Research IndicatorsGraph generated 18 March 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 17 March, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (3)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: ADIPOR2 (cancer-related)
Wu S, Zheng C, Chen S, et al.Adiponectin signals through Adiponectin Receptor 1 to reverse imatinib resistance in K562 human chronic myeloid leukemia cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 456(1):367-72 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Adiponectin, a member of adipokines, is a functional ligand for Adiponectin Receptor-1 (AdipoR1) and Adiponectin Receptor-2 (AdipoR2), and has been found to be linked to the risk of CML. Imatinib has undoubtedly revolutionised the management and outcome of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), however imatinib resistance has been recognized as a major problem in CML therapy. In this study, we first established imatinib-resistant K562 CML cells, and then evaluated the effect of Adiponectin in reversing imatinib resistance. The data presented here demonstrated that Adiponectin was able to reverse K562 resistance to imatinib in vitro and in vivo. Additional data with molecular approaches suggested that the reversion of Adiponectin in imatinib resistance signals through AdipoR1 but not AdipoR2 to downregulate Bcr-Abl expression and effect in imatinib-resistant K562 CML cells. Taken together, our data showed that Adiponectin can reverse imatinib resistance in CML, and to a certain extent elucidate the mechanism of Adiponectin reversing imatinib resistance that may provide a new and promising approach in imatinib resistance management in CML therapy.
Vetvik KK, Sonerud T, Lindeberg M, et al.Globular adiponectin and its downstream target genes are up-regulated locally in human colorectal tumors: ex vivo and in vitro studies.
Metabolism. 2014; 63(5):672-81 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: Low plasma adiponectin levels are linked to obesity, insulin resistance, and the risk of several types of malignancy. Despite the decline in circulating adiponectin concentrations, the increase in the expression of adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 is greater in cancerous than in normal colonic tissue. The purpose of this study was to obtain new information regarding local adiponectin signaling in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC).
METHODS: We characterized the expressions of adiponectin and several of its downstream targets in paired samples of tumor tissue and adjacent noncancerous mucosa in 60 surgical patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas.
RESULTS: Adiponectin was expressed in both colorectal tumors and the adjacent mucosa. The expressions of adiponectin mRNA and its globular protein variant (gAd), adiponectin receptor type 1 and 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) mRNA were significantly higher in colorectal tumors than in the adjacent mucosa. This finding was accompanied by increased mRNA expression of genes encoding proteins involved in fatty-acid trafficking and oxidation. The potential interference between adiponectin stimulation and AMPK activation through AMPK1 was examined in an in vitro model with the aid of silencing-RNA experiments. Furthermore, AMPK mRNA expression on tumors was positively correlated with a more advanced tumor stage in the patients.
CONCLUSION: We propose that the globular adiponectin-AMPK pathway functions in an autocrine manner in colorectal tumors, explaining some of the beneficial changes in cellular oxidative capacity in tumors in favor of tumorigenesis.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by ovarian androgen excess, is the commonest endocrine disorder in women. Obesity increases androgen synthesis, a phenomenon attributed to the accompanying hyperinsulinemia. Our hypothesis was that adipokines, fat cell-derived hormones, play a direct role in modulating ovarian androgen secretion. Therefore, the aims of this study were to explore the effects of adipokines (in particular, adiponectin) on ovarian steroidogenesis and compare the expression of adiponectin receptors in ovaries from women with and without PCO. Sections of archived human ovaries (nine from women with normal ovaries and 16 with PCOS, classified histologically, with reference to menstrual history and ultrasound) were analysed by quantitative morphometry and the proportion of positive-labelling cells compared. In addition, studies of androgen production in relation to adipokine function in primary bovine theca cell culture were also performed. A significantly lower proportion of theca cells expressed adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2) in polycystic ovaries than in normal ovaries. In cultured theca cells, adiponectin suppressed androstenedione production and gene expression of LH receptor and key enzymes in the androgen synthesis pathway. Moreover, knockdown of genes for AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was associated with increased androstenedione secretion by bovine theca cells. These results provide evidence for a direct link between fat cell metabolism and ovarian steroidogenesis, suggesting that disruption of adiponectin and/or its receptors plays a key role in pathogenesis of hyperandrogenism in PCOS.
Ye L, Zhang ZY, Du WD, et al.Genetic analysis of ADIPOQ variants and gastric cancer risk: a hospital-based case-control study in China.
