Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: AVPR1A (cancer-related)
Daniels MW, Brock GN, Wittliff JLClinical outcomes linked to expression of gene subsets for protein hormones and their cognate receptors from LCM-procured breast carcinoma cells.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017; 161(2):245-258 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Certain peptide hormones and/or their cognate receptors influencing normal cellular pathways also have been detected in breast cancers. The hypothesis is that gene subsets of these regulatory molecules predict risk of breast carcinoma recurrence in patients with primary disease.
METHODS: Gene expression levels of 61 hormones and 81 receptors were determined by microarray with LCM-procured carcinoma cells of 247 de-identified biopsies. Univariable and multivariable Cox regressions were determined using expression levels of each hormone/receptor gene, individually or as a pair.
RESULTS: Molecular signatures for ER+/PR+, ER-/PR-, and ER- carcinoma cells deciphered by LASSO were externally validated at HRs (CI) of 2.8 (1.84-4.4), 1.53 (1.01-2.3), and 1.72 (1.15-2.56), respectively. Using LCM-procured breast carcinoma cells, a 16-gene molecular signature was derived for ER+/PR+ biopsies, whereas a 10-gene signature was deciphered for ER-/PR- cancers. Four genes, POMC, CALCR, AVPR1A, and GH1, of this 10-gene signature were identified in a 6-gene molecular signature for ER- specimens.
CONCLUSIONS: Applying these signatures, Kaplan-Meier plots definitively identified a cohort of patients with either ER-/PR- or ER- carcinomas that exhibited low risk of recurrence. In contrast, the ER+/PR+ signature identified a cohort of patients with high risk of breast cancer recurrence. Each of the three molecular signatures predicted clinical outcomes of breast cancer patients with greater accuracy than observed with either single-gene analysis or by ER/PR protein content alone. Collectively, our results suggest that gene expression profiles of breast carcinomas with suspected poor prognosis (ER-/PR-) have identified a subset of patients with decreased risk of recurrence.
Bakos J, Strbak V, Paulikova H, et al.Oxytocin receptor ligands induce changes in cytoskeleton in neuroblastoma cells.
J Mol Neurosci. 2013; 50(3):462-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Aim of the present study was to evaluate effects of ligands of oxytocin receptors on gene expression of neurofilament proteins (nestin and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2)) associated with neuronal differentiation and growth factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF)) related to neuronal growth. Fluorescent staining of F-actin was used to observe morphology of cells. Co-treatment with oxytocin and oxytocin receptor antagonist--atosiban--resulted in significant increase of MAP2 gene expression in SK-N-SH cells. There was no effect of oxytocin on gene expression of growth factors BDNF and NGF. Surprisingly, oxytocin with atosiban significantly increased mRNA levels for both BDNF and NGF. Gene expression of vasopressin receptor (V1aR) significantly decreased in response to vasopressin. Atosiban decreased mRNA levels for oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and V1aR. Oxytocin significantly decreased OXTR and nestin mRNA levels and increased mRNA levels for BDNF and NGF in U-87 MG cells. The densest recruitment of F-actin filaments was observed in apical parts of filopodia in SK-N-SH cells incubated in oxytocin presence. Present data demonstrate complex role of ligands of oxytocin receptors in regulation of gene expression of intermediate filaments and thus, oxytocin might be considered as a growth factor in neuronal type of cells.
Expression of genes that encode oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (AVP) and their cognate receptors in normal and diseased prostates are only partially characterized. Reverse transcription and PCR were used to examine the expression of these genes in normal prostate epithelial and stromal cell lines, k-ras-transformed prostate epithelial cell lines, and in four prostate cancer cell lines. Secreted and cell-associated OXT peptide was measured by an enzyme immunoassay. OXT and its receptor (OXTR) were expressed in all eight prostate cell lines. Cell-associated OXT peptide was also found in all prostate epithelial cell lines except in DU145 cells. Neither AVP nor its cognate receptors (V1a receptor and V2 receptor) were expressed in any prostate cell line examined. These data point to the OXTR as the primary target of OXT and AVP, and suggest that OXT might be an autocrine/paracrine regulator in human prostate. We found that OXT induces the migration of PC3 and PC3M, but not DU145 prostate cancer cells. The effect of OXT is distinct from the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced migration of prostate cancer cells, in which ERK1/2 and EGF receptor kinase activities were required. When cells were pretreated with pertussis toxin, the effect of OXT, but not EGF, on cell migration was abolished. Pretreatment with the cyclic AMP analogue, 8-Br-cAMP, did not affect OXT-induced cell migration, which eliminated the nonspecific effect of pertussis toxin. We conclude that a Gi-dependent mechanism is involved in OXTR-mediated migration of prostate cancer cells, and indicates a role for OXTR in prostate cancer metastasis.
