was examined in 96 lung samples (86 ADs, 10 normal lung) using oligonucleotide microarrays and 187 lung samples (164 ADs, 6 bronchioalveolar carcinomas, and 17 normal lung) using immunohistochemistry. The proliferation of AD cell lines H460 and SKLU1 was examined with WST-1 assays after treatment with recombinant activin A, follistatin, and INHBA-targeting small-interfering RNA. Cells were also treated with 5-aza-2' deoxycytidine and trichostatin A to investigate the role of epigenetic regulation in INHBA expression.
RESULTS: Primary ADs expressed 3.1 times more INHBA mRNA than normal lung. In stage I AD patients, high levels of primary tumor INHBA transcripts were associated with worse prognosis. Immunohistochemistry confirmed higher inhibin betaA protein expression in ADs (78.7%) and bronchioalveolar carcinomas (66.7%) compared with normal lung (11.8%). H460 and SKLU1 demonstrated increased proliferation when treated with exogenous activin A and reduced proliferation when treated with follistatin or INHBA-targeting small-interfering RNA. INHBA mRNA expression in H460 cells was upregulated after treatment with trichostatin A and 5-aza-2' deoxycytidine.
CONCLUSIONS: INHBA is overexpressed in AD relative to controls. Inhibin betaA may promote cell proliferation, and its overexpression is associated with worse survival in stage I AD patients. In addition, overexpression of INHBA may be affected by promoter methylation and histone acetylation in a subset of lung ADs.
Takeno A, Takemasa I, Doki Y, et al.Integrative approach for differentially overexpressed genes in gastric cancer by combining large-scale gene expression profiling and network analysis.
Br J Cancer. 2008; 99(8):1307-15 [PubMed
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Gene expression profiling is a valuable tool for identifying differentially expressed genes in studies of disease subtype and patient outcome for various cancers. However, it remains difficult to assign biological significance to the vast number of genes. There is an increasing awareness of gene expression profile as an important part of the contextual molecular network at play in complex biological processes such as cancer initiation and progression. This study analysed the transcriptional profiles commonly activated at different stages of gastric cancers using an integrated approach combining gene expression profiling of 222 human tissues and gene regulatory dynamic mapping. We focused on an inferred core network with CDKN1A (p21(WAF1/CIP1)) as the hub, and extracted seven candidates for gastric carcinogenesis (MMP7, SPARC, SOD2, INHBA, IGFBP7, NEK6, LUM). They were classified into two groups based on the correlation between expression level and stage. The seven genes were commonly activated and their expression levels tended to increase as disease progressed. NEK6 and INHBA are particularly promising candidate genes overexpressed at the protein level, as confirmed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. This integrated approach could help to identify candidate players in gastric carcinogenesis and progression. These genes are potential markers of gastric cancer regardless of stage.
Gene-knockout studies in mice suggest that INHA, encoding a subunit of gonadotropin-regulating proteins known as inhibins, is a tumor suppressor for testicular stromal cell tumors. It is not known whether genetic variation in the inhibin pathway also influences susceptibility to testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), the most common testicular cancer in young men. To address this question, we conducted a case-control analysis (577 cases; 707 controls) of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes in the inhibin pathway among participants in the U.S. Servicemen's Testicular Tumor Environmental and Endocrine Determinants Study. Thirty-eight tagging SNPs in six genes (INHA, INHBA, INHBB, INHBC, INHBE, and SMAD4) were genotyped. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) relating variant genotypes to TGCT risk were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Among White subjects, an elevated risk of TGCT was observed for carriers of the T allele of the INHA variant rs2059693 (CT genotype: OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.04-1.71; TT: OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.01-2.52; P(trend) = 0.008). The association with rs2059693 was stronger for nonseminomas, and for teratomas and teratocarcinomas in particular (N = 58; CT: OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 0.89-2.99; TT: OR, 4.54; 95% CI 2.00-10.3; P(trend) = 0.0008). We found no evidence of association with variants in the other investigated genes. These findings suggest that genetic variation in the INHA locus influences TGCT development.
BACKGROUND: The head and neck/oral squamous cell carcinoma (HNOSCC) is a diverse group of cancers, which develop from many different anatomic sites and are associated with different risk factors and genetic characteristics. The oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) is one of the most common types of HNOSCC. It is significantly more aggressive than other forms of HNOSCC, in terms of local invasion and spread. In this study, we aim to identify specific transcriptomic signatures that associated with OTSCC.