Med Oncol. 2013; 30(3):658 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of adiponectin (ADIPOQ), adiponectin receptor 1 (ADIPOR1) and ADIPOR2 genes contribute to the risk and progression of cancers. Here, we investigated the associations between variants of these three genes and the risk of gastric cancer. We genotyped six ADIPOQ SNPs, nine ADIPOR1 SNPs and six ADIPOR2 SNPs using the Sequenom technique in a hospital-based case-control study of patients with gastric cancer and cancer-free controls in the Chinese Han population. We found associations of certain variants with location of gastric cancer. Rs16861205 with the minor allele A in ADIPOQ, rs10773989 with the minor allele C and rs1044471 with the minor allele T in ADIPOR2 presented significant associations with a decreased risk of cardia cancer (P = 0.024, OR 0.605, 95 % CI 0.390-0.938; P = 0.015, OR 0.699, 95 % CI 0.522-0.935; and P = 0.022, OR = 0.703, 95 % CI 0.519-0.951, respectively). ADIPOQ rs16861205 with minor allele A displayed an association with an increased risk of body cancer (P = 0.010, OR 1.821, 95 % CI 1.148-2.890). Further stratified analysis of the patients indicated that there were significant correlations for rs1342387A/G (P = 0.027) and rs16861205A/G (P = 0.000) with tumor location; rs16850799A/G (P = 0.004) and rs2058033C/A (P = 0.003) with invasion depth; rs16850799A/G (P = 0.019) with the tumor-node-metastasis stage; rs16850799A/G (P = 0.016), rs1501299A/C (P = 0.005) and rs1063538C/T (P = 0.017) with alcohol consumption; rs11612414A/G (P = 0.040) and rs12733285T/C (P = 0.005) with salted food; rs1063538C/T (P = 0.043) with family history of gastric cancer; and rs11612414A/G (P = 0.029) with gender. Adiponectin expression significantly correlated with gender (P = 0.014), alcohol consumption (P = 0.037), family history (P = 0.019) and invasion depth of primary tumor (P = 0.024). Our data suggested that variants of ADIPOQ may be genetic markers conferring susceptibility to gastric cancer subtypes. These findings need to be validated in a larger panel of samples from distinct populations.
Mokrowiecka A, Sokolowska M, Luczak E, et al.Adiponectin and leptin receptors expression in Barrett's esophagus and normal squamous epithelium in relation to central obesity status.
J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013; 64(2):193-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Esophageal adenocarcinoma incidence is rapidly increasing which may be due to the growing incidence of Barrett's esophagus (BE) and obesity. The mechanisms linking obesity and progression of Barrett's carcinogenesis is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of adipokines receptors in BE and in normal squamous epithelium in the same patients in correlation with obesity parameters.
METHODS: Expression of adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 protein (AdipoR1, AdipoR2) as well as leptin receptor protein (ObR) in biopsies from 27 BE and normal squamous epithelium (N) in the same patients as well as in obese and normal controls were assessed with Western-blot analysis. These correlations were confirmed with the quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). AdipoR1 and ObR protein levels were similar in BE mucosa and squamous epithelium in the same patients in Western-blot analysis (2303 vs. 2448 OB units; 106927 vs. 103390, respectively; p>0.05). RT-PCR analysis confirmed this observation for AdipoR1, R2 and ObR genes expression (0.11±0.08 vs. 0.19±0.24, p=0.78; 0.24±0.36 vs. 0.33±0.49, p=0.5375; 0.71±0.8 vs. 1.33±2.95, p=1.0; respectively). Using linear correlation analysis we found the positive correlation between AdipoR1 expression in Barrett's epithelium compared to squamous epithelium in the same patients (N) (r=0.5; p=0.008) and between ObR expression in BE and N (r=0.8; p<0.001). The AdipoR1 and ObR protein levels were significantly higher in BE patients compared to controls and obese controls (2303 vs. 895 vs. 1674 and OD units, p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: in opposite to the prior hypothesis adiponectin and leptin receptors activation in BE may be not caused by obesity.
Breast cancer has become the most common cancer among women in industrialized countries. Obesity is well established as a risk factor, in particular owing to the attendant secretion of the entities called adipokines; there is growing evidence for a role of cells and factors present in the mammary tumor microenvironment such as fibroblasts, preadipocytes, adipocytes and their secretions. To study how the microenvironment influences breast cancer growth, we developed a novel tridimensional adipose model epithelialized with normal human keratinocytes or with breast cancer cell lines. These mimicked a breast tumor in contact with an adipose microenvironment and allowed monitoring of the interactions between the cells. Leptin and adiponectin, two major adipokines, and their respective receptors, ObRt and AdipoR1, were expressed in the model, but not the second adiponectin receptor, AdipoR2. The differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes was greater when they were in contact with the breast cancer cell lines. The contact of breast cancer cell lines with the microenvironment completely modified their transcriptional programs by increasing the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation (cyclinD1, MAPK), angiogenesis (MMP9, VEGF) and hormonal pathways (ESR1, IL6). This tridimensional adipose model provides new insights into the interactions between breast cancer cells and their adipose microenvironment, and provides a tool to develop new drugs for the treatment of both cancer and obesity.
Kaklamani VG, Hoffmann TJ, Thornton TA, et al.Adiponectin pathway polymorphisms and risk of breast cancer in African Americans and Hispanics in the Women's Health Initiative.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013; 139(2):461-8 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Adiponectin, a protein secreted by the adipose tissue, is an endogenous insulin sensitizer with circulating levels that are decreased in obese and diabetic subjects. Recently, circulating levels of adiponectin have been correlated with breast cancer risk. Our previous work showed that polymorphisms of the adiponectin pathway are associated with breast cancer risk. We conducted the first study of adiponectin pathways in African Americans and Hispanics in the Women's Health Initiative SNP Health Association Resource cohort of 3,642 self-identified Hispanic women and 8,515 self-identified African American women who provided consent for DNA analysis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from three genes were included in this analysis: ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, and ADIPOR2. The genome-wide human SNP array 6.0 (909,622 SNPs) ( www.affymetrix.com ) was used. We found that rs1501299, a functional SNP of ADIPOQ that we previously reported was associated with breast cancer risk in a mostly Caucasian population, was also significantly associated with breast cancer incidence (HR for the GG/TG genotype: 1.23; 95 % CI 1.059-1.43) in African American women. We did not find any other SNPs in these genes to be associated with breast cancer incidence. This is the first study assessing the role of adiponectin pathway SNPs in breast cancer risk in African Americans and Hispanics. RS1501299 is significantly associated with breast cancer risk in African American women. As the rates of obesity and diabetes increase in African Americans and Hispanics, adiponectin and its functional SNPs may aid in breast cancer risk assessment.