Gagliardi L, Hotu C, Casey G, et al.Familial vasopressin-sensitive ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (VPs-AIMAH): clinical studies of three kindreds.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009; 70(6):883-91 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: Cushing's syndrome due to familial ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) has been reported in small kindreds. In vasopressin-sensitive AIMAH (VPs-AIMAH), VP stimulates an aberrant, ACTH-independent increase in cortisol. The aims of this study were to (i) delineate the preclinical phenotype of VPs-AIMAH in a three-generation kindred (AIMAH-01) and two smaller kindreds (AIMAH-02 and AIMAH-03) and (ii) investigate the aetiology of VP sensitivity in AIMAH-01.
DESIGN: Clinical studies of three kindreds for adrenal tumours or early Cushing's and molecular studies of adrenal tumours (AIMAH-01).
PATIENTS: Thirty-three individuals, from three kindreds, were screened for perturbations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis or adrenal tumours.
MEASUREMENTS: Patients underwent clinical, biochemical and adrenal imaging investigations. Evaluation included low-dose (1 IU/70 kg) VP stimulation. Adrenal VP receptor (AVPR1A, AVPR1B, AVPR2) expression (AIMAH-01) was assessed using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). IHC for VP was also performed.
RESULTS: AIMAH-01 had three siblings with Cushing's, and four individuals with suppressed ACTH/aberrant VP responses and/or adrenal nodules. In AIMAH-02, a father and son were affected. AIMAH-03 had three siblings with Cushing's. RT-PCR showed adrenal overexpression of AVPR1A and AVPR1B. IHC detected AVPR1A. The adrenal tumour from one patient also stained weakly for VP and AVPR2.
CONCLUSION: Adrenal nodules, suppressed ACTH and increased VP sensitivity may represent preclinical disease, allowing early detection, and treatment, of affected individuals. In AIMAH-01, increased VP sensitivity may be due to adrenal VP receptor overexpression. In these kindreds, VPs-AIMAH is familial, and autosomal dominant inheritance is most likely.
Péqueux C, Breton C, Hagelstein MT, et al.Oxytocin receptor pattern of expression in primary lung cancer and in normal human lung.
Lung Cancer. 2005; 50(2):177-88 [PubMed
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In order to assess if oxytocin- and vasopressin-induced mitogenic effects detected on small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cell lines could be transposed on primary SCLC, the aim of the present work was to identify mediators of these mitogenic actions on primary tumours samples. This was addressed on normal human lung tissue, on SCLC and on non-SCLC (NSCLC). Herein, we observe, in normal human lung, that OTR is colocalized with vascular endothelial cells of the lung and is not expressed by lung cells of epithelial nature. We detected mRNA amplification of V1aR, V2R and of a V2R variant. We observed that 86% of SCLC biopsies analyzed expressed at least the OTR and that 71% expressed the OTR, the V1aR and the V2R altogether. Comparatively, 50% of NSCLC biopsies tested expressed at least the OTR and 32% expressed the OTR, the V1aR and the V2R altogether. The occurrence of the V1bR/V3R is of 28 and 18% for SCLC and NSCLC, respectively. Nevertheless, for the SCLC biopsies analyzed in this study, V1bR/V3R expression correlates, in all cases, with the expression of all the other neurohypophysial peptide receptors. Our results suggest that neurohypophysial peptide antagonists may offer promise as a potential new therapeutic modality for the treatment of lung cancer expressing at least one of the neurhypophysial peptide receptor subtypes.
Péqueux C, Keegan BP, Hagelstein MT, et al.Oxytocin- and vasopressin-induced growth of human small-cell lung cancer is mediated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2004; 11(4):871-85 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Malignant growth of small-cell lung carcinoma is promoted by various neuroendocrine autocrine/paracrine loops. Therefore, to interfere with this mitogenic process, it is crucial to elucidate the mechanisms involved. It is known that the oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) genes, normally transcriptionally restricted in their expression, are activated in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), concomitantly with expression of their receptors (OTR, V1aR, V1bR/V3R and V2R). The aim of the present study was to characterize, in concentrations close to physiological and pharmacological conditions, intracellular signalling events triggered by OT and VP binding to their specific receptors in SCLC cells and to identify factors mediating OT- and VP-induced mitogenic effects on SCLC. Known agonists for OTR ([Thr4,Gly7]OT) and V1aR (F180), in addition to OT and VP, were able to elicit increases in cytosolic Ca2+ levels and this effect could be blocked using an OTR antagonist (OVTA) or a V1aR antagonist (SR49059) respectively. There was no activation of the cAMP pathway detected after VP, dDAVP (a V2R agonist), or OT treatment. Stimulation of SCLC cells with OT and VP led to an increase of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation, maximal at 5 min, and the subsequent phosphorylation of its downstream target p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK). Pre-incubation with OVTA and SR49059, and with inhibitors of phospholipase C (PLC), protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) 1/2 and a Ca2+ chelator significantly reduced OT- and VP-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylations. OVTA, SR49059 as well as MEK1/2 and PKC inhibitors also downregulated OT- and VP-induced p90RSK phosphorylation. In [3H]thymidine-uptake experiments, we subsequently observed that PLC, Ca2+, PKC and ERK1/2 are absolutely required for the OT- and VP-stimulated SCLC cellular growth process. In conclusion, the results presented here indicate that OT- and VP-induced mitogenic effects on SCLC are respectively mediated by OTR and V1aR signalling and that this mitogenic signalling passes through the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p90RSK in a PLC-, Ca2+-, PKC- and MEK1/2-dependent pathway.