RESULTS: Genome-wide transcriptomic profiles were obtained for 53 primary OTSCCs and 22 matching normal tissues. Genes that exhibit statistically significant differences in expression between OTSCCs and normal were identified. These include up-regulated genes (MMP1, MMP10, MMP3, MMP12, PTHLH, INHBA, LAMC2, IL8, KRT17, COL1A2, IFI6, ISG15, PLAU, GREM1, MMP9, IFI44, CXCL1), and down-regulated genes (KRT4, MAL, CRNN, SCEL, CRISP3, SPINK5, CLCA4, ADH1B, P11, TGM3, RHCG, PPP1R3C, CEACAM7, HPGD, CFD, ABCA8, CLU, CYP3A5). The expressional difference of IL8 and MMP9 were further validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The Gene Ontology analysis suggested a number of altered biological processes in OTSCCs, including enhancements in phosphate transport, collagen catabolism, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling cascade, extracellular matrix organization and biogenesis, chemotaxis, as well as suppressions of superoxide release, hydrogen peroxide metabolism, cellular response to hydrogen peroxide, keratinization, and keratinocyte differentiation in OTSCCs.
CONCLUSION: In summary, our study provided a transcriptomic signature for OTSCC that may lead to a diagnosis or screen tool and provide the foundation for further functional validation of these specific candidate genes for OTSCC.
Shimizu S, Seki N, Sugimoto T, et al.Identification of molecular targets in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas based on genome-wide gene expression profiling.
Oncol Rep. 2007; 18(6):1489-97 [PubMed
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DNA amplifications activate oncogenes and are hallmarks of nearly all advanced cancers including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Some oncogenes show both DNA copy number gain and mRNA overexpression. Chromosomal comparative genomic hybridization and oligonucleotide microarrays were used to examine 8 HNSCC cell lines and a plot of gene expression levels relative to their position on the chromosome was produced. Three highly up-regulated genes, NT5C3, ANLN and INHBA, were identified on chromosome 7p14. These genes were subjected to quantitative real-time RT-PCR on cDNA and genomic DNA derived from 8 HNSCC cell lines. ANLN and INHBA showed a strong positive correlation between mRNA expression and genomic DNA levels and a similar relationship was shown for the known oncogene, EGFR, at 7p11.2. In clinical samples, ANLN and INHBA showed a significantly higher expression in tumors than in normal tissues. Patients with high expression levels of INHBA had a shorter disease-free survival rate. Therefore, INHBA may be a promising prognostic marker of HNSCC.
Yang S, Shin J, Park KH, et al.Molecular basis of the differences between normal and tumor tissues of gastric cancer.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007; 1772(9):1033-40 [PubMed
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To be able to describe the differences between the normal and tumor tissues of gastric cancer at a molecular level would be essential in the study of the disease. We investigated the gene expression pattern in the two types of tissues from gastric cancer by performing expression profiling of 86 tissues on 17K complementary DNA microarrays. To select for the differentially expressed genes, class prediction algorithm was employed. For predictor selection, samples were first divided into a training (n=58), and a test set (n=28). A group of 894 genes was selected by a t-test in a training set, which was used for cross-validation in the training set and class (normal or tumor) prediction in the test set. Smaller groups of 894 genes were individually tested for their ability to correctly predict the normal or tumor samples based on gene expression pattern. The expression ratios of the 5 genes chosen from microarray data can be validated by real time RT-PCR over 6 tissue samples, resulting in a high level of correlation, individually or combined. When a representative predictor set of 92 genes was examined, pathways of 'focal adhesion' (with gene components of THBS2, PDGFD, MAPK1, COL1A2, COL6A3), 'ECM-receptor interaction' pathway (THBS2, COL1A2, COL6A3, FN1) and 'TGF-beta signaling' (THBS2, MAPK1, INHBA) represent some of the main differences between normal and tumor of gastric cancer at a molecular level.
Labbé E, Lock L, Letamendia A, et al.Transcriptional cooperation between the transforming growth factor-beta and Wnt pathways in mammary and intestinal tumorigenesis.
Cancer Res. 2007; 67(1):75-84 [PubMed
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Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and Wnt ligands function in numerous developmental processes, and alterations of both signaling pathways are associated with common pathologic conditions, including cancer. To obtain insight into the extent of interdependence of the two signaling cascades in regulating biological responses, we used an oligonucleotide microarray approach to identify Wnt and TGF-beta target genes using normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells as a model. Combination treatment of TGF-beta and Wnt revealed a novel transcriptional program that could not have been predicted from single ligand treatments and included a cohort of genes that were cooperatively induced by both pathways. These included both novel and known components or modulators of TGF-beta and Wnt pathways, suggesting that mutual feedback is a feature of the coordinated activities of the ligands. The majority of the cooperative targets display increased expression in tumors derived from either Min (many intestinal neoplasia) or mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-Wnt1 mice, two models of Wnt-induced tumors, with nine of these genes (Ankrd1, Ccnd1, Ctgf, Gpc1, Hs6st2, IL11, Inhba, Mmp14, and Robo1) showing increases in both. Reduction of TGF-beta signaling by expression of a dominant-negative TGF-beta type II receptor in bigenic MMTV-Wnt1/DNIIR mice increased mammary tumor latency and was correlated with a decrease in expression of Gpc1, Inhba, and Robo1, three of the TGF-beta/Wnt cooperative targets. Our results indicate that the TGF-beta and Wnt/beta-catenin pathways are firmly intertwined and generate a unique gene expression pattern that can contribute to tumor progression.
Le Floch N, Rivat C, De Wever O, et al.The proinvasive activity of Wnt-2 is mediated through a noncanonical Wnt pathway coupled to GSK-3beta and c-Jun/AP-1 signaling.
FASEB J. 2005; 19(1):144-6 [PubMed
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Inappropriate activation of the Wnt/APC/beta-catenin signaling pathways plays a critical role at early stages in a variety of human cancers. However, their respective implication in tumor cell invasion is still hypothetical. Here, we show that two activators of the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin transcription pathway, namely Dvl-2, the Axin 501-560 fragment binding glycogen synthase kinase -3beta (GSK-3beta), and the negative Wnt regulator wt-Axin did not alter cell invasion into type I collagen. In addition, both Dvl-2 and Axin 501-560 exerted a permissive action on the proinvasive activity of HGF and intestinal trefoil factor. Upstream activation of Wnt signaling by the Wnt-2 and Wnt-3a ligands, stable overexpression of Wnt-2, as well as GSK-3beta inhibition by lithium, SB216763, and GSK-3beta dominant negative forms (K85R and R96E) conferred the invasive phenotype through several proinvasive pathways. Induction of the matrix metalloprotease MMP-7 (matrilysin) gene and protein by Wnt-2 was abolished by inactivation of the AP-1 binding site in the promoter. Accordingly, invasion induced by Wnt-2 was prevented by soluble FRP-3 and FRP-1, sequestration of Gbetagamma subunits, depletion of the GSK-3beta protein by RNA interference, the c-Jun dominant negative mutant TAM67 and was not reversed by wt-Axin. Thus, the proinvasive activity of Wnt-2 is mediated by a noncanonical Wnt pathway using GSK-3beta and the AP-1 oncogene. Our data provide a potential clue for our understanding of the action and crosstalk between Wnt activators and other proinvasive pathways, in relation with matrix substrates and proteases in human cancers.
Cao D, Hustinx SR, Sui G, et al.Identification of novel highly expressed genes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas through a bioinformatics analysis of expressed sequence tags.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2004; 3(11):1081-9; discussion 1090-1 [PubMed
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In most microarray experiments, a significant fraction of the differentially expressed mRNAs identified correspond to expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and are generally discarded from further analyses. We used careful bioinformatics analyses to characterize those ESTs that were found to be highly overexpressed in a series of pancreatic adenocarcinomas. cDNA was prepared from 60 non-neoplastic samples (normal pancreas [n = 20], normal colon [n = 10], or normal duodenal mucosal [n = 30]) and from 64 pancreatic cancers (resected cancers [n = 50] or cancer cell lines [n = 14]) and hybridized to the complete Affymetrix Human Genome U133 GeneChip(R) set (arrays U133A and B) for simultaneous analysis of 45,000 fragments corresponding to 33,000 known genes and 6,000 ESTs. The GeneExpress(R) software system Fold Change Analysis Tool was used and 60 ESTs were identified that were expressed at levels at least 3-fold greater in the pancreatic cancers as compared to normal tissues. Searches against the human genomic sequence and comparative genomic analysis of human and mouse genomes was carried out using basic local alignment search tools (BLAST), BLASTN, and BLASTX, for identifying protein coding genes corresponding to the ESTs. Subsequently, in order to pick the most relevant candidate genes for a more detailed analysis, we looked for domains/motifs in the open reading frames using SMART and Pfam programs. We were able to definitively map 43 of the 60 ESTs to known or novel genes, and 15 of the ESTs could be localized in close proximity to a gene in the human genome although we were unable to establish that the EST was indeed derived from those genes. The differential expression of a subset of genes was confirmed at the protein level by immunohistochemical labeling of tissue microarrays (inhibin beta A [INHBA] and CD29) and/or at the transcript level by RT-PCR (INHBA, AKAP12, ELK3, FOXQ1, EIF5A2, and EFNA5). We conclude that bioinformatics tools can be used to characterize differentially overexpressed ESTs, and that some of these ESTs may represent diagnostically and therapeutically useful targets that might be missed using data solely from currently annotated databases.
Wong SC, Lo SF, Lee KC, et al.Expression of frizzled-related protein and Wnt-signalling molecules in invasive human breast tumours.