Palin MF, Bordignon VV, Murphy BDAdiponectin and the control of female reproductive functions.
Vitam Horm. 2012; 90:239-87 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Adiponectin is the most abundant protein secreted by the white adipose tissue. It circulates at high levels in the bloodstream and its serum concentration is inversely correlated with body fat mass. The wide distribution of adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1, AdipoR2, and T-cadherin) in peripheral tissues and organs allows adiponectin to exert pleiotropic effects on whole-body metabolism. Besides its well-known antidiabetic, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, accumulating evidence suggests a direct role for adiponectin in reproductive tissues. The mammalian ovary and the ovarian follicle express AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, and treating pig granulosa cells with adiponectin induces changes characteristic of the periovulatory period. Moreover, additive effects are observed between adiponectin and insulin in induction of granulosa cell gene expression, thus suggesting that adiponectin actions on the ovary may be mediated through its insulin-sensitizing effects. Adiponectin receptors are also detected in the uterus. In women, higher AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 gene expression was observed during the mid-secretory phase of the menstrual cycle, suggesting that adiponectin is implicated in the endometrial changes in preparation for embryo implantation. Adiponectin receptors are found in oocytes and early developing pig, rabbit, and mice embryos, and it has been demonstrated that adiponectin can increase the success of porcine embryo development to the blastocyst stage in vitro. Moreover, adiponectin concentration is two to three times greater in human fetal circulation and in umbilical cord blood, compared to adult plasma. This further indicates a role for adiponectin in fetal growth. It has been further suggested that adipose-derived and locally produced adiponectin may act as a key neuromodulator of reproductive functions. For example, the inhibition of LH and GnRH release from rat pituitary and hypothalamic cells following treatment with adiponectin provides evidence that adiponectin may also act on the release of gonadotropins. Adipose tissue is now recognized as an important factor in the complex equation by which the nutritional status regulates female reproductive functions. For example, underweight women have delayed puberty and higher risk of premature delivery, whereas overweight and obese women have early puberty and are prone to develop polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and preeclampsia. Because hypoadiponectinemia is often associated with the abovementioned disorders, it has been suggested that this adipokine might play a role in the development of these pregnancy-related complications. Moreover, as these reproductive disorders often come with metabolic complications such as insulin and glucose resistance, the insulin-sensitizing effects of adiponectin may explain the observed association of this adipokine with PCOS, GDM, and preeclampsia. This review summarizes current knowledge on the role of adiponectin in female reproductive tissues and highlights mechanisms where information is available. We also discuss about the known and potential roles of adiponectin in the development of reproductive disorders.
Yamauchi N, Takazawa Y, Maeda D, et al.Expression levels of adiponectin receptors are decreased in human endometrial adenocarcinoma tissues.
Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2012; 31(4):352-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Adiponectin is a cytokine secreted by adipocytes, whose plasma levels are decreased in obesity. Adiponectin has insulin-sensitizing, antiatherogenic, and antidiabetogenic effects. It has been shown that adiponectin may also exert antineoplastic activity through suppression of tumor proliferation and neoangiogenesis and through induction of apoptosis. Recently, low adiponectin serum concentration has been found in obesity-related malignancies, including endometrial cancer. In addition, the expression of adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) has been documented in several human cancer tissues, but the expression has previously not been assessed in human endometrial cancer tissues. In this study, we analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in a series of surgically resected human endometrioid adenocarcinoma tissues from a total of 141 cases. Decreased AdipoR1 or AdipoR2 expression was significantly associated with histological higher grade (P=0.0026 and 0.0004, respectively). Decreased expression of AdipoR1 was associated with myometrial invasion and lymph node metastasis of endometrioid adenocarcinoma (P=0.0039 and P=0.0069, respectively). AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 immunoexpression was significantly associated with the expression of the progesterone receptor, although it was not significantly correlated with the expression of the estrogen receptor, Ki-67 or p53. Our present study raises the possibility that decreased expression of adiponectin receptors is implicated in the development, invasion, and metastasis of human endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Our findings, moreover, indicate that adiponectin receptors could be considered as therapeutic targets for endometrioid adenocarcinoma. In adiponectin receptor-positive endometrioid adenocarcinoma, we think adiponectin-based anticancer therapy is useful; however, in histological high-grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma, in which the expression levels of adiponectin receptors are relatively low, adiponectin therapy supported by adiponectin receptor induction is needed.
Lu JP, Hou ZF, Duivenvoorden WC, et al.Adiponectin inhibits oxidative stress in human prostate carcinoma cells.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2012; 15(1):28-35 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Emerging data suggest that obesity increases the risk of aggressive prostate cancer (PC), but the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain to be fully elucidated. Oxidative stress (OS) is a key process in the development and progression of PC. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-specific hormone, circulates at relatively high levels in healthy humans, but at reduced levels in obese subjects. Moreover, case-control studies also document lower levels of serum adiponectin in PC patients compared with healthy individuals.
