Gene Summary

Gene:FSCN1; fascin actin-bundling protein 1
Aliases: HSN, SNL, p55, FAN1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the fascin family of actin-binding proteins. Fascin proteins organize F-actin into parallel bundles, and are required for the formation of actin-based cellular protrusions. The encoded protein plays a critical role in cell migration, motility, adhesion and cellular interactions. Expression of this gene is known to be regulated by several microRNAs, and overexpression of this gene may play a role in the metastasis of multiple types of cancer by increasing cell motility. Expression of this gene is also a marker for Reed-Sternberg cells in Hodgkin's lymphoma. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 15. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FSCN1 (cancer-related)

Gao R, Zhang N, Yang J, et al.
Long non-coding RNA ZEB1-AS1 regulates miR-200b/FSCN1 signaling and enhances migration and invasion induced by TGF-β1 in bladder cancer cells.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):111 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The effect of competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) can regulate gene expression by competitively binding microRNAs. Fascin-1 (FSCN1) plays an important role in the regulation of cellular migration and invasion during tumor progression, but how its regulatory mechanism works through the ceRNA effect is still unclear in bladder cancer (BLCA).
METHODS: The role of fascin-1, miR-200b, and ZEB1-AS1 in BLCA was investigated in vitro and in vivo. The interaction between fascin-1, miR-200b, and ZEB1-AS1 was identified using bioinformatics analysis, luciferase activity assays, RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP), quantitative PCR, and western blotting. Loss (or gain)-of-function experiments were performed to investigate the biological roles of miR-200b and ZEB1-AS1 on migration, invasion, proliferation, cell apoptosis, and cell cycle.
RESULTS: ZEB1-AS1 functions as a competing endogenous RNA in BLCA to regulate the expression of fascin-1 through miR-200b. Moreover, the oncogenic long non-coding RNA ZEB1-AS1 was highly expressed in BLCA and positively correlated with high tumor grade, high TNM stage, and reduced survival of patients with BLCA. Moreover, ZEB1-AS1 downregulated the expression of miR-200b, promoted migration, invasion, and proliferation, and inhibited apoptosis in BLCA. Furthermore, we found TGF-β1 induced migration and invasion in BLCA by regulating the ZEB1-AS1/miR-200b/FSCN1 axis.
CONCLUSION: The observations in this study identify an important regulatory mechanism of fascin-1 in BLCA, and the TGF-β1/ZEB1-AS1/miR-200b/FSCN1 axis may serve as a potential target for cancer therapeutic purposes.

Gkretsi V, Louca M, Stylianou A, et al.
Inhibition of Breast Cancer Cell Invasion by Ras Suppressor-1 (RSU-1) Silencing Is Reversed by Growth Differentiation Factor-15 (GDF-15).
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Extracellular matrix (ECM)-related adhesion proteins are important in metastasis. Ras suppressor-1 (RSU-1), a suppressor of

Katase N, Nishimatsu SI, Yamauchi A, et al.
DKK3 knockdown confers negative effects on the malignant potency of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells via the PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(3):1021-1032 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dickkopf‑related protein 3 (DKK3), which is a member of the Dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor family, is considered to be a tumor suppressor, due to its reduced expression in cancer cells and its ability to induce apoptosis when overexpressed by adenovirus. However, our previous study demonstrated alternative functions for DKK3 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Our study reported that DKK3 expression was predominantly upregulated in HNSCC cell lines and tissue samples, and its expression was significantly correlated with poor prognosis. Furthermore, DKK3 overexpression in HNSCC cells significantly increased cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion and in vivo tumor growth. These data have led to the hypothesis that DKK3 may exert oncogenic functions and may increase the malignant properties of HNSCC. The present study established a stable DKK3 knockdown cell line (HSC‑3 shDKK3) using lentivirus‑mediated short hairpin RNA, and assessed its effects on cancer cell behavior using MTT, migration and invasion assays. In addition, its effects on in vivo tumor growth were assessed using a xenograft model. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of DKK3 knockdown were investigated by microarray analysis, pathway analysis and western blotting. Compared with control cells, HSC‑3 shDKK3 cells exhibited significantly reduced proliferation, migration and invasion, and formed significantly smaller tumor masses when subcutaneously transplanted into nude mice. In addition, in HSC‑3 shDKK3 cells, the expression levels of phosphorylated (p)‑protein kinase B (Akt) (Ser473), p‑phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K) p85 (Tyr467), p‑PI3K p55 (Try199), p‑3‑phosphoinositide‑dependent protein kinase‑1 (PDK1) (Ser241) and total p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) were reduced. Furthermore, phosphorylation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) (Ser2448) was slightly decreased in HSC‑3 shDKK3 cells, which may be due to the increased expression of DEP domain‑containing mTOR‑interacting protein. Conversely, DKK3 overexpression in HSC‑3 shDKK3 cells rescued cellular proliferation, migration and invasion. With regards to expression levels, p‑PI3K and p‑PDK1 expression was not altered, whereas mTOR and p‑p38 MAPK expression was elevated. These data supported the hypothesis and indicated that DKK3 may contribute to the malignant phenotype of HNSCC cells via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways.

Zhang X, Cho IH, Park JH, et al.
Fascin is involved in cancer cell invasion and is regulated by stromal factors.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(1):465-474 [PubMed] Related Publications
The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. The stroma surrounding a tumor is known to contain a variety of factors that can increase angiogenesis, cancer growth and tumor progression. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of fascin in cancer growth and invasion and identify stromal factors involved in cancer progression. A fascin‑depleted cell line (fascindep) was used to observe the role of fascin in cancer invasion. Compared with wild‑type Mock cells, cancer cell invasion in Matrigel‑coated Transwell and three‑dimensional (3D) culture system were reduced by fascin depletion. Tumor cell growth in vivo was also significantly reduced in mice injected with fascindep cells. Notably, fascin expression was increased during Transwell invasion with Matrigel compared to Transwell invasion without Matrigel. TGF‑β1, EGF and IL‑1β significantly stimulated fascin expression. Such increased expression of fascin was also observed in cultured cells using conditioned media (CM) from cancer‑associated fibroblasts (CAFs). However, no significant change in fascin expression was observed using CM from normal fibroblasts (NFs). Stimulated expression of fascin by Matrigel and CAFs was reduced by biological specific inhibitor of TGF‑β1, EGF and IL‑1β. Compared with wild‑type Mock cells, the fascindep cell line showed low RhoA and NF‑κB activity, suggesting that RhoA and NF‑κB signals are involved in fascin expression. In conclusion, stromal factors are involved in cancer invasion and progression by activating intracellular signaling of cancer cells to increase fascin expression.

Kakurina GV, Kondakova IV, Spirina LV, et al.
Expression of Genes Encoding Cell Motility Proteins during Progression of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2018; 166(2):250-252 [PubMed] Related Publications
The model of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) was used to study the expression of genes encoding actin-binding proteins depending on the type of cell motility. The expression of SNAIL1 and CAPN2 mRNA in HNSCC tissue was higher than in specimens of dysplastic epithelium of the larynx and hypopharynx, which can be explained by activation of mesenchymal and amoeboid types of cell motility. In biopsy material of HNSCC patients with T1-2N0M0, expression of genes responsible for actin-binding proteins differed from that of patients with pretumor pathology of the larynx and hypopharynx: expression of FSCN was lower, while expressions of EZR and CAP1 were higher. The data attest that progression of HNSCC is associated with activation of both types of cell motility and with the changes in the expression of mRNA encoding cell motility proteins.

Zeinali T, Mansoori B, Mohammadi A, Baradaran B
Regulatory mechanisms of miR-145 expression and the importance of its function in cancer metastasis.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019; 109:195-207 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs are post-transcriptional mediators of gene expression and regulation, which play influential roles in tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis. The expression of tumor suppressor miR-145 is reduced in various cancer cell lines, containing both solid tumors and blood malignancies. However, the responsible mechanisms of its down-regulation are a complicated network. miR-145 is potentially able to inhbit tumor cell metastasis by targeting of multiple oncogenes, including MUC1, FSCN1, Vimentin, Cadherin, Fibronectin, Metadherin, GOLM1, ARF6, SMAD3, MMP11, Snail1, ZEB1/2, HIF-1α and Rock-1. This distinctive role of miR-145 in the regulation of metastasis-related gene expression may introduce miR-145 as an ideal candidate for controlling of cancer metastasis by miRNA replacement therapy. The present review aims to discuss the current understanding of the different aspects of molecular mechanisms of miR-145 regulation as well as its role in r metastasis regulation.

Mollaoglu G, Jones A, Wait SJ, et al.
The Lineage-Defining Transcription Factors SOX2 and NKX2-1 Determine Lung Cancer Cell Fate and Shape the Tumor Immune Microenvironment.
Immunity. 2018; 49(4):764-779.e9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/10/2019 Related Publications
The major types of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma-have distinct immune microenvironments. We developed a genetic model of squamous NSCLC on the basis of overexpression of the transcription factor Sox2, which specifies lung basal cell fate, and loss of the tumor suppressor Lkb1 (SL mice). SL tumors recapitulated gene-expression and immune-infiltrate features of human squamous NSCLC; such features included enrichment of tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) and decreased expression of NKX2-1, a transcriptional regulator that specifies alveolar cell fate. In Kras-driven adenocarcinomas, mis-expression of Sox2 or loss of Nkx2-1 led to TAN recruitment. TAN recruitment involved SOX2-mediated production of the chemokine CXCL5. Deletion of Nkx2-1 in SL mice (SNL) revealed that NKX2-1 suppresses SOX2-driven squamous tumorigenesis by repressing adeno-to-squamous transdifferentiation. Depletion of TANs in SNL mice reduced squamous tumors, suggesting that TANs foster squamous cell fate. Thus, lineage-defining transcription factors determine the tumor immune microenvironment, which in turn might impact the nature of the tumor.

Schiewek J, Schumacher U, Lange T, et al.
Clinical relevance of cytoskeleton associated proteins for ovarian cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2018; 144(11):2195-2205 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Ovarian cancer has a high mortality rate and up to now no reliable molecular prognostic biomarkers have been established. During malignant progression, the cytoskeleton is strongly altered. Hence we analyzed if expression of certain cytoskeleton-associated proteins is correlated with clinical outcome of ovarian cancer patients.
METHODS: First, in silico analysis was performed using the cancer genome atlas (TCGA), the human expression atlas and Pubmed. Selected candidates were validated on 270 ovarian cancer patients by qRT-PCR and/or by western blotting.
RESULTS: In silico analysis revealed that mRNAs of 214 cytoskeleton-associated proteins are detectable in ovarian cancer tissue. Among these, we selected 17 proteins that participate in cancer disease progression and cytoskeleton modulation: KIF14, KIF20A, KIF18A, ASPM, CEP55, DLGAP5, MAP9, EB1, KATNA1, DIAPH1, ANLN, SCIN, CCDC88A, FSCN1, GSN, VASP and CDC42. The first ten candidates interact with microtubules (MTs) and the others bind to actin filaments. Validation on clinical samples of ovarian cancer patients revealed that the expression levels of DIAPH1, EB1, KATNA1, KIF14 and KIF18A significantly correlated with clinical and histological parameters of ovarian cancer. High DIAPH1, EB1, KATNA1 and KIF14 protein levels were associated with increased overall survival (OAS) of ovarian cancer patients, while high DIAPH1 and EB1 protein levels were also associated with low differentiation of respective tumors (G2/3). Moreover, DIAPH1 was the only protein, whose expression significantly correlated with increased recurrence-free interval (RFI).
CONCLUSION: Mainly the expression levels of the MT-associated proteins analyzed in this study, correlated with prolonged survival of ovarian cancer patients. From > 200 genes initially considered, 17 cytoskeletal proteins are involved in cancer progression according to the literature. Among these, four proteins significantly correlated with improved survival of ovarian cancer patients.

Kanda Y, Kawaguchi T, Osaki M, et al.
Fascin protein stabilization by miR-146a implicated in the process of a chronic inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis model.
Inflamm Res. 2018; 67(10):839-846 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: In sporadic colon tumors, multistep process of well-known genetic alterations accelerates carcinogenesis; however, this does not appear to be the case in inflammation-related ones. We previously established a model of inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis using human colonic adenoma cells, and identified fascin as a driver gene of this process. We analyzed the microRNAs involved in the stable fascin expression in colon adenocarcinoma cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: miRNA microarray analysis was performed using FPCK-1-1 adenoma cells and its-derived FPCKpP
RESULTS: We found that 17 miRNAs including miR-146a were upregulated and 16 miRNAs were downregulated in FPCKpP
CONCLUSIONS: We found that stable fascin expression is brought about via the inhibition of proteasome degradation by miR-146a in the process of a chronic inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis.

Zhang Y, Liang B, Dong H
Expression of fascin_1 protein in cancer tissues of patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer and its relevance to patients' clinicopathologic features and prognosis.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2018; 14(4):856-859 [PubMed] Related Publications
Objective: The aim of this study is to explore the expression of Fascin_1 protein in cancer tissues of patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its relevance to patients' clinicopathologic features and prognosis.
Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed on 81 patients with NSCLC who were admitted to our hospital and received surgical treatment from February 2012 to March 2016. To analyze the correlation of Fascin_1 protein expression in cancer tissues with the clinicopathologic features and prognosis of the patients, the immuno-histochemical method was applied to examine Fascin_1 protein expression in cancer and normal paracarcinoma tissues of the included 81 NSCLC patients.
Results: Fascin_1 protein was diffused in cancer tissues, and cancer cells surrounding the carcinoma lesions were strongly stained. The protein was mainly located on the cytoplast or membrane of positive cells and manifested as a focal or diffuse brown granular distribution. The negative, weakly positive, and strongly positive expression rates in cancer tissues were 23.5% (19/81), 35.8% (29/81), and 40.7% (33/81), respectively. The negative, weakly positive, and strongly positive expression rates in paracarcinoma tissues were 71.6% (58/81), 12.3% (10/81), and 16% (13/81), respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05), and the positive expression rate of Fascin_1 in cancer tissues was significantly higher than that of in paracarcinoma tissues (P < 0.05). The positive expression of Fascin_1 in cancer tissues was significantly correlated with the neoplasm stage (P < 0.05) and mediastinal lymph node metastases (P < 0.05); however, it was not relevant to the patients' age, gender, tumor size, pathological type, tumor grading, or pleural effusion (P > 0.05). The median survival times for patients with positive Fascin_1 and negative Fascin_1 expression in cancer tissues were 26 and 44 months, respectively, indicating that the median survival time of the Fascin_1-positive group was significantly lower than that of in the Fascin_1-negative group (heart rate = 2.74, 95% confidence interval: 1.32-6.87, P < 0.05).
Conclusions: Fascin_1 protein expression in NSCLC tissues and normal paracarcinoma issues were different. Fascin_1 expression in cancer tissues was related to the poor prognosis of NSCLC patients.

Piskor BM, Pryczynicz A, Lubowicka E, et al.
Immunohistochemical expression of Fascin-1 in colorectal cancer in relation to clinical and pathological parameters.
Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2018; 1(2):106-112 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Fascins are a group of proteins taking part in the maintenance of a proper structure of the cellular cytoskeleton. Fascin-1 is an actin-bundling protein present in neurons, fibroblasts, endothelial, smooth muscle, dendritic and mesenchymal cells whereas lack of its expression is characteristic of epithelial cells. Fascin-1 overexpression can be observed in neoplastic cells. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the expression of Fascin-1 protein in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and to analyze associations between Fascin-1 ex-pression and clinical-pathological parameters.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study material included postoperative samples (tumor and unchanged colon tissue) ob-tained from 51 CRC patients. Fascin-1 expression was assessed in the paraffin sections by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: A statistically significant correlation was found between the histological type of cancer and the expres-sion of Fascin-1 (p = 0.012). Increased expression of Fascin-1 in CRC was more frequent in adenocarcinoma type without the mucosal component with a better prognosis and decreased expression of this protein correlated with infiltration of cancer cells to blood and lymphatic vessels (p = 0.038).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate a potential role of Fascin-1 in the pathogenesis of colon cancer; however, further studies will show whether this protein plays a role in the infiltration of colorectal cancer cells.

Yang J, Zhang N, Gao R, et al.
TGF-β1 induced fascin1 expression facilitates the migration and invasion of kidney carcinoma cells through ERK and JNK signaling pathways.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 501(4):913-919 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays a crucial role in the signaling network that controls cellular invasion and motility capability during tumor development. To investigate whether fascin1 plays a crucial role in TGF-β1-facilitated invasion and migration of kidney cancer cells (KCC), real-time PCR and western blotting were used to test the fascin1 expression after TGF-β1 treatment (10 ng/ml) in 769-P and OSRC cells. Fascin1 was silenced using the small interfering RNA (siRNA) technique. Cytoskeleton staining was used to test the change of Cytoskeleton. Cell migration and invasion changes were measured by wound-healing and Transwell assay. The results indicate that mRNA and protein levels of fascin1 were dramatically increased after treatment with 10 ng/ml TGF-β1 in 769-P and OSRC cells. TGF-β1 promoted the occurrence of EMT (Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition) and the invasive and migratory capabilities of the two cell lines after treatment with 10 ng/ml TGF-β1. In addition, fascin1 siRNA dramatically attenuated the invasiveness and migration induced by TGF-β1. Furthermore, we identified that specific inhibitors of ERK and JNK signaling pathways, FR180204 and SP600125, can suppress TGF-β1-induced fascin1 expression. In conclusion, these results reveal that fascin1 is an important mediator of TGF-β1-induced invasion and migration of KCC through ERK and JNK signal pathways.

Wu F, Lin Y, Cui P, et al.
Cdc20/p55 mediates the resistance to docetaxel in castration-resistant prostate cancer in a Bim-dependent manner.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2018; 81(6):999-1006 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: At least to date, no effective treatment for advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has been established. Recent studies indicated that cell division cycle 20 homolog (Cdc20) overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. However, the mechanism of Cdc20 in the development of docetaxel resistance in CRPC remains elusive.
METHODS: In this study, the transcription of Cdc20 was confirmed in three independent CRPC cell lines derived from different tissues, including LNCaP, PC3, and DU145. Docetaxel resistant (DR) cell lines were generated within the background of DU145 and PC3. The protein levels of Cdc20 and the biological phenotype were detected in both wild-type and DR cell lines. To further explore the mechanism of Cdc20 overexpression, stable cell lines with Cdc20 or Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim) deprivation were generated and examined for biological parameters. In addition, a specific Cdc20 inhibitor was used in DR cell lines to explore the potential solution for docetaxel resistant CRPC.
RESULTS: Here, we identified Cdc20 is overexpressed in docetaxel resistant CRPC cell lines, including LNCaP, PC3, and DU145. We also reported that DR cell lines, which mimic the recurrent prostate cancer cells after docetaxel treatment, have higher levels of Cdc20 protein compared with the CRPC cell lines. Interestingly, the protein levels of Bim, an E3 ligase substrate of Cdc20, were decreased in DR cell lines compared with the wild-type, while the mRNA levels were similar. More importantly, in DR cell lines, the biological phenotype induced by Cdc20 deletion could be significantly reversed by the additional knockdown of Bim. As a result, docetaxel resistant prostate cancer cells treated with the pharmacological Cdc20 inhibitor became sensitive to docetaxel treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our data collectively demonstrated that Cdc20 overexpression facilitates the docetaxel resistant of the CRPC cell lines in a Bim-dependent manner. Furthermore, additionally targeting Cdc20 might be a promising solution for the treatment of the CRPC with docetaxel resistance.

Matsumura T, Hida S, Kitazawa M, et al.
Fascin1 suppresses RIG-I-like receptor signaling and interferon-β production by associating with IκB kinase ϵ (IKKϵ) in colon cancer.
J Biol Chem. 2018; 293(17):6326-6336 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/10/2019 Related Publications
Fascin1 is an actin-bundling protein involved in cancer cell migration and has recently been shown also to have roles in virus-mediated immune cell responses. Because viral infection has been shown to activate immune cells and to induce interferon-β expression in human cancer cells, we evaluated the effects of fascin1 on virus-dependent signaling via the membrane- and actin-associated protein RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I) in colon cancer cells. We knocked down fascin1 expression with shRNA retrovirally transduced into a DLD-1 colon cancer and L929 fibroblast-like cell lines and used luciferase reporter assays and co-immunoprecipitation to identify fascin1 targets. We found that intracellular poly(I·C) transfection to mimic viral infection enhances the RIG-I/MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5)-mediated dimerization of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3). The transfection also significantly increased the expression levels of IRF-7, interferon-β, and interferon-inducible cytokine IP-10 in fascin1-deleted cells compared with controls while significantly suppressing cell growth, migration, and invasion. We also found that fascin1 constitutively interacts with IκB kinase ϵ (IKKϵ) in the RIG-I signaling pathway. In summary, we have identified fascin1 as a suppressor of the RIG-I signaling pathway associating with IκB kinase ϵ in DLD-1 colon cancer cells to suppress immune responses to viral infection.

Zhao D, Zhang T, Hou XM, Ling XL
Knockdown of fascin-1 expression suppresses cell migration and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer by regulating the MAPK pathway.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 497(2):694-699 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fascin-1 is a cytoskeletal protein and it can specifically bind to F-actin, it can be abnormally expressed in a variety of solid tumors. Fascin-1 was identified as a factor for poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the relevant molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In this study, the fascin-1 knockdown cells were produced by lentivirus infection, and then cell proliferation, invasion and cell migration assay were used to investigate the role of fascin-1 in NSCLC cells. The MAPK pathway related proteins were determined by western blot. In the current study, lentivirus-mediated fascin-1 knockdown significantly decreased the proliferation of NSCLC cells. Furthermore, fascin-1 silencing partly inhibited cell invasion and migration. Inhibition of fascin-1 decreased the activity of the MAPK pathway. Therefore, targeting fascin-1 may inhibit the growth and metastasis of NSCLC cells, which is a potentially effective therapeutic strategy for treating NSCLC.

Wang CQ, Tang CH, Wang Y, et al.
FSCN1 gene polymorphisms: biomarkers for the development and progression of breast cancer.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):15887 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/10/2019 Related Publications
Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Fascin-1 (FSCN1) is an actin-binding protein found in mammalian cells, including endothelial, neuronal and mesenchymal cells. FSCN1 overexpression has been indicated in breast cancer patients. However, scant information is available regarding the association between FSCN1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the risk or prognosis of breast cancer. We report on the association between 6 SNPs of the FSCN1 gene (rs56156320, rs8772, rs3801004, rs2966447, rs852479 and rs1640233) and breast cancer susceptibility as well as clinical outcomes in 316 patients with breast cancer and in 222 healthy controls. Carriers of the AC or AC + CC allele of the variant rs56156320 were at greater risk of breast cancer compared with wild-type (AA) carriers. Moreover, carriers of at least one G allele in rs3801004 were likely to progress to stage III/IV disease and lymph node metastasis. Individuals with at least one T allele at FSCN1 SNP rs2966447 were at higher risk of developing pathologic grade G3 disease. Furthermore, individuals bearing the C/C haplotype at SNPs rs56156320 and rs3801004 had nearly twice the risk of breast cancer. Our results indicate that genetic variations in the FSCN1 gene may serve as an important predictor of early-stage breast cancer.

Wang CQ, Li Y, Huang BF, et al.
EGFR conjunct FSCN1 as a Novel Therapeutic Strategy in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):15654 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/10/2019 Related Publications
Emerging evidence indicates that Fascin-1 (FSCN1) may possess a causal role in the development of several types of cancers and serves as a novel biomarker of aggressiveness in certain carcinomas. However, the regulatory mechanism of FSCN1 in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell invasion and migration is still largely unknown. In our study, we observed that the FSCN1 expression rates were significantly higher in invasive ductal carcinoma, compared with both usual ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ. FSCN1 expression was significantly higher in cases of TNBC compared with the non-TNBC subtype. Overexpression of FSCN1 promoted TNBC cell migration and invasion. Epidermal growth factor induced the expression of FSCN1 through activation of MAPK, which subsequently promoted cell migration and invasion. A significant decrease in FSCN1 expression following the co-treatment of FSCN1 siRNA and Gefitinib, compared with the separate treatment of FSCN1 siRNA or Gefitinib. Furthermore, we found that there was a significant association between FSCN1 expression and poor relapse-free survival and overall survival. Therefore, we suggest that co-targeting epidermal growth factor receptor and FSCN1 dual biomarker may be used as a novel therapeutic strategy for TNBC.

Lin C, Zhang S, Wang Y, et al.
Functional Role of a Novel Long Noncoding RNA
Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 24(2):486-498 [PubMed] Related Publications

Yu S, Xie H, Zhang J, et al.
MicroRNA‑663 suppresses the proliferation and invasion of colorectal cancer cells by directly targeting FSCN1.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(6):9707-9714 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract. The dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) has been reported in the majority of types of human cancer, and is correlated with tumorigenesis and tumor development. Abnormal expression of miR‑663 has been observed in various types of human cancer. However, little is known about its role in CRC. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the expression and potential role of miR‑663, and its underlying molecular mechanism in CRC. It was observed that miR‑663 was markedly downregulated in CRC tissues and cell lines. Decreased miR‑663 expression levels in CRC tissues were correlated with tumor, node, metastasis stage and lymph node metastasis. Functional assays revealed that upregulation of miR‑663 inhibited cell proliferation and invasion in CRC. Further molecular mechanism assays demonstrated the fascin (FSCN1) was a target gene of miR‑663. In addition, FSCN1 was increased and negatively correlated with miR‑663 expression in CRC tissues. FSCN1 underexpression mimicked the tumor suppressive functions induced by miR‑663 overexpression on CRC cell proliferation and invasion. Collectively, the present study presented evidence that miR‑663 may act as a tumor suppressor in CRC by directly targeting FSCN1, which may lead to a potential therapeutic strategy focusing on miR‑663 and FSCN1 for patients with this disease.

Xu W, Chang J, Du X, Hou J
Long non-coding RNA PCAT-1 contributes to tumorigenesis by regulating FSCN1 via miR-145-5p in prostate cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 95:1112-1118 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer associated lncRNA transcript 1 (PCAT-1) has been identified as an oncogenic long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in some solid tumors, including prostate cancer (PC). However, the molecular mechanism of PCAT-1 involved in PC is poorly defined. In this study, we found that PCAT-1 expression was up-regulated and miR-145-5p expression was down-regulated in PC tissues and cells. Function analysis indicated that PCAT-1 overexpression promoted proliferation, migration, invasion and inhibited apoptosis of PC cells. Rescue experiments demonstrated that miR-145-5p restoration attenuated the promotive effects of PCAT1 on PC progression, while Fascin-1 (FSCN1) upregulation relieved the anti-cancer role of miR-145-5p in PC. Mechanical analysis discovered that PCAT-1 could act as a miR-145-5p sponge to modulate FSCN1 expression. In conclusion, these findings suggested that PCAT-1 accelerated PC cell proliferation, migration, invasion and suppressed apoptosis by up-regulating FSCN1 mediated via miR-145-5p, hinting a potential therapeutic strategy for PC patients.

Yang L, Teng Y, Han TP, et al.
Clinical significance of fascin-1 and laminin-5 in non-small cell lung cancer.
Genet Mol Res. 2017; 16(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and the second leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Fascin-1 and laminin-5 were associated with the invasiveness and prognoses of several cancers. The expression and the serum levels of fascin-1 and laminin-5 in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were analyzed in this study. The expression of fascin-1 and laminin-5 were examined in 378 patients and their serum level was measured in 154 patients. The health of all patients was followed post-surgery. The expression of fascin-1 (P = 0.000) and lanminin-5 (P = 0.001) and the serum levels of fascin-1 (P = 0.015) and laminin-5 (P = 0.046) were related to the relapse of patients with NSCLC. Both serum levels and expression of fascin-1 and laminin-5 can be used to effectively evaluate the prognoses of patients with NSCLC.

Vargas-Parra GM, González-Acosta M, Thompson BA, et al.
Elucidating the molecular basis of MSH2-deficient tumors by combined germline and somatic analysis.
Int J Cancer. 2017; 141(7):1365-1380 [PubMed] Related Publications
In a proportion of patients presenting mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient tumors, no germline MMR mutations are identified, the so-called Lynch-like syndrome (LLS). Recently, MMR-deficient tumors have been associated with germline mutations in POLE and MUTYH or double somatic MMR events. Our aim was to elucidate the molecular basis of MSH2-deficient LS-suspected cases using a comprehensive analysis of colorectal cancer (CRC)-associated genes at germline and somatic level. Fifty-eight probands harboring MSH2-deficient tumors were included. Germline mutational analysis of MSH2 (including EPCAM deletions) and MSH6 was performed. Pathogenicity of MSH2 variants was assessed by RNA analysis and multifactorial likelihood calculations. MSH2 cDNA and methylation of MSH2 and MSH6 promoters were studied. Matched blood and tumor DNA were analyzed using a customized next generation sequencing panel. Thirty-five individuals were carriers of pathogenic or probably pathogenic variants in MSH2 and EPCAM. Five patients harbored 4 different MSH2 variants of unknown significance (VUS) and one had 2 novel MSH6 promoter VUS. Pathogenicity assessment allowed the reclassification of the 4 MSH2 VUS and 6 probably pathogenic variants as pathogenic mutations, enabling a total of 40 LS diagnostics. Predicted pathogenic germline variants in BUB1, SETD2, FAN1 and MUTYH were identified in 5 cases. Three patients had double somatic hits in MSH2 or MSH6, and another 2 had somatic alterations in other MMR genes and/or proofreading polymerases. In conclusion, our comprehensive strategy combining germline and somatic mutational status of CRC-associated genes by means of a subexome panel allows the elucidation of up to 86% of MSH2-deficient suspected LS tumors.

Wang L, Jia Y, Jiang Z, et al.
FSCN1 is upregulated by SNAI2 and promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Cell Biol Int. 2017; 41(8):833-841 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, we investigated whether there is any association between the expression of FSCN1 and SNAI2 and the possible underlying mechanisms in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC). In addition, we also investigated whether FSCN1 modulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HNSC cells. Microarray data of dysregulated genes in HNSC were searched in GEO datasets. The association between FSCN1 expression and the 5-year/10-year overall survival (OS), as well as the correlation between the expression of FSCN1 and SOX2, MYBL2, SNAI2, STAT1, and SOX4, was analyzed based on data in TCGA HNSC cohort (TCGA-HNSC). The binding site of SNAI2 in FSCN1 promoter was verified using luciferase reporter assay. SCC9 and SCC15 cells were transfected with pCMV-SNAI2 or pCMV-FSCN1 expression vector or the empty control. Alteration of E-cadherin, Claudin 1, Vimentin, and N-cadherin was then quantified. Our results showed that FSCN1 is significantly upregulated in HNSC tissues compared with the normal control tissues. High FSCN1 expression is associated with worse 5-year and 10-year OS among the HNSC patients. Bioinformatic prediction showed a highly possible SNAI2 binding site in FSCN1 promoter and following luciferase reporter assay verified this site. SNAI2 overexpression significantly increased FSCN1 expression at both mRNA and protein level. FSCN1 overexpression reduced the expression of E-cadherin and Claudin 1, but increased the expression of Vimentin and N-cadherin in SCC9 and SCC-15 cells. Therefore, we infer that FSCN1 is a downstream effector of SNAI2 in promoting EMT in HNSC cells.

Liu Y, Hong W, Zhou C, et al.
miR-539 inhibits FSCN1 expression and suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma migration and invasion.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 37(5):2593-2602 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/10/2019 Related Publications
Increasing evidence indicates that the dysregulation of miRNAs that act as tumor suppressors or oncogenes is involved in tumorigenesis. However, the role of miR-539 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been well investigated. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), proliferation assay, colony formation assay, migration and invasion assays, western blotting, and xenograft tumor growth models were performed to assess the expression levels and functions of miR-539 in HCC. Luciferase reporter assays, qRT-PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry were used to identify and verify the targets of miR-539. miR-539 was significantly downregulated in HCC cell lines and tissue samples. Ectopic expression of miR-539 inhibited cell viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and suppressed xenograft tumor growth in vivo. Fascin homologue 1 (FSCN1) was verified as a direct target of miR-539, and overexpression of FSCN1 promoted HCC cell migration and invasion. miR-539 acts as a novel tumor suppressor in the development and progression of HCC by targeting FSCN1, providing new insight into the mechanisms of HCC carcinogenesis and suggesting that miR-539 may be a therapeutic target.

Pan Y, Chen J, Tao L, et al.
Long noncoding RNA ROR regulates chemoresistance in docetaxel-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cells via epithelial mesenchymal transition pathway.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(20):33144-33158 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/10/2019 Related Publications
Emerging evidence indicates that the dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) contributes to the development and progression of lung adenocarcinoma (LAD), however the underlying mechanism of action of lncRNAs remains unclear. It is well known that the effective treatment of cancers has been hindered by drug resistance in the clinical setting. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been recognized to be involved in acquiring drug resistance, cell migration and invasion properties in several types of cancer. Docetaxel-resistant LAD cells established previously in our lab present chemoresistant and mesenchymal features. Long intergenic non-protein coding RNA, regulator of reprogramming (linc-ROR), was first discovered in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and was upregulated in docetaxel-resistant LAD cells. In this study, we tried to make clarification of lincRNA-related mechanisms underlying EMT followed by acquired resistance to chemotherapy in LAD. In order to hit the mark, we made use of multiple methods including microarray analysis, qRT-PCR, western blotting analysis, loss/gain-of-function analysis, luciferase assays, drug sensitivity assays, wound-healing assay and invasion assay. We found that decreased expression of linc-ROR effectively reversed EMT in docetaxel-resistant LAD cells and sensitized them to chemotherapy. The function of linc-ROR exerted in LAD cells depended on the sponging of miR-145, therefore, releasing the miR-145 target FSCN1, and thus contributing to the acquisition of chemoresistance and EMT phenotypes of docetaxel-resistant LAD cells. Our findings revealed that linc-ROR might act as potential therapeutic target to overcome chemotherapy resistance in LAD.

Zhang J, Wang X, Zhang Y, et al.
Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains protein 1 and fascin actin-bundling protein 1 expression in nonsmall cell lung cancer.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2016; 12(Supplement):C248-C251 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical significance of leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains protein 1 (LRIG1) and fascin actin-bundling protein 1 (Fascin-1) expression in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six-one NSCLC patients were included in this study. The expression of LRIG1 and Fascin-1 was assayed in the tumor tissue and relative normal lung tissue of the 61 NSCLC patients by immunohistochemistry. The relationship between LRIG1, Fascin-1 expression pattern and lung cancer patients' clinical pathology characteristics was evaluated.
RESULTS: The positive expression rate of Fascin-1 in cancer tissue and normal tissue was 70.5% (43/61) and 13.1% (8/61), respectively, which indicated cancer tissue much higher than normal tissue (P < 0.05); for LRIG1, the positive expression rate was 54.1% (33/61) and 82.0% (50/61) for tumor tissue and normal tissue with statistical difference (P < 0.05); Fascin-1-positive expression was associated with tumor diameter (P < 0.05) and mediastinal lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). Moreover, LRIG1-positive expression was correlated with pathology type (P < 0.05), clinical stage (P < 0.05), and mediastinal lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: LRIG1 and Fascin-1 were differently expressed in cancer and normal lung tissue in patients with NSCLC, which could be a biomarker for mediastinal lymph node metastasis in NSCLC patients.

Wu Q, Yan H, Tao SQ, et al.
XIAP 3'-untranslated region as a ceRNA promotes FSCN1 function in inducing the progression of breast cancer by binding endogenous miR-29a-5p.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(10):16784-16800 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/10/2019 Related Publications
The non-coding 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of genes play an important role in the regulation of microRNA (miRNA) functions, since it can bind and inactivate multiple miRNAs. Herein, we report that ectopic expression of XIAP 3'UTR increased human breast cancer cells proliferation, colony formation, migration, invasion and xenograft tumor growth and suppressed tumor cell death. To investigate this process, we further correlated the genome-wide transcriptional profiling with the gene expression alterations after transfecting XIAP 3'UTR in MCF-7 cells. We identified a robust, genome-wide mechanism of cell migration, motility and epithelial to mesenchymal transition by which mediated by a previously described cellular component movement factor FSCN1. Expression of XIAP and FSCN1 were up-regulated synergistically after transfecting XIAP 3'UTR in vitro and in vivo. Interactions between XIAP and FSCN1 appear to be a key determinant of these processes. Co-transfection with Dicer siRNA reversed the XIAP 3'UTR-mediated oncogenicity, suggesting the miRNAs might be involved in that process. Furthermore, we demonstrated that one miRNA, miR-29a-5p, can bind to both the XIAP and FSCN1 3'UTRs and play an important role in that interactions. We showed that the 3'UTR of XIAP was able to antagonize miR-29a-5p, and resulted in the increased translation of XIAP and FSCN1. Thus, our findings reveal important new insights into how XIAP 3'UTR works, suggesting that the non-coding XIAP 3'UTR serves as a competitor for miRNA binding and subsequently inactivates miRNA functions, by which XIAP 3'UTR frees the target mRNAs from being repressed.

Genovese G, Carugo A, Tepper J, et al.
Synthetic vulnerabilities of mesenchymal subpopulations in pancreatic cancer.
Nature. 2017; 542(7641):362-366 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant neoplasms evolve in response to changes in oncogenic signalling. Cancer cell plasticity in response to evolutionary pressures is fundamental to tumour progression and the development of therapeutic resistance. Here we determine the molecular and cellular mechanisms of cancer cell plasticity in a conditional oncogenic Kras mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a malignancy that displays considerable phenotypic diversity and morphological heterogeneity. In this model, stochastic extinction of oncogenic Kras signalling and emergence of Kras-independent escaper populations (cells that acquire oncogenic properties) are associated with de-differentiation and aggressive biological behaviour. Transcriptomic and functional analyses of Kras-independent escapers reveal the presence of Smarcb1-Myc-network-driven mesenchymal reprogramming and independence from MAPK signalling. A somatic mosaic model of PDAC, which allows time-restricted perturbation of cell fate, shows that depletion of Smarcb1 activates the Myc network, driving an anabolic switch that increases protein metabolism and adaptive activation of endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induced survival pathways. Increased protein turnover renders mesenchymal sub-populations highly susceptible to pharmacological and genetic perturbation of the cellular proteostatic machinery and the IRE1-α-MKK4 arm of the endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-response pathway. Specifically, combination regimens that impair the unfolded protein responses block the emergence of aggressive mesenchymal subpopulations in mouse and patient-derived PDAC models. These molecular and biological insights inform a potential therapeutic strategy for targeting aggressive mesenchymal features of PDAC.

Mateo F, Arenas EJ, Aguilar H, et al.
Stem cell-like transcriptional reprogramming mediates metastatic resistance to mTOR inhibition.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(19):2737-2749 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/10/2019 Related Publications
Inhibitors of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) are currently used to treat advanced metastatic breast cancer. However, whether an aggressive phenotype is sustained through adaptation or resistance to mTOR inhibition remains unknown. Here, complementary studies in human tumors, cancer models and cell lines reveal transcriptional reprogramming that supports metastasis in response to mTOR inhibition. This cancer feature is driven by EVI1 and SOX9. EVI1 functionally cooperates with and positively regulates SOX9, and promotes the transcriptional upregulation of key mTOR pathway components (REHB and RAPTOR) and of lung metastasis mediators (FSCN1 and SPARC). The expression of EVI1 and SOX9 is associated with stem cell-like and metastasis signatures, and their depletion impairs the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. These results establish the mechanistic link between resistance to mTOR inhibition and cancer metastatic potential, thus enhancing our understanding of mTOR targeting failure.

Saad A, Bijian K, Qiu D, et al.
Insights into a novel nuclear function for Fascin in the regulation of the amino-acid transporter SLC3A2.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:36699 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/10/2019 Related Publications
Fascin 1 (FSCN1) is a cytoskeleton-associated protein recognized to function primarily in the regulation of cytoskeleton structure and formation of plasma membrane protrusions. Here we report a novel nuclear function for Fascin 1. Biochemical studies and genome wide localization using ChIP-seq identified phosphorylated Fascin 1 (pFascin) in complexes associated with transcription and that it co-localizes with histone H3 Lys4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) on chromatin. Gene expression profiling identified genes affected by Fascin 1 including SLC3A2, a gene encoding for a plasma membrane transporter that regulates intracellular amino acid levels. RbBP5, a subunit of the H3K4 histone methyltransferase (HMT) complex was found to interact with Fascin 1 supporting its role in H3K4me3 establishment at target genes. Moreover, we show that changes to SLC3A2 levels affect amino acid-mediated mTORC1 activation. These results reveal that Fascin 1 has a yet undiscovered nuclear function as an epigenetic modulator of genes essential for amino acid metabolism.

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