J Pathol. 2002; 196(2):145-53 [PubMed
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Frizzled-related protein (Frp) is a new family of secreted proteins that contain a region homologous to the extracellular cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of the frizzled family proteins. The role of Frp protein is far from clear. To explore the role of Frp and its relationship to the Wnt-signalling pathway in breast cancer, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses of Frp, Wnt-1, APC, beta-catenin, and its target genes c-myc and cyclin D1 were conducted in 70 specimens of invasive ductal carcinomas of the human breast. Frp mRNA was down-regulated in 62 and elevated in eight tumour specimens, compared with adjacent normal tissues. In the course of tumour progression, however, Frp mRNA steadily increased in both tumour and the adjacent tissues. Interestingly, the number of cases with axillary lymph node metastasis was significantly lower in the group with elevated Frp than in the group with decreased Frp, suggesting that Frp may contribute as a prognostic factor in invasive breast cancer. Wnt-1, a gene implicated in human breast cancer, was markedly elevated in grade 1 tumours, but declined as tumour grade declined. The level of Wnt-1 was linearly correlated with its downstream target beta-catenin (p<0.05), but was inversely correlated with Frp (p<0.05), suggesting a possible negative regulatory role of Frp with regard to Wnt-1. APC was inversely correlated with beta-catenin (p<0.05). Beta-catenin, a key transcriptional activator responsible for the activation of both c-myc and cyclin D1 in colorectal tumours, was detected at high levels in the plasma membranes of cells in normal tissue. In tumour masses, however, beta-catenin lost its tight association with the membrane and diffused into the cytoplasm. Surprisingly, it clearly did not penetrate the nuclei, despite the fact that both c-myc and cyclin D1 were markedly elevated in all tumour tissues. As revealed in this study, Wnt-1/beta-catenin plays very different roles in the oncogenesis of breast and colon cancers. This first systemic analysis of the Frp and the Wnt-signalling pathway in human breast cancer provides a springboard for further work on the role of Frp in the development of breast cancer.
Dragoni I, Mariotti M, Consalez GG, et al.EDF-1, a novel gene product down-regulated in human endothelial cell differentiation.
J Biol Chem. 1998; 273(47):31119-24 [PubMed
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Endothelial cell differentiation is a crucial step in angiogenesis. Here we report the identification of EDF-1, a novel gene product that is down-regulated when endothelial cells are induced to differentiate in vitro. The cDNA encoding EDF-1 was isolated by RNA fingerprinting from human endothelial cells exposed to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat, a viral protein known to be angiogenic. The deduced amino acid sequence of EDF-1 encodes a basic intracellular protein of 148 amino acids that is homologous to MBF1 (multiprotein-bridging factor 1) of the silkworm Bombyx mori and to H7, which is implicated in the early developmental events of Dictyostelium discoideum. Interestingly, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat, which affects endothelial functions, and the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and culture on fibrin gels, which promote endothelial differentiation in vitro, all down-regulate EDF-1 expression both at the RNA and protein levels. In addition, the inhibition of EDF-1 translation by an antisense anti-EDF-1 construct results in the inhibition of endothelial cell growth and in the transition from a nonpolar cobblestone phenotype to a polar fibroblast-like phenotype. These data suggest that EDF-1 may play a role in the regulation of human endothelial cell differentiation.
Cluitmans FH, Esendam BH, Veenhof WF, et al.The role of cytokines and hematopoietic growth factors in the autocrine/paracrine regulation of inducible hematopoiesis.
Ann Hematol. 1997 Jul-Aug; 75(1-2):27-31 [PubMed
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To elucidate the role of hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs) and other cytokines in the autocrine or paracrine regulation of inducible hematopoiesis we studied cytokine gene expression in the bone marrow (BM) of patients after myelosuppressive treatment. Furthermore, we studied the cytokine gene expression profile in healthy individuals before and after bone marrow harvesting for the purpose of bone marrow transplantation. We speculated that the bone marrow harvesting procedure might induce changes in cytokine gene expression. No induction of G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-1 alpha, IL-3, IL-5, IL-8, IL-9, and IL-12 was observed in the BM of patients following intensive chemotherapy. Also, no up-regulation of expression of M-CSF, IL-1 beta, IL-4, IL-6, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta, IGF-1, EDF, and EPA gene was found, illustrating that the investigated cytokines probably are not relevant in the presumed autocrine/paracrine regulation of the recovery of hematopoiesis following depletion of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Concomitantly, elevated G-CSF plasma levels were found in these patients, suggesting that G-CSF has an endocrine regulatory role in inducible hematopoiesis. Induction of GM-CSF and IL-8, but not of G-CSF or IL-3 gene expression and upregulation of IL-1 beta and IL-6 gene following BM harvesting was observed. This induction of GM-CSF and IL-8 may be attributed to tissue damage rather than to HPC depletion.