Miyamura N, Tsutsumi A, Senokuchi H, et al.A case of ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia: simultaneous expression of several aberrant hormone receptors in the adrenal gland.
Endocr J. 2003; 50(3):333-40 [PubMed
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ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) is a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome. Recently, aberrant expression of adrenal receptors for various hormones and/or cytokines has been identified in several cases with AIMAH, which may act as a pathogenetic factor for the disorder. We report here an AIMAH patient with a Rathke's cleft cyst. Endocrinological examinations revealed that the pituitary cyst had no hormonal secretion. Administrations of either AVP or isoproterenol provoked cortisol production in the patient, whereas DDAVP, mosapride or endogenous LH induced by GnRH did not. Reverse transcriptional-PCR analysis of total RNA obtained from the patient's adrenal tissue revealed the expression of mRNA of receptors for V1a, V1b, V2, and LH/hCG. Three of these receptors except for V1a receptor were not expressed in normal adrenal tissue. Hyperosmolar saline infusion promoted the patient's cortisol secretion through the increase in endogenous AVP (peak plasma AVP level reached 90.4 pg/ml during the test). These results suggest that endogenous AVP and catecholamines are involved in the pathophysiology of the patient. Further study will be necessary to clarify the molecular mechanisms that regulate tissue-specific expression of these receptors and their role in the overgrowth of adrenal in AIMAH.
North WGGene regulation of vasopressin and vasopressin receptors in cancer.
Exp Physiol. 2000; 85 Spec No:27S-40S [PubMed
] Related Publications
It is proposed that neuropeptide production by tumours is an important part of a special process of oncogenic transformation rather than a pre-existing condition of progenitor cells; this concept is called Selective Tumour gene Expression of Peptides essential for Survival (STEPS). All small-cell lung cancers and breast cancers evidently express the vasopressin gene, and this gene seems to be structurally normal in all but exceptional cases. Vasopressin gene expression in cancer cells leads to the production of both normal and abnormal forms of tumour vasopressin mRNA and proteins. Although the necessary post-translational processing enzymes are expressed in these cells, most processing seems to be extragranular, and most of the protein products become components of the plasma membrane. Small-cell lung cancer and breast cancer cells also express normal genes for all vasopressin receptors and produce normal vasopressin receptor mRNAs and V1a and V1b receptor proteins, and the vasopressin-activated calcium mobilising (VACM) protein; plus both normal and abnormal forms of the V2 receptor. Through these receptors, vasopressin exercises multifaceted effects on tumour growth and metabolism. A normal protein vasopressin gene promoter seems to be present in small-cell lung cancer cells, and this promoter contains all of the transcriptional elements known to be involved in gene regulation within hypothalamic neurones. Since these elements largely account for regulation of tumour gene expression observed in vitro, it is likely that as yet unknown factors are selectively produced by tumours in vivo to account for the observed seemingly autonomous or unregulated production of hormone in tumour patients. Promoter elements thought to be responsible for selective vasopressin gene expression in small-cell lung cancer probably include an E-box and a neurone restrictive silencer element close to the transcription start site. It is possible that transcription factors acting at these same elements can explain selective vasopressin expression, not only in small-cell tumours, but also in all other tumours such as breast cancer. By extrapolation, similar mechanisms might also be responsible for the expression of additional features that characterize the 'neuroendocrine' profile of these cancers.
de Keyzer Y, Auzan C, Lenne F, et al.Cloning and characterization of the human V3 pituitary vasopressin receptor.
FEBS Lett. 1994; 356(2-3):215-20 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) plays a determinant role in the normal ACTH response to stress in mammals. We cloned a human cDNA coding a 424 amino acid G-protein coupled receptor structurally related to the vasopressin/oxytocin receptor family. When expressed in COS cells, this receptor binds AVP with a high affinity (Kd = 0.55 +/- 0.13 nM) and is functionally coupled to phospholipase C. Competition studies with peptidic or non peptidic AVP analogues reveal that it is pharmacologically distinct from V1a and V2 AVP receptors and therefore it is designated V3. RT-PCR analysis shows that the human V3 receptor is expressed in normal pituitary and also in kidney, but is undetectable in liver, myometrium and adrenal gland. Northern blot analysis reveals a approximately 4.8 kb messenger in human corticotropic pituitary adenomas.