METHODS: Human 22Rv1 and DU-145 PC cell lines were examined for the generation of OS and detoxification of reactive oxygen species after treatment with adiponectin. Normality was confirmed using the Shapiro-Wilk test and results were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance.
RESULTS: We demonstrate that adiponectin increased cellular anti-oxidative defense mechanisms and inhibited OS in a significant and dose-dependent manner. We show that adiponectin treatment decreased the generation of superoxide anion in both cell lines, whereas the transcript levels of NADPH oxidase (NOX)2 and NOX4 increased. We also found indications of an overall anti-oxidative effect, as the total anti-oxidative potential, catalase activity and protein levels, and manganese superoxide dismutase protein levels increased significantly (P<0.05) in both cell lines after treatment with adiponectin.
CONCLUSION: Lower levels of adiponectin in obese individuals may result in higher levels of prostatic OS, which may explain the clinical association between obesity, hypoadiponectinemia and PC.
Niu K, Asada M, Okazaki T, et al.Adiponectin pathway attenuates malignant mesothelioma cell growth.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2012; 46(4):515-23 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is caused by exposure to asbestos. Because MM has a latency period, short survival time, and has a poor response to current therapeutic regimes, long-term preventive strategies are required to suppress the advance of pathological states after asbestos exposure. Accumulating evidence suggests that adiponectin plays a crucial role in the regulation of energy metabolism by increasing AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. Several studies have indicated that the activation of AMPK decreases cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression. Because high COX-2 levels correlated with a worse prognosis and survival rate in MM, we examined whether the adiponectin pathway suppresses MM cell growth through the AMPK/COX-2 pathway. In vivo, dietary fish oil (a potential promoter of adiponectin) decreased the growth rate of MM, which was accompanied by an increase in adiponectin and phospho-AMPK levels, and a decrease in COX-2 level. In vitro, adiponectin significantly impaired the cell proliferation rate of MM cell lines. These effects partly involved induction of growth arrest and apoptosis to MM cells. MM cells expressed both adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1 and -R2) at mRNA and proteins levels. These receptors were functional, because adiponectin activated AMPK. Adiponectin treatment also significantly down-regulated protein levels of COX-2 and its downstream prostaglandin E(2). Finally, inhibitory analysis of AdipoR1/R2 by small interfering RNA knockdown suggests that adiponectin enhances AMPK activity and impairs the cell proliferation rate of MM cells, mainly via AdipoR1. These findings suggest that the induction or supplementation of adiponectin is an important tactic for developing therapeutic strategies against MM.
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome traits play an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. Adipokines, key metabolic syndrome cellular mediators, when abnormal, may induce carcinogenesis.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate whether polymorphisms of important adipokines, adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and its receptors, either alone or in combination with environmental factors, are implicated in colorectal cancer, a two-stage case-control study was conducted. In the first stage, we evaluated 24 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tag SNPs) across ADIPOQ ligand and two ADIPOQ receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) among 470 cases and 458 controls. One SNP with promising association was then analyzed in stage 2 among 314 cases and 355 controls. In our study, ADIPOQ rs1063538 was consistently associated with increased colorectal cancer risk, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.94 (95%CI: 1.48-2.54) for CC genotype compared with TT genotype. In two-factor gene-environment interaction analyses, rs1063538 presented significant interactions with smoking status, family history of cancer and alcohol use, with ORs of 4.52 (95%CI: 2.78-7.34), 3.18 (95%CI: 1.73-5.82) and 1.97 (95%CI: 1.27-3.04) for smokers, individuals with family history of cancer or drinkers with CC genotype compared with non-smokers, individuals without family history of cancer or non-drinkers with TT genotype, respectively. Multifactor gene-environment interactions analysis revealed significant interactions between ADIPOQ rs1063538, ADIPOR1 rs1539355, smoking status and BMI. Individuals carrying one, two and at least three risk factors presented 1.18-fold (95%CI:0.89-fold to 1.58-fold), 1.87-fold (95%CI: 1.38-fold to 2.54-fold) and 4.39-fold (95%CI: 2.75-fold to 7.01-fold) increased colorectal cancer risk compared with those who without risk factor, respectively (P(trend) <0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that variants in ADIPOQ may contribute to increased colorectal cancer risk in Chinese and this contribution may be modified by environmental factors, such as smoking status, family history of cancer and BMI.
Ozturk K, Avcu F, Ural AUAberrant expressions of leptin and adiponectin receptor isoforms in chronic myeloid leukemia patients.
Cytokine. 2012; 57(1):61-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Leptin and adiponectin receptors mediate the role of leptin in stimulating the growth of leukemic cells and the protective function of adiponectin undertaken in several malignancies such as leukemia. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the expression of leptin and adiponectin receptors in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) pathogenesis.
METHODS: The expression of leptin receptor isoforms, OB-Rt, OB-Ra, and OB-Rb, and the expression of adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, were measured as mRNA levels in two CML cell lines (K562 and Meg-01) and 20 CML patients and 24 healthy controls by using RT-PCR.
RESULTS: OB-Rt and OB-Ra isoforms expression of the leptin receptors were found to be significantly lower in Meg-01 cell lines than K562 cells. All leptin receptors were downregulated in CML patients and more particularly OB-Rb level was found to be undetectably low in normal PBMC as well as in CML patients. AdipoR1 expression level was higher in Meg-01 than in K562, whereas AdipoR2 level was found to be unchanged in both cell lines. Interestingly, while AdipoR1 expression increased in CML patients, AdipoR2 decreased. Moreover, imatinib therapy did not affect both leptin and adiponectin isoform expressions.
CONCLUSION: While the decrease in leptin receptor levels in CML patients was confirmed, the increase in AdipoR1 levels and relevant decrease in AdipoR2 levels depicted their possible involvement in CML pathogenesis. This suggests different functions of adiponectin receptors in CML development.
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with circulating levels of adiponectin and leptin and endometrial cancer risk. Little is known about whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes that encode adiponectin (ADIPOQ), leptin (LEP), adiponectin receptor 1 (ADIPOR1), adiponectin receptor 2 (ADIPOR2), and leptin receptor (LEPR) are associated with endometrial cancer.
METHODS: The authors selected 87 tagging SNPs to capture common genetic variants in these 5 genes. These SNPs were evaluated in 1028 endometrial cancer cases and 1932 community controls recruited from Chinese women. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).
RESULTS: Three of the 10 SNPs evaluated in the ADIPOQ gene were significantly associated with reduced cancer risk. The OR for women homozygous for the minor allele (A/A) for rs3774262 was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.48-0.97) compared with women homozygous for the major allele (G/G). Similar results were found for SNPs rs1063539 and rs12629945 in ADIPOQ, which were in linkage disequilibrium with rs3774262. These associations became nonsignificant after Bonferroni correction was applied. Controls with the minor allele A at rs3774262 had lower weight, smaller waist and hip circumferences, and lower body mass index than controls with the major allele G (all P < .05). Women homozygous for the minor allele (T/T) of rs2071045 in the LEP gene also had significantly lower risk (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.54-0.90) than women homozygous for the major allele (C/C). No other SNPs in the LEP, ADIPOR1, ADIPOR2, or LEPR genes were found to be associated with cancer risk.
CONCLUSIONS: Although a chance finding cannot be ruled out, the consistency of findings for gene-endometrial cancer risk and gene-obesity measurements suggests that genetic polymorphisms in the ADIPOQ gene may play a role in endometrial cancer development.
Low adiponectin levels are an independent risk factor for and mediate the effect of obesity on endometrial cancer in epidemiology studies. The direct or indirect mechanisms underlying these findings remain to be elucidated. We first examined the expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and 2 (AdipoR2) in normal human endometrium and in endometrial cancer tissues ex vivo. We then used KLE and RL95-2 human endometrial cancer cell lines in vitro to study relative expression of AdipoRs, to investigate the effect of adiponectin on activating intracellular signaling pathways, and to assess its potential to alter malignant properties. We report for the first time that the relative expression level of AdipoR1 is higher than AdipoR2 in human endometrial cancer tissue, but the expression of AdipoRs is not statistically different from nonneoplastic tissues. We also show for the first time in endometrial cancer cell lines in vitro that adiponectin suppresses endometrial cancer proliferation acting through AdipoRs. Adiponectin also increases the expression of the adaptor molecule LKB1, which is required for adiponectin-mediated activation of AMPK/S6 axis and modulation of cell proliferation, colony formation, adhesion, and invasion of KLE and RL95-2 cell lines. These novel mechanistic studies provide for the first time in vitro and ex vivo evidence for a causal role of adiponectin in endometrial cancer.
Dhillon PK, Penney KL, Schumacher F, et al.Common polymorphisms in the adiponectin and its receptor genes, adiponectin levels and the risk of prostate cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011; 20(12):2618-27 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing adipokine, is inversely associated with adiposity and prostate cancer risk and progression. However, the role of genetic variation in the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and receptor genes (ADIPOR1/R2) in prostate cancer is largely unknown.
METHODS: In a nested case-control study of 1,286 cases and 1,267 controls within the Physicians' Health Study, we evaluated 29 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in ADIPOQ (n = 13), ADIPOR1 (n = 5), and ADIPOR2 (n = 11) in relation to the risk of prostate cancer. In subgroups, we also evaluated the association of genotype and circulating adiponectin levels (n = 951) and prostate tumor expression of insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-IR) receptor (n = 181).
RESULTS: Among the 12 tagging polymorphisms in ADIPOQ, four (rs266729, rs182052, rs822391, and rs2082940) were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with overall prostate cancer risk, with no significant difference by tumor grade or clinical stage. Two of the risk SNPs (rs266729 and rs182052) plus four other SNPs (rs16861209, rs17366568, rs3774261, and rs7639352) were also associated with plasma adiponectin levels, and three of these (rs1686109, rs17366568, and rs3774261) were also significantly associated with IR expression in prostate tumor tissue. One additional SNP was associated with IGFI-R tumor tissue expression (rs16861205). None of the 16 variants in ADIPOR1/R2 were related to cancer risk or circulating adiponectin levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Common variants in the adiponectin gene were associated with prostate cancer risk, plasma adiponectin levels, and IR or IGF-IR expression in the prostate tumor.
IMPACT: These genotype-phenotype associations support the biological relevance of adiponectin for prostate carcinogenesis, particularly in earlier stages of development.
Carroll PA, Healy L, Lysaght J, et al.Influence of the metabolic syndrome on leptin and leptin receptor in breast cancer.
Mol Carcinog. 2011; 50(8):643-51 [PubMed
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Obesity and its associated metabolic syndrome (MetS) are recognized risk factors for breast cancer. The molecular basis for this association remains largely unknown. Adipokines, in particular leptin and adiponectin, are thought to form part of the mechanism linking obesity with cancer through their altered expression/production either systemically (endocrine pathway) or locally (paracrine/autocrine pathway). Using quantitative PCR, mRNA expression of adiponectin (AdipoQ) and leptin (Ob) in mammary adipose tissue (MAT), intratumoral leptin and associated ligand receptors (ObR, AdipoR1, and AdipoR2) was examined in 77 patients with complete anthropomorphic and serological data. Expression of Ob in MAT, and ObR in matched tumor tissue was significantly higher in patients with MetS compared to obese only or normal weight cancer patients (P < 0.005). There was no difference in intratumoral leptin adiponectin or its ligand receptors in the same groups. Individual features of MetS correlated with Ob and ObR expression, but not obesity markers (BMI, waist circumference). mRNA expression of leptin (Ob) and ObR, in adipose tissue and matched tumor samples, respectively, appear to be associated with obesity status in breast cancer. Increasing insulin resistance is a predominant feature of this higher Ob/ObR expression observed. These novel data indicate that the MetS may be an amenable risk factor for breast cancer.
Byeon JS, Jeong JY, Kim MJ, et al.Adiponectin and adiponectin receptor in relation to colorectal cancer progression.
Int J Cancer. 2010; 127(12):2758-67 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Although obesity is a risk factor for colorectal cancer, the underlying mechanism is not clear. Adiponectin is an adipokine that binds to 2 types of receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. The plasma concentrations of adiponectin are reduced in obese individuals and adiponectin has been reported to have anticarcinogenic properties. Furthermore, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 have been reported to be expressed in several malignancies. However, little is known about the expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in colorectal cancer and its clinicopathological implications. In addition, the relationship between adiponectin and colorectal cancer has not yet been determined. Here, we sought to investigate adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in relation to colorectal cancer. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 immunostaining was detected in 72 and 68% of human colorectal cancer tissue, respectively. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expression levels were inversely related to T stage. The lowest AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expression were detected in poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. RT-PCR also showed the expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in HCT116 and SW620. MTT assay and TUNEL assay demonstrated the tendency of growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in both cell lines after full-length adiponectin treatment although statistically insignificant. Microarray analysis revealed several gene responses to full-length adiponectin, including upregulation of ENDOGL1 and MT1G. In conclusion, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 may be intimately related to the progression of colorectal cancer. Further studies may be warranted to assess adiponectin and its receptors as a novel target for inhibition of colorectal cancer growth.
Otani K, Kitayama J, Kamei T, et al.Adiponectin receptors are downregulated in human gastric cancer.
J Gastroenterol. 2010; 45(9):918-27 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Adiponectin has been shown to have suppressive effects on tumor development, but the expression of adiponectin receptors in tumor tissue has not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the expression of two adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, in gastric cancer tissue.
METHODS: The mRNA levels of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical staining in 67 gastric cancer tissues and their normal counterparts. In addition, the effects of cytokines on AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expression in cultured gastric cancer cells were examined.
RESULTS: As compared to findings in the normal counterparts, AdipoR1 mRNA expression, standardized by β-actin mRNA, tended to be lower (cancer 0.488 ± 0.039, normal 0.955 ± 0.281, p = 0.0726) and AdipoR2 expression was significantly lower (0.818 ± 0.081, 1.500 ± 0.222, p = 0.0035) in gastric cancer tissue. Immunohistochemical examination showed the same tendency for AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expression in epithelial cells. Moreover, AdipoR2 was strongly expressed in interstitial cells. However, the expression levels of these receptors did not show a strong correlation with various pathological factors. An in vitro experiment using two gastric cancer cell lines, MKN-74 and NUGC-3, showed that the expression levels of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were significantly decreased by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in a dose-dependent manner.
CONCLUSIONS: Two major adiponectin receptors were decreased in gastric cancer as compared to findings in normal gastric epithelium. TGF-β may be involved in this receptor downregulation. This downregulation may be an ideal strategy for cancer cells to escape the antiproliferative effects of adiponectin in the initial phase of tumor development.
Seow KM, Tsai YL, Juan CC, et al.Omental fat expression of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in non-obese women with PCOS: a preliminary study.
Reprod Biomed Online. 2009; 19(4):577-82 [PubMed
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Adiponectin is regarded as a possible link between adiposity and insulin resistance. The aim of the study was to determine adipose levels of mRNA for adiponectin and adiponectin receptors (AdipoR) in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to assess whether the cytokine and receptors are related to insulin resistance in PCOS. Adipose tissue obtained from eight non-obese women with PCOS [body mass index (BMI) <27 kg/m(2) as cut-off point] was analysed. Levels of mRNA for adiponectin, AdipoR1 and 2 were quantified using the semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Eight non-obese, age- and BMI-matched healthy women served as controls. The level of adiponectin mRNA in non-obese women with PCOS were lower than in controls, but the difference was not statistically significant. However, AdipoR1 and 2 mRNA levels in non-obese women with PCOS were significantly lower than in controls. There was a significant negative correlation between 2 h insulin levels and AdipoR1 or AdipoR2 mRNA levels in non-obese women with PCOS ( r = 0.45 and 0.52 respectively, P < 0.05). The present study demonstrates that adiponectin receptor expression is down-regulated by hyperinsulinaemia in non-obese women with PCOS, resulting in adiponectin resistance.
Teras LR, Goodman M, Patel AV, et al.No association between polymorphisms in LEP, LEPR, ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, or ADIPOR2 and postmenopausal breast cancer risk.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009; 18(9):2553-7 [PubMed
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There is evidence that adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin may influence breast tumor development. We conducted a nested case-control study using women in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II to examine the association between postmenopausal breast cancer and variability in the genes encoding leptin, the leptin receptor, adiponectin, adiponectin receptor 1, and adiponectin receptor 2. Using 648 cases and 659 controls, we found no statistically significant (P < 0.05) associations between breast cancer risk and any of the single nucleotide polymorphisms. Individual odds ratios ranged from 0.93 to 1.06. We found no evidence of effect modification by body mass index, adult weight gain, location of weight gain, or physical activity. Although we cannot rule out that these genes are involved in gene-gene or gene-environment interactions, our results suggest that individual single nucleotide polymorphisms in these genes do not substantially affect postmenopausal breast cancer risk.
Isobe K, Fu L, Tatsuno I, et al.Adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in human pheochromocytoma.
J Atheroscler Thromb. 2009; 16(4):442-7 [PubMed
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AIM: Recent studies have demonstrated that serum adiponectin and its receptors in adipose and muscle tissues are suppressed in diabetic or obese individuals. Patients with pheochromocytoma are frequently diabetic.
METHODS: Using real-time PCR, we examined mRNA expressions of adiponectin (Adp) and adiponectin receptor 1 (AdpR1) and AdpR2 in pheochromocytoma tissues from 49 patients. We also measured levels of serum total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels in 10 pheochromocytomas and 33 normal volunteers.
RESULTS: In pheochromocytoma tissue, AdpR1 mRNA expression was higher in adrenaline (A)-type tumors than in noradrenaline (NA)-type tumors. AdpR1 expression was significantly higher in A-type non-diabetics than in NA-type non-diabetics (p<0.05). AdpR1 mRNA expression was significantly associated with the tumor tissue adrenaline content (p<0.005) in linear regression analysis, which suggest that adrenaline positively regulates AdpR1 mRNA expression.Serum total and HMW Adp levels in patients with NA-type pheochromocytomas were approximately 3 times higher than those of healthy volunteers. After adrenalectomy, levels of adiponectin normalized.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that serum total and HMW Adp, and AdpR1 gene expressions in pheochromocytoma tissue, are associated with the level of catecholamine produced in the tumor. It is tempting to speculate that catecholamine induces adiponectin production and signaling.
Jardé T, Caldefie-Chézet F, Goncalves-Mendes N, et al.Involvement of adiponectin and leptin in breast cancer: clinical and in vitro studies.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2009; 16(4):1197-210 [PubMed
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Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer development. A recent hypothesis suggests that the adipokines, adiponectin and leptin, are involved in breast cancer development. This prompted us to investigate the role of adiponectin and leptin in mammary carcinogenesis. Adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) and leptin receptor (Ob-Rt, representing all the isoforms of Ob-R) proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry in in situ ductal carcinoma, invasive ductal malignancy, and healthy adjacent tissue. In addition, mRNA expression of adiponectin, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, leptin, Ob-Rt, and Ob-Rl (the long isoform of Ob-R) was observed in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Interestingly, leptin mRNA expression was 34.7-fold higher than adiponectin mRNA expression in the MCF-7 cell line. Moreover, adiponectin (10 microg/ml) tended to decrease the mRNA expression of leptin (-36%) and Ob-Rl (-28%) and significantly decreased Ob-Rt mRNA level (-26%). In contrast, leptin treatment (1 microg/ml) significantly decreased AdipoR1 mRNA (-23%). Adiponectin treatment (10 microg/ml) inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, whereas leptin (1 microg/ml) stimulated the growth of cancer cells. In addition, adiponectin inhibited leptin-induced cell proliferation (both 1 microg/ml). Using microarray analysis, we found that adiponectin reduced the mRNA levels of genes involved in cell cycle regulation (mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 and ATM), apoptosis (BAG1, BAG3, and TP53), and potential diagnosis/prognosis markers (ACADS, CYP19A1, DEGS1, and EVL), whereas leptin induced progesterone receptor mRNA expression. In conclusion, the current study indicates an interaction of leptin- and adiponectin-signaling pathways in MCF-7 cancer cells whose proliferation is stimulated by leptin and suppressed by adiponectin.
Molica S, Vitelli G, Cutrona G, et al.Prognostic relevance of serum levels and cellular expression of adiponectin in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Int J Hematol. 2008; 88(4):374-80 [PubMed
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The correlation between well-established biological parameters of prognostic relevance in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) [i.e., mutational status of the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IgV(H)), ZAP-70- and CD38-expression] and adiponectin serum concentration was evaluated in a cohort of 69 previously untreated Binet stage A CLL patients. Adiponectin levels inversely correlated with absolute peripheral blood lymphocyte count (r = -0.254; P = 0.03), CD38-positive CLL cells (r = -0.294; P = 0.04) and ZAP-70 (r = -0.285; P = 0.03). The univariate Cox proportional hazard model demonstrated that, in addition with lower serum levels of adiponectin (P = 0.01), the unmutated IgV(H) condition (P = 0.002) and ZAP-70-positivity (P = 0.02) were associated with a shorter time to first treatment (TFT). However, in multivariate analysis only ZAP-70 positivity emerged as predictor of the TFT (P = 0.008). The levels of adiponectin in CLL were evaluated in 60 patients from an independent cohort investigated by gene expression profiling. Adiponectin gene expression was invariably low suggesting a limited (if any) role of leukemic cells in the production of circulating adiponectin levels. In contrast, both adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and AdipoR2 mRNA were highly expressed by CLL cells with a degree of inter-patient variability. Our results, although preliminary, lend support to the idea that adiponectin secretion by bone marrow adipocytes might represent a possible promising drug target in the field of hematology.
Rauchenzauner M, Laimer M, Luef G, et al.Adiponectin receptor R1 is upregulated by valproic acid but not by topiramate in human hepatoma cell line, HepG2.
Seizure. 2008; 17(8):723-6 [PubMed
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Valproic acid (VPA) is an effective and widely used anticonvulsant, associated with metabolic adverse effects such as weight gain, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia and hypoadiponectinemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of VPA and topiramate (TPM) on adiponectin binding receptors, adipoR1 and adipoR2, in human liver cancer cells, HepG2. AdipoR1 but not adipoR2 gene expression was upregulated by VPA treatment. TPM did neither affect adipoR1 nor adipoR2 gene expression. Given the tight association between VPA treatment, metabolic side effects and the adipocytokine-axis, upregulation of adipoR1 possibly represents a favoured and insulin-sensitizing mechanism.
Tan BK, Chen J, Digby JE, et al.Upregulation of adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and adipocytes in insulin-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Diabetologia. 2006; 49(11):2723-8 [PubMed
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AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a multifaceted metabolic disease linked with insulin resistance (IR) and obesity. Adiponectin, which is lower in IR states, exerts its glucose-lowering and anti-inflammatory effects by activating two receptors, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2. There are no data on the relative expression of these receptors in adipose tissue of PCOS women.
METHODS: We investigated the expression of adiponectin receptors from corresponding s.c. and omental (o.m.) adipose tissue in women with PCOS compared with matched non-PCOS women. As there is a disturbance in the steroid milieu in PCOS women, we also assessed the effects of testosterone and oestradiol on adiponectin receptors using adipocytes and adipocyte explants. Real-time RT-PCR and western blotting were used to assess the relative adiponectin receptor mRNA expression and protein production, respectively. Biochemical measurements were performed in our hospital's laboratory.
RESULTS: We are the first to describe adiponectin receptor expression and production, in corresponding s.c. and o.m. human adipose tissues at the mRNA and protein level. We demonstrate the upregulation of mRNA expression and protein production of adiponectin receptors in women with PCOS, in s.c. and o.m. adipose tissue. Treatment of adipose tissue explants and adipocytes with testosterone and oestradiol induced the expression of adiponectin receptor mRNA and protein. There was a significant positive association between ADIPOR1/R2 expression and homeostasis model assessment, testosterone, oestradiol and triglycerides and a negative relationship with sex hormone-binding globulin.
CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The precise reason for the upregulation of adiponectin receptors seen in PCOS women, a pro-diabetic state, is unknown, but it appears that sex steroids may play a role in their regulation in adipose tissue.
Mistry T, Digby JE, Chen J, et al.The regulation of adiponectin receptors in human prostate cancer cell lines.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006; 348(3):832-8 [PubMed
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Obesity is a risk factor for prostate cancer, and plasma levels of the adipokine, adiponectin, are low in the former but high in the latter. Adiponectin has been shown to modulate cell proliferation and apoptosis, suggesting that adiponectin and its receptors (Adipo-R1, Adipo-R2) may provide a molecular association between obesity and prostate carcinogenesis. We show for the first time, the protein distribution of Adipo-R1 and Adipo-R2 in LNCaP and PC3 cells, and in human prostate tissue. Using real-time RT-PCR we provide novel data demonstrating the differential regulation of Adipo-R1 and Adipo-R2 mRNA expression by testosterone, 5-alpha dihydrotestosterone, beta-estradiol, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, leptin, and adiponectin in LNCaP and PC3 cells. Our findings suggest that adiponectin and its receptors may contribute to the molecular association between obesity and prostate cancer through a complex interaction with other hormones and cytokines that also play important roles in the pathophysiology of obesity and prostate cancer.
Rossi GP, Sticchi D, Giuliani L, et al.Adiponectin receptor expression in the human adrenal cortex and aldosterone-producing adenomas.
Int J Mol Med. 2006; 17(6):975-80 [PubMed
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Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived circulating peptide that plays an important role in adipose tissue metabolism, insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular disease. The adrenal gland, by secreting glucorticoid and mineralocorticoid hormones, intervenes in cardiovascular and glucose metabolism regulation and is surrounded by adipose tissue. Hence, we investigated the hypothesis that adiponectin receptor types 1 and 2 (adipo-R1 and adipo-R2) are expressed in the human adrenal gