Gene Summary

Gene:COMT; catechol-O-methyltransferase
Aliases: HEL-S-98n
Summary:Catechol-O-methyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to catecholamines, including the neurotransmitters dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. This O-methylation results in one of the major degradative pathways of the catecholamine transmitters. In addition to its role in the metabolism of endogenous substances, COMT is important in the metabolism of catechol drugs used in the treatment of hypertension, asthma, and Parkinson disease. COMT is found in two forms in tissues, a soluble form (S-COMT) and a membrane-bound form (MB-COMT). The differences between S-COMT and MB-COMT reside within the N-termini. Several transcript variants are formed through the use of alternative translation initiation sites and promoters. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:catechol O-methyltransferase
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Sleep Stages
  • Registries
  • Postmenopause
  • Tea
  • Estrogens
  • beta-Arrestins
  • Genotype
  • Urban Population
  • Premenopause
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Risk Assessment
  • Soybeans
  • Taiwan
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Smoking
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Survivors
  • Retinoic Acid
  • Regression Analysis
  • Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
  • Valine
  • Tissue Array Analysis
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Soy Foods
  • Syria
  • Up-Regulation
  • Women's Health
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Chromosome 22
  • Testosterone
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptors
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases
  • Breast Cancer
  • CYP17
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • CYP1B1
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Catechol O-Methyltransferase
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Risk Factors
Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: COMT (cancer-related)

Negri A, Naponelli V, Rizzi F, Bettuzzi S
Molecular Targets of Epigallocatechin-Gallate (EGCG): A Special Focus on Signal Transduction and Cancer.
Nutrients. 2018; 10(12) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Green tea is a beverage that is widely consumed worldwide and is believed to exert effects on different diseases, including cancer. The major components of green tea are catechins, a family of polyphenols. Among them, epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant and biologically active. EGCG is widely studied for its anti-cancer properties. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms explaining its action have not been completely understood, yet. EGCG is effective in vivo at micromolar concentrations, suggesting that its action is mediated by interaction with specific targets that are involved in the regulation of crucial steps of cell proliferation, survival, and metastatic spread. Recently, several proteins have been identified as EGCG direct interactors. Among them, the trans-membrane receptor 67LR has been identified as a high affinity EGCG receptor. 67LR is a master regulator of many pathways affecting cell proliferation or apoptosis, also regulating cancer stem cells (CSCs) activity. EGCG was also found to be interacting directly with Pin1, TGFR-II, and metalloproteinases (MMPs) (mainly MMP2 and MMP9), which respectively regulate EGCG-dependent inhibition of NF-kB, epithelial-mesenchimal transaction (EMT) and cellular invasion. EGCG interacts with DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), which modulates epigenetic changes. The bulk of this novel knowledge provides information about the mechanisms of action of EGCG and may explain its onco-suppressive function. The identification of crucial signalling pathways that are related to cancer onset and progression whose master regulators interacts with EGCG may disclose intriguing pharmacological targets, and eventually lead to novel combined treatments in which EGCG acts synergistically with known drugs.

Wang R, Li J, Yin C, et al.
Role of β-Estradiol in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell Line Based on the Bioinformatics Analysis.
Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2019; 84(3):268-276 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the action mechanism of β-estradiol in MCF-7 breast cancer (BC) cells.
METHODS: The cell samples were sequenced using Hiseq 2000, including 2 MCF-7 controls and 2 samples treated with β-estradiol. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened using the NOISeq package in R, followed by the functions and pathways analyses using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. DEGs associated with β-estradiol were selected using the WbeGestalt software, and the corresponding target miRNAs of these genes were analyzed from different miRNA databases. Additionally, protein-protein interaction network of the drug-associated genes was constructed using Cytoscape.
RESULTS: A total of 1,835 DEGs in BC samples were screened. Thereinto, DEGs associated with BC (17 upregulated and 28 downregulated DEGs) were involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, response to endogenous stimulus, and response to hormone stimulus, while the genes participated in several significant pathways. Cyclin D1, estrogen receptor 1, catechol-O-methyltransferase, and cathepsin D (CTSD; hub genes) were the predicted new genes associated with β-estradiol. Besides, hsa-miR-140-3p was the only target miRNA of CTSD.
CONCLUSION: β-Estradiol may play a key role in contributing to BC progression and metastasis by regulating the expression of the selected genes.

Qiu J, Du Z, Liu J, et al.
Association between polymorphisms in estrogen metabolism genes and breast cancer development in Chinese women: A prospective case-control study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(47):e13337 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We comprehensively identified polymorphisms in estrogen-metabolizing genes that may be associated with breast cancer initiation in Chinese women, via an ongoing prospective case-control study.An ongoing prospective case-control study of 427 female case patients diagnosed with breast cancer from August 2013 to March 2015 and 536 women (case controls) with no prior history of cancer or benign breast tumors was performed. Buccal cell specimens were obtained using the cotton swabbing method. DNA was extracted from the buccal cells using the phenol/chloroform method. Genotype was carried out for 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs4646903, rs1056836, rs1695, rs4970737, and rs4680) using direct sequencing.The polymorphic genotypes of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1) (P = .044) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) (P = .008) showed significantly different distributions, while that of cytochrome P450 (CYP1B1) (P = .051) showed a slight difference in distribution between healthy women and patients with breast cancer. Individuals with homozygous variant genotypes for GSTP1 or COMT exhibited a higher risk of developing breast cancer than those with wild-type genotypes; however, for CYP1B1, the homozygous variant genotype was associated with a lower risk, and the heterozygous genotype for these 3 genes was not associated with breast cancer development.An individual's risk of breast cancer is only influenced by the specific combination of risk-associated alleles of COMT and GSTP1, despite the protective effects of the homozygous CYP1B1 genotype revealed by univariate analysis.

Wani HA, Majid S, Bhat AA, et al.
Impact of catechol-O-methyltransferase gene variants on methylation status of P16 and MGMT genes and their downregulation in colorectal cancer.
Eur J Cancer Prev. 2019; 28(2):68-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Globally, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in males and the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in females, with 1.4 million new cases and almost 694 000 deaths estimated to have occurred in 2012. The development and progression of CRC is dictated by a series of alterations in diverse genes mostly proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. In this dreadful disease disturbances different from mutations called as epigenetic regulations are also taken into consideration and are thoroughly investigated. The present study was designed to analyze the promoter hypermethylation of CpG (cytosine, followed by guanine nucleotide) islands of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (P16) and O-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) genes and its subsequent effect on the protein expression in CRC. The impact of the common functional polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, Val158Met, on promoter hypermethylation of P16 and MGMT genes in CRC was also investigated. The study included 200 CRC cases and equal numbers of normal samples. DNA was extracted using the kit method and methylation specific-PCR was performed for analysis of the promoter hypermethylation status. Total protein was isolated form all CRC cases and western blotting was performed for P16 and MGMT proteins. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism was analyzed by a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Epigenetic analysis showed that unlike other high-risk regions, the Kashmiri population has a different promoter hypermethylation profile of both P16 and MGMT genes, with frequent and significant promoter hypermethylation of both in CRC. The frequency of promoter hypermethylation of both genes was significantly higher in males and was insignificantly found to be higher in stage III/IV. The degree of P16 and MGMT promoter hypermethylation increased significantly with increasing severity of the lesion. We also found a significant correlation between P16 and MGMT promoter hypermethylation and loss of protein expression in CRC. A significant association was found between COMT polymorphism (homozygous variant) and P16 methylation status. Similar results were also found for MGMT hypermethylated cases.

Pan JL, Gao J, Hou JH, et al.
Interaction Between Environmental Risk Factors and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) and X-Ray Repair Cross-Complementing Protein 1 (XRCC1) Gene Polymorphisms in Risk of Lung Cancer Among Non-Smoking Chinese Women: A Case-Control Study.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:5689-5697 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Various studies have highlighted the link between polymorphisms in the XRCC1 gene (encoding X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1) with the incidence of decreased DNA repair capacity and an increased predisposition to cancer. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) plays a crucial role in estrogen-induced cancers. In the present study was analyzed the potential influence of XRCC1 and COMT gene polymorphisms as predisposing factors from a lung cancer perspective, in addition to conducting an investigation into their interaction with environmental risk factors in relation to lung cancer among non-smoking Chinese women. MATERIAL AND METHODS The XRCC1 gene T-77C, Arg194Trp, Arg280His, Arg399Gln, COMT gene 186C>T, and Val158Met mutations were evaluated in peripheral blood collected from 261 non-smoking female patients diagnosed with primary lung cancer and 265 female patients with benign lung disease. RESULTS The results obtained from this study demonstrated that XRCC1-77TC + CC, XRCC1 399Gln/Gln, COMT 186CT + TT, COMT 158Val/Met genotypes, type of occupation, cooking-oil fumes, and soot exposures were all independent risk factors involved with the occurrence of lung cancer among non-smoking women. Moreover, interactions between environmental exposure factors as well as XRCC1 and COMT gene polymorphisms were determined to play significant contributory roles regarding susceptibility of non-smoking females to lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS Taken together, T-77C and Arg399Gln polymorphisms of the XRCC1 gene, as well as the 186C>T and Val158Met polymorphisms of the COMT gene, increased the risk of lung cancer in non-smoking women, with the factors of occupation type, cooking-oil fumes, and soot exposures representing key contributing factors.

Genovese TJ, Mao JJ
Genetic Predictors of Response to Acupuncture for Aromatase Inhibitor-Associated Arthralgia Among Breast Cancer Survivors.
Pain Med. 2019; 20(1):191-194 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Objective: To evaluate the associations between polymorphisms in two genes, catechol-O-methyltransferase and T-cell leukemia/lymphoma 1 A, and acupuncture-mediated pain reduction among breast cancer survivors with aromatase inhibitor-associated arthralgia.
Design, Setting, and Subjects: Biospecimens were obtained from 38 patients enrolled in a clinical trial of acupuncture for aromatase inhibitor-associated arthralgia in postmenopausal hormone receptor-positive breast cancer survivors.
Methods: We used polymerase chain reaction to genotype the rs4680 (Val158Met) and rs4633 (His62His) variants in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene and rs2369049 (A > G) and rs7158782 (A > G) variants in the T-cell leukemia/lymphoma 1 A gene. Response to acupuncture was defined by 30% reduction in end-of-treatment average pain, measured by the Brief Pain Inventory. We used Fisher exact tests to evaluate associations between genotype and treatment response.
Results: Among participants, all six (15.8%) subjects who expressed AA in locus rs4680 responded to acupuncture. In a combined analysis, the 18 (47.4%) subjects with the responder genotype at either rs4680 (AA) or rs2369049 (GG or AG) were significantly more likely to respond to acupuncture than those without (77.8% vs 45.0%, P = 0.039).
Conclusions: Specific genetic variations at loci rs4680 and rs2369049 are associated with response to acupuncture-type intervention for management of arthralgia. These results serve as a proof of concept for applying a precision medicine framework to the study of cancer pain management.

Allam RM, Al-Abd AM, Khedr A, et al.
Fingolimod interrupts the cross talk between estrogen metabolism and sphingolipid metabolism within prostate cancer cells.
Toxicol Lett. 2018; 291:77-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sphingolipids are critical regulators of tumor microenvironments and play an important role in estrogen-dependent cancers. Estrogen and estrogen metabolites were found to be involved in prostate cancer. Fingolimod (FTY720) is a sphingokinase-1 (SphK1) inhibitor with anticancer properties against various tumor cell types. Herein, we investigated the interference of FTY720 with the cross talk between sphingolipid metabolism and estrogen metabolism within prostate cancer cells. FTY720 showed cytotoxic antiproliferative effects against androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancer cells with IC

Wielsøe M, Eiberg H, Ghisari M, et al.
Genetic Variations, Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Breast Cancer Risk - A Greenlandic Case-Control Study.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2018; 123(3):335-346 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study investigated the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in xenobiotic and steroid hormone-metabolizing genes in relation to breast cancer risk and explored possible effect modifications on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and breast cancer associations. The study also assessed effects of Greenlandic BRCA1 founder mutations. Greenlandic Inuit women (77 cases and 84 controls) were included. We determined two founder mutations in BRCA1: Cys39Gly (rs80357164) and 4684delCC, and five SNPs in xenobiotic and oestrogen-metabolizing genes: CYP17A1 -34T>C (rs743572), CYP19A1 *19C>T (rs10046), CYP1A1 Ile462Val (rs1048943), CYP1B Leu432Val (rs1056836) and COMT Val158Met (rs4680). We used chi-square test for comparison of categorical variables between groups. Odds ratio (OR) estimates with 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were obtained using logistic regression models. The variant allele of BRCA1 Cys39Gly increased breast cancer risk (Gly/Cys versus Cys/Cys, OR: 12.2, 95%CI: 1.53; 98.1), and carriers of the variant allele of CYP17A1 -34T>C had reduced risk (CT+CC versus TT, OR: 0.44, 95%CI: 0.21; 0.93). CYP17A1 -34T>C was an effect modifier on the association between perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and breast cancer risk (∑PFAA, ratio of OR: 0.18, 95%CI: 0.03; 0.97). Non-significant modifying tendencies were seen for the other SNPs on the effect of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and PFAAs. In summary, the BRCA1 Cys39Gly and CYP17A1 -34T>C genetic variations were associated with breast cancer risk. Our results indicate that the evaluated genetic variants modify the effects of POP exposure on breast cancer risk; however, further studies are needed to document the data from the relatively small sample size.

Soliman SE, D'Silva CN, Dimaras H, et al.
Clinical and genetic associations for carboplatin-related ototoxicity in children treated for retinoblastoma: A retrospective noncomparative single-institute experience.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2018; 65(5):e26931 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Children with retinoblastoma treated with carboplatin chemotherapy risk moderate to severe, irreversible hearing loss. Based on published evidence, we hypothesized that ototoxicity risk is associated with clinical parameters and variants in candidate genes in drug metabolism pathways (methyltransferases [thiopurine S-methyltransferase, TPMT] and [catechol-O-methyltransferase, COMT], and drug transporter ABCC3).
PROCEDURE: We retrospectively reviewed clinical records of patients with retinoblastoma treated with carboplatin chemotherapy regarding age (at diagnosis and chemotherapy initiation), chemotherapy sessions (cycles number, drug doses, and cumulative carboplatin dose), and hearing loss (defined as ototoxicity ≥grade 2 by at least one classification system). Blood samples were genotyped for genetic variants in TPMT (rs12201199, rs1800460), COMT (rs4646316, rs9332377), and ABCC3 (rs1051640) by quantitative PCR and confirmed by allele-specific PCR. Univariate statistical tests, receiver-operating characteristic analysis, and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to examine the association between hearing loss, clinical factors, and variants in candidate genes.
RESULTS: Audiometric data and stored DNA were available for 71 patients with retinoblastoma (88% carried an RB1 pathogenic variant allele). Median carboplatin cumulative dose was 1,400 mg/m
CONCLUSIONS: We observed a 25% prevalence of ototoxicity in patients with retinoblastoma treated with carboplatin, higher than previously published. Age at chemotherapy initiation was associated with carboplatin-induced ototoxicity, with children <4.25 months of age at highest risk.

Pollino S, Benassi MS, Pazzaglia L, et al.
Prognostic role of XTP1/DEPDC1B and SDP35/DEPDC1A in high grade soft-tissue sarcomas.
Histol Histopathol. 2018; 33(6):597-608 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The outcome of patients with metastatic soft tissue sarcoma (STS) remains unfavourable and new therapeutic strategies are needed. The aim of this study was to determine the role of RhoGAP, XTP1/DEPDC1B and SDP35/DEPDC1A, as possible prognostic markers, to be used to identify candidate patients for more effective and personalized therapies.
MATERIALS-METHODS: SDP35/DEPDC1A and XTP1/DEPDC1B transcriptional levels were evaluated by Real-Time PCR in 86 primary STS and 22 paired lung metastasis. 17 normal tissues were used as control. Protein expression was evaluated by tissue microarray, including 152 paraffin-embedded STS samples and by western blot in 22 lung metastases and paired primary STS. Non-parametric and parametric analysis were used to establish the differences in gene and protein expression and prognostic factors were tested with Kaplan Meier and Cox's regression analyses.
RESULTS: SDP35/DEPDC1A and XTP1/DEPDC1B gene were down-regulated in adjacent normal tissues while sarcoma specimens presented high mRNA levels, significantly related to metastasis-free survival. Gene expression further increased in paired metastatic lesions. Immunohistochemical staining showed a variable expression in intensity and distribution, with a significantly higher probability of metastatic disease in patients up-regulating SDP35/DEPDC1A. Western blotting assessed high levels of proteins in STS specimens and indicated a stronger expression of SDP35/DEPDC1A in metastases when compared to primary tumours. Multivariate analyses highlighted that SDP35/DEPDC1A abundance, grade III and no history of radiation therapy were significant independent risk factors.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that increased expression of SDP35/DEPDC1A and XPT1/DEPDC1B correlates with metastatic progression and identified SDP35/DEPDC1A as an independent marker for prediction of poor prognosis.

Tang L, Platek ME, Yao S, et al.
Associations between polymorphisms in genes related to estrogen metabolism and function and prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.
Carcinogenesis. 2018; 39(2):125-133 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Substantial preclinical data suggest estrogen's carcinogenic role in prostate cancer development; however, epidemiological evidence based on circulating estrogen levels is largely null. Compared with circulating estrogen, the intraprostatic estrogen milieu may play a more important role in prostate carcinogenesis. Using a nested case-control design in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), we examined associations of genetic variants of genes that are involved in estrogen synthesis, metabolism and function with prostate cancer risk. A total of 25 potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 13 genes (PGR, ESR1, ESR2, CYP17A1, HSD17B1, CYP19A1, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, COMT, UGT1A6, UGT1A10, UGT2B7, UGT2B15) were examined in whites only. Controls (n = 1380) were frequency matched to cases on age, PCPT treatment arm, and family history (n = 1506). Logistic regression models adjusted for age and family history were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) separately in the placebo and finasteride arms. SNPs associated with prostate cancer risk differed by treatment arm. The associations appeared to be modified by circulating estrogen and androgen levels. CYP19A1 was the only gene harboring SNPs that were significantly associated with risk in both the placebo and finasteride arms. Haplotype analysis with all three CYP19A1 SNPs genotyped (rs700518, rs2445765, rs700519) showed that risk-allele haplotypes are associated with the increased prostate cancer risk in both arms when comparing with the non-risk allele haplotype. In conclusion, associations between SNPs in estrogen-related genes and prostate cancer risk are complex and may be modified by circulating hormone levels and finasteride treatment.

Matsuoka H, Tsurutani J, Chiba Y, et al.
Selection of opioids for cancer-related pain using a biomarker: a randomized, multi-institutional, open-label trial (RELIEF study).
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):674 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients experience pain that has physiological, sensory, affective, cognitive, behavioral, and sociocultural dimensions. Opioids are used in treatment of pain in patients with various types of cancer. We previously showed that the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype is related to the plasma level of morphine and the required dose of morphine in an exploratory prospective study. The findings showed that a group of patients with a GG single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4680 in COMT required a significantly higher dose of morphine than a non-GG group. A biomarker for selection of opioids for cancer pain relief would be particularly useful clinically, and therefore we have planned a randomized comparative study of morphine and oxycodone, using the COMT rs4680 SNP as a biomarker. This study is aimed at verifying the assumption that patients in the GG group require an increased morphine dose for pain relief.
METHODS: The RELIEF study is a randomized, multi-institutional, open-label trial with a primary endpoint of the proportion of subjects requiring high-dose opioids, as calculated from the dose of a rescue preparation administered on day 0. Secondary endpoints include the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Short form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C15-PAL, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and adverse events, Eligibility criteria are patients with advanced carcinoma with non-daily use of opioids in initial screening for registration; and cancer pain targeted for daily opioid treatment, NSAIDs or acetaminophen, NRS ≥3(average over 24 h), opioid-treatment naive within 30 h, no chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or bisphosphonate administration newly started within 2 weeks, and written informed consent at the time of second registration. Between November 2014 and June 2017, an estimated 110 patients from two sites in Japan were randomized (1:1) to morphine or oxycodone in GG and non-GG groups.
DISCUSSION: A method for selection of appropriate opioids in cancer patients is a high unmet medical need. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of different opioids in patients with cancer based on gene polymorphism, as the first potential multi-institutional registration trial to be conducted in cancer patients with pain.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN000015579 Date of registration: 4 November 2014. It is updated once every six months, the latest update is 30 June 2017. Trial status. The enrollment started in November 2014. At the time of manuscript submission (July 2017), Three-quarters of patients have participated. We thus expect to complete the recruitment by March 2018.

Zajda K, Ptak A, Rak A, et al.
Effects of human blood levels of two PAH mixtures on the AHR signalling activation pathway and CYP1A1 and COMT target genes in granulosa non-tumor and granulosa tumor cell lines.
Toxicology. 2017; 389:1-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epidemiological studies have shown a link between problems with offspring of couples living in a contaminated environment in comparison to those who live in an uncontaminated environment. We measured the concentrations of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in maternal and cord blood. To explore the mechanism of the effects of PAH mixtures on nonluteinized granulosa cells (HGrC1) and granulosa tumor cells (COV434), as well as cell proliferation and apoptosis, we investigated the effect of PAH mixtures on the expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) genes, as well as the expression and activity of target genes cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). The cells were exposed to mixture 1 (M1), composed of all 16 priority PAHs, and mixture 2 (M2), composed of five PAHs which are not classified as human carcinogens, and which are observed in the highest amounts both in maternal and cord blood. All 16 priority PAHs were bioavailable in maternal and cord plasma, suggesting that perinatal exposure should be considered. In HGrC1 cells, M1 increased AHR and ARNT, but decreased AHRR expression, in parallel with increased CYP1A1 and COMT expression and activity. M2 decreased AHR and AHRR, and increased ARNT, with no effect on CYP1A1 expression and activity; however, it did increase COMT expression and activity. In tumor cells, M1 lowered AHR and up-regulated AHRR and ARNT expression, consequently decreasing CYP1A1 expression and COMT activity. M2 up-regulated AHR and ARNT, down-regulated AHRR, and had no effect on CYP1A1 and COMT expression, but decreased COMT activity. We hypothesise that, dependent on composition, mixtures of PAHs activate the AHR differently through varying transcription responses: in HGrC1, a canonical AHR mechanism of M1, with activation of CYP1A1 important for detoxication, while in COV434, a noncanonical AHR mechanism, probably by activation the nuclear factor NFkB.

Suppli NP, Bukh JD, Moffitt TE, et al.
Genetic variants in 5-HTTLPR, BDNF, HTR1A, COMT, and FKBP5 and risk for treated depression after cancer diagnosis.
Depress Anxiety. 2017; 34(9):845-855 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The role of gene-environment interactions in the pathogenesis of depression is unclear. Previous studies addressed vulnerability for depression after childhood adversity and stressful life events among carriers of numerous specific genetic variants; however, the importance of individual genetic variants, the environmental exposures with which they interact, and the magnitude of the risk conveyed by these interactions remain elusive.
METHODS: We included 7,320 people with a first primary cancer identified in the prospective Diet, Cancer and Health study in an exposed-only cohort study. The mean age of the individuals was 68 years (5th, 95th percentiles: 58, 78) at cancer diagnosis. Using Cox regression models and cumulative incidence plots, we analyzed the associations between genetic variants in 5-HTTLPR, BDNF, HTR1A, COMT, and FKBP5 and use of antidepressants as well as hospital contact for depression after diagnosis of cancer.
RESULTS: Overall, we observed no statistically significant associations, with nonsignificant hazard ratio estimates for use of antidepressants of 0.95-1.07.
CONCLUSIONS: This study of elderly people indicates that it is unlikely that the investigated genetic variants are clinically relevantly associated with depression after diagnosis of cancer. The mechanisms for gene-environment interactions in younger individuals are probably different, and we advise caution in extrapolating our results to early life stress. However, conclusion from the present study might be generalizable to elderly persons exposed to other stressful life events.

Hajj A, Halepian L, Osta NE, et al.
OPRM1 c.118A>G Polymorphism and Duration of Morphine Treatment Associated with Morphine Doses and Quality-of-Life in Palliative Cancer Pain Settings.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(4) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Despite increased attention on assessment and management, pain remains the most persistent symptom in patients with cancer, in particular in end-of-life settings, with detrimental impact on their quality-of-life (QOL). We conducted this study to evaluate the added value of determining some genetic and non-genetic factors to optimize cancer pain treatment. Eighty-nine patients were included in the study for the evaluation of palliative cancer pain management. The regression analysis showed that age,

Ohnami S, Nagashima T, Urakami K, et al.
Whole exome sequencing detects variants of genes that mediate response to anticancer drugs.
J Toxicol Sci. 2017; 42(2):137-144 [PubMed] Related Publications
Certain interindividual differences affecting the efficacy of drug treatment and adverse drug reactions are caused by genetic variants, and their phenotypic effects differ among ethnic groups. In this study, we used whole exome sequencing (WES) systematically to identify germline mutations that influence the activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes, as well as that of a transporter. We analyzed DNA isolated from blood samples from 2,042 Japanese patients with diverse cancers. We identified sequence variants of CYP2B6 (rs3745274), CYP2C9 (rs1057910), CYP2C19 (rs4986893), CYP2C19 (rs4244285), TPMT (rs1142345), NAT2 (rs1799930), NAT2 (rs1799931), UGT1A1 (rs4148323), COMT (rs4680), ABCB1 (rs1045642), and CDA (rs60369023). Wider application of WES will help to determine the effects of mutations on the activities of proteins encoded by drug response genes, and the information gained will accelerate the development of personalized therapies for patients with cancer. Moreover, this knowledge may provide clues for preventing cancer before the onset of symptoms.

Kuo SH, Yang SY, You SL, et al.
Polymorphisms of ESR1, UGT1A1, HCN1, MAP3K1 and CYP2B6 are associated with the prognosis of hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(13):20925-20938 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
In this study, we investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified by genome-wide association study (GWAS) (MAP3K1, FGFR2, TNRC9, HCN1, and 5p12), and SNPs involved in the metabolism of estrogen (CYP19, COMT, ESR1, and UGT1A1), tamoxifen (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A5, and CYP2D6), and chemotherapeutic agents (ABCB1, ALDH3A1, and CYP2B6) are associated with the prognoses of 414 hormone receptor (HR)-positive early breast cancers with negative or 1 to 3 nodal metastases. At a median follow-up period of 10.6 years, 363 patients were alive, and 51 (12.3%) had died. Multiple-adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals for distant disease-free survival (DDFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) in association with the genotypes of 34 SNPs from the above-mentioned 16 genes were evaluated, using the stepwise selection Cox model. We found that the SNP, ESR1-codon325 rs1801132 (G/G+G/C), was associated with a longer DDFS, whereas UGT1A1 rs4148323 (A/A+A/G), and HCN1 rs981782 (A/A+A/C) were significantly associated with poorer DDFS. MAP3K1 rs889312 (C/C) and CYP2B6 rs3211371 (T/C) were significantly associated with poor DFS, DDFS and OS. Among premenopausal women, MAP3K1 rs889312 (C/C), CYP2B6 rs3211371 (T/C), CYP2B6 rs4802101 (T/T), ABCB1 rs2032582 (C/C), and ALDH3A1 rs2231142 (G/G) were significantly associated with poor DDFS, DFS, or OS. Our results provide additional evidence that genetic polymorphisms observed in SNPs are associated with the prognoses of patients with HR-positive breast cancers; this may indicate different treatment strategies for these patients.

Ghisari M, Long M, Røge DM, et al.
Polymorphism in xenobiotic and estrogen metabolizing genes, exposure to perfluorinated compounds and subsequent breast cancer risk: A nested case-control study in the Danish National Birth Cohort.
Environ Res. 2017; 154:325-333 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the present case-cohort study based on prospective data from Danish women, we aimed to estimate the main effect of polymorphisms in genes known to be involved in the steroid hormone metabolic pathway and xenobiotic metabolism on the risk of developing breast cancer. We also studied a possible effect measure modification between genotypes and levels of serum perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) on the risk to breast cancer. We have previously reported a weak association between serum PFASs levels and the risk of breast cancer for this study population of Danish pregnant nulliparous women as well as in a smaller case-control study of Greenlandic women. The study population consisted of 178 breast cancer cases and 233 controls (tabnulliparous and frequency matched on age) nested within the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), which was established in 1996-2002. Blood samples were drawn at the time of enrollment (6-14 week of gestation). Serum levels of 10 perfluorocarboxylated acids (PFCAs), 5 perfluorosulfonated acids (PFSAs) and 1 sulfonamide (perflurooctane-sulfonamide, PFOSA) were measured. Genotyping was conducted for CYP1A1 (Ile462Val; rs1048943), CYP1B1 (Leu432Val; rs1056836), COMT (Val158Met; rs4680), CYP17A1 (A1→ A2; rs743572); CYP19A1 (C→T; rs10046) by the TaqMan allelic discrimination method. In overall, no significant associations were found between the investigated polymorphisms and the risk of breast cancer in this study among Danish women. The previously found association between PFOSA and risk of breast cancer did vary between different genotypes, with significantly increased risk confined to homozygous carriers of the following alleles: COMT (Met), CYP17 (A1) and CYP19 (C).
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that polymorphisms in COMT, CYP17 and CYP19 which are involved in estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism can modulate the potential effects of PFOSA exposure on the development of breast cancer.

Sak K
The Val158Met polymorphism in COMT gene and cancer risk: role of endogenous and exogenous catechols.
Drug Metab Rev. 2017; 49(1):56-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Catechol-O-methyltransferase, COMT, is an important phase II enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a methyl-group from S-adenosylmethionine to a catechol-containing substrate molecule. A genetic variant Val158Met in the COMT gene leads to a several-fold decrease in the enzymatic activity giving rise to the accumulation of potentially carcinogenic endogenous catechol estrogens and their reactive intermediates and increasing thus the risk of tumorigenesis. However, numerous association studies between the COMT genotype and susceptibility to various malignancies have shown inconsistent and controversial findings indicating that additional gene-gene and gene-environment interactions might be crucial in modulating the physiological role of the COMT. In this review article, the important contribution of dietary catechol-containing flavonoids to modification of the relationships between the COMT genotype and cancer risk is discussed. Whereas, the diverse anticancer activities of common phytochemicals, such as green tea polyphenols, quercetin, fisetin or luteolin, can be markedly changed (both decreased or increased) by the COMT-mediated O-methylation of these exogenous substrates, flavonoids can also behave as potent inhibitors of the COMT enzyme slowing detoxification of endogenous catechol estrogens. Such a many-featured functioning of the COMT and its complex regulation by several different genetic and environmental factors, including plant-based food ingredients, emphasizes the necessity to further stratify the association studies between the COMT genotype and tumor risk by consumption of catechol-containing dietary flavonoids. Currently, it can be only speculated that some of the possible associations might be masked by the regular intake of specific food polyphenols, taking effect in certain communities or populations.

Wesmiller SW, Sereika SM, Bender CM, et al.
Exploring the multifactorial nature of postoperative nausea and vomiting in women following surgery for breast cancer.
Auton Neurosci. 2017; 202:102-107 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are two of the most frequent and distressing complications following surgical procedures, with as many as 80% of patients considered to be at risk. Despite recognition of well-established risk factors and the subsequent use of clinical guidelines, 20-30% of women do not respond to antiemetic protocols, indicating that there may be a genetic risk.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot study was to describe the incidence and explore the risk factors associated with PONV after surgery in women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer.
METHODS: A prospective cohort design was employed to measure PONV in women recruited prior to surgery. DNA was extracted from saliva samples collected prior to discharge. Polymorphisms for seven candidate genes with a known role in one of the neural pathways associated with PONV were included in this study; serotonin receptor (HTR3A), serotonin transport (SLC6A4), tryptophan (TPH), dopamine receptors (DRD2/ANKK and DRD3), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and histamine (H1).
RESULTS: Twenty-nine (29.8%) women experienced nausea and 10 (11%) experienced nausea and vomiting while in the PACU despite administration of multiple antiemetic medications. Women who experienced PONV had higher levels of pain and received more opioids than those women who did not experienced PONV. Odds ratios demonstrated that alleles for the COMT, DRD3, and TPH genes were associated with decreased PONV.
CONCLUSION: The understanding of the multifactorial nature of PONV and the recognition of genetic risk will ultimately lead to the development of personalized interventions to manage these frequent and often debilitating symptoms.

Eshragh J, Dhruva A, Paul SM, et al.
Associations Between Neurotransmitter Genes and Fatigue and Energy Levels in Women After Breast Cancer Surgery.
J Pain Symptom Manage. 2017; 53(1):67-84.e7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
CONTEXT: Fatigue is a common problem in oncology patients. Less is known about decrements in energy levels and the mechanisms that underlie both fatigue and energy.
OBJECTIVES: In patients with breast cancer, variations in neurotransmitter genes between lower and higher fatigue latent classes and between the higher and lower energy latent classes were evaluated.
METHODS: Patients completed assessments before and monthly for six months after surgery. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify distinct latent classes for fatigue severity and energy levels. Thirty candidate genes involved in various aspects of neurotransmission were evaluated.
RESULTS: Eleven single-nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes (i.e., ADRB2 rs1042718, BDNF rs6265, COMT rs9332377, CYP3A4 rs4646437, GALR1 rs949060, GCH1 rs3783642, NOS1 rs9658498, NOS1 rs2293052, NPY1R Haplotype A04, SLC6A2 rs17841327, and 5HTTLPR + rs25531 in SLC6A4) were associated with latent class membership for fatigue. Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes (i.e., NOS1 rs471871, SLC6A1 rs2675163, SLC6A1 Haplotype D01, SLC6A2 rs36027, SLC6A3 rs37022, SLC6A4 rs2020942, and TAC1 rs2072100) were associated with latent class membership for energy. Three of 13 genes (i.e., NOS1, SLC6A2, and SLC6A4) were associated with latent class membership for both fatigue and energy.
CONCLUSIONS: Molecular findings support the hypothesis that fatigue and energy are distinct, yet related symptoms. Results suggest that a large number of neurotransmitters play a role in the development and maintenance of fatigue and energy levels in breast cancer patients.

Kakino K, Kiyohara C, Horiuchi T, Nakanishi Y
CYP2E1 rs2031920, COMT rs4680 Polymorphisms, Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Use and Lung Cancer Risk in a Japanese Population.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(8):4063-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes may contribute to susceptibility to lung cancer because of their critical involvement in mechanisms of carcinogenesis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the role of CYP2E1 rs2031920 and COMT rs4680 in a case-control study involving 462 lung cancer cases and 379 controls in Japanese. Logistic regression was used to assess adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Multiplicative and additive interactions with cigarette smoking or alcohol use were also examined.
RESULTS: Neither CYP2E1 rs2031920 nor COMT rs4680 was associated with lung cancer risk overall. However, smokers with the CC genotype of CYP2E1 rs2031920 (OR = 3.57, 95% CI = 2.26-5.63) presented a higher risk of lung cancer than those with at least one T allele (OR = 2.91, 95% CI = 1.70-4.98) as compared to never-smokers with at least one T allele (reference). Subjects with excessive drinking and the CC genotype of CYP2E1 rs2031920 had a significantly higher risk (OR=2.22, 95% CI =1.39-3.56) than appropriate drinkers with at least one T allele. A similar tendency was observed between COMT rs4680 and either smoking or drinking habits. There were no multiplicative or additive interactions between the polymorphisms and either smoking or alcohol use.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that CYP2E1 rs2031920 and COMT rs4680 are not major contributors to lung cancer risk in our Japanese population. Future studies on the genetics of lung cancer in Japanese and their environment interactions are required.

Dzhemlikhanova LK, Efimova OA, Osinovskaya NS, et al.
Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism is associated with increased risk of multiple uterine leiomyomas either positive or negative for
J Clin Pathol. 2017; 70(3):233-236 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: To study the possible association of catechol-O-methyltransferase (

Pan Z, Fu Z, Song Q, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms and haplotype of hormone-related genes are associated with the risk of breast cancer in Chinese women.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
Sex hormones play important roles in breast cancer (BC) development. This study investigated associations between BC risk and hormone-related gene variants in Chinese women. In a cohort of 336 patients with histopathologically confirmed BC and 390 age-matched controls, we genotyped seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five hormone-related genes: estrogen receptor-α (ESR1), aromatase (CYP19), catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1). Among these seven SNPs, the SNPs in GSTP1 rs1695 [A/G; odds ratio (OR): 1.68; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23-2.30] and ESR1 rs2046210 (C/T; OR: 1.39; 95%CI = 1.02-1.91) were associated with an increased risk among heterozygote carriers. Homozygotes of minor alleles of CYP19 rs10046 (CC) were associated with a reduced risk of BC with OR: 0.61 (95%CI = 0.39-0.95). In addition, a stratified analysis by menopausal status indicated that the association of the CYP19 polymorphisms (rs10046 and rs700519) with BC risk was mainly evident in premenopausal women, and the association of CYP19 rs700519 with BC risk was significant in women less than 50 years old. Haplotype analysis identified 15 common haplotypes (>1%). The haplotype TGGGGTC was significantly associated with BC risk compared with the reference haplotype CGAGGTC (OR > 1000, P < 0.0001). Our data demonstrate that these ESR1, GSTP1, and CYP19 polymorphisms are associated with risk of BC, and the risk haplotype TGGGGTC could help to identify populations with high susceptibility to BC in Chinese women.

Correa DD, Satagopan J, Cheung K, et al.
COMT, BDNF, and DTNBP1 polymorphisms and cognitive functions in patients with brain tumors.
Neuro Oncol. 2016; 18(10):1425-33 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction is common among patients with brain tumors and can be associated with the disease and treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, little is known about genetic risk factors that may moderate the vulnerability for developing cognitive dysfunction. In this study, we examined the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1) genes with cognitive functions and neuroimaging outcomes in patients with brain tumors.
METHODS: One hundred and fifty patients with brain tumors completed neuropsychological tests of attention, executive functions, and memory and were genotyped for polymorphisms in the COMT, BDNF, and DTNBP1 genes. Ratings of white matter (WM) abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed.
RESULTS: Multivariate regression shrinkage analyses, adjusted for age, education, treatment type, time since treatment completion, and tumor location, indicated a significant association between the COMT SNP rs4680 (Val158Met) and memory with lower scores in delayed recall (P < .01) among homozygotes (valine/valine). Additional COMT, BDNF and DTNBP1 SNPs were significantly associated with attention, executive functions, and memory scores.
CONCLUSION: This is the first study to suggest that known and newly described polymorphisms in genes associated with executive and memory functions in healthy individuals and other clinical populations may modulate cognitive outcome in patients with brain tumors.

Brureau L, Moningo D, Emeville E, et al.
Polymorphisms of Estrogen Metabolism-Related Genes and Prostate Cancer Risk in Two Populations of African Ancestry.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0153609 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Estrogens are thought to play a critical role in prostate carcinogenesis. It has been suggested that polymorphisms of genes encoding enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism are risk factors for prostate cancer. However, few studies have been performed on populations of African ancestry, which are known to have a high risk of prostate cancer.
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether functional polymorphisms of CYP17, CYP19, CYP1B1, COMT and UGT1A1 affected the risk of prostate cancer in two different populations of African ancestry.
METHODS: In Guadeloupe (French West Indies), we compared 498 prostate cancer patients and 565 control subjects. In Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo), 162 prostate cancer patients were compared with 144 controls. Gene polymorphisms were determined by the SNaPshot technique or short tandem repeat PCR analysis. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
RESULTS: The AA genotype and the A allele of rs4680 (COMT) appeared to be inversely associated with the risk of prostate cancer in adjusted models for both Afro-Caribbean and native African men. For the A allele, a significant inverse association was observed among cases with low-grade Gleason scores and localized clinical stage, in both populations.
CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results support the hypothesis that polymorphisms of genes encoding enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism may modulate the risk of prostate cancer in populations of African ancestry.

Naushad SM, Janaki Ramaiah M, Pavithrakumari M, et al.
Artificial neural network-based exploration of gene-nutrient interactions in folate and xenobiotic metabolic pathways that modulate susceptibility to breast cancer.
Gene. 2016; 580(2):159-168 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the current study, an artificial neural network (ANN)-based breast cancer prediction model was developed from the data of folate and xenobiotic pathway genetic polymorphisms along with the nutritional and demographic variables to investigate how micronutrients modulate susceptibility to breast cancer. The developed ANN model explained 94.2% variability in breast cancer prediction. Fixed effect models of folate (400 μg/day) and B12 (6 μg/day) showed 33.3% and 11.3% risk reduction, respectively. Multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis showed the following interactions in responders to folate: RFC1 G80A × MTHFR C677T (primary), COMT H108L × CYP1A1 m2 (secondary), MTR A2756G (tertiary). The interactions among responders to B12 were RFC1G80A × cSHMT C1420T and CYP1A1 m2 × CYP1A1 m4. ANN simulations revealed that increased folate might restore ER and PR expression and reduce the promoter CpG island methylation of extra cellular superoxide dismutase and BRCA1. Dietary intake of folate appears to confer protection against breast cancer through its modulating effects on ER and PR expression and methylation of EC-SOD and BRCA1.

Kleine JP, Camargo-Kosugi CM, Carvalho CV, et al.
Analysis of CYP1A1 and COMT polymorphisms in women with cervical cancer.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(4):18965-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this case-control study was to obtain a comprehensive panel of genetic polymorphisms present only in genes (cytochrome P-450 1A1--CYP1A1 and catechol-O-methyl transferase--COMT) within the metabolic pathway of sex steroids and determine their possible associations with the presence or absence of cervical cancer. Genotypes of 222 women were analyzed: a) 81 with cancer of the cervix treated at the Cancer Hospital Alfredo Abram, between June 2012 and May 2013, with diagnosis confirmed surgically and/or through histomorphological examination; and b) 141 healthy women who assisted at the Endocrine Gynecology and Climacteric Ambulatory, Department of Gynecology, UNIFESP-EPM. These polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction amplification-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and visualized on 3% agarose gels stained with ethidium bromide. We found a significant association between the frequency of the CYP1A1 polymorphism and the development of cervical cancer. A statistical difference was observed between patient and control groups for CYP1A1 polymorphism genotype distributions (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were found in the COMT gene polymorphism genotype distributions between the patient and control groups (P > 0.05) or between other risk variables analyzed. The CYP1A1 gene involved in the metabolic pathway of sex steroids might influence the emergence of pathological conditions such as cervical cancer in women who carry a mutated allele, and result in 1.80 and 13.46 times increased risk for women with heterozygous or homozygous mutated genotypes, respectively.

Talach T, Rottenberg J, Gal B, et al.
Genetic risk factors of cisplatin induced ototoxicity in adult patients.
Neoplasma. 2016; 63(2):263-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ototoxicity is an important adverse effect of using Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum) (CDDP) as a form of chemotherapy. The clinical picture of CDDP induced ototoxicity includes perceptive hearing impairment (reversible or permanent) and tinnitus. Ototoxicity manifests with considerable variability between patients. The objective of this prospective study was to investigate a possible genetic background to this variability. We assessed ototoxicity induced by therapeutic doses of CDDP in adult patients with germinative testicular tumors, or other tumors treated with an identical CDDP dosage scheme. Audiological examination before, during and after the treatment has shown deterioration in hearing; first in the high-frequencies and with increased CDDP cumulative doses, impairment in other frequencies as well. Occurrence of tinnitus was not dependent on the administered dose of CDDP, or the other risk factors examined in this study. The association of CDDP induced ototoxicity with genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes was examined. Our study has demonstrated an association of early onset of CDDP induced ototoxicity with the presence of two copies of GSTT1 gene (p=0,009) and with T allele of rs9332377 polymorphism in COMT gene (p=0,001).

Pan W, Liao H
Correlations between the COMT gene rs4680 polymorphism and susceptibility to ovarian cancer.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(4):16813-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the correlations between the single nucleotide polymorphism rs4680 in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene and susceptibility to ovarian cancer. A computer search was carried out for relevant case-control studies published between January 2000 to January 2014 in databases such as Ovid, EBSCO, PubMed, CNKI, CBMDISC, VIP, and WanFang Data. The literature was screened based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. A meta-analysis was performed by calculating the combined odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using the RevMan 5.0. A total of 7 case-control studies were selected, which included 1439 cases and 2927 control subjects. Meta-analysis showed that the rs4680 polymorphism was not associated with ovarian cancer [GG vs (GA+AA): OR = 1.02, 95%CI = 0.88-1.19; G vs A allele: OR = 1.0, 95%CI = 0.90-1.11]. We, therefore, conclude that the COMT rs4680 polymorphism is not associated with susceptibility to ovarian cancer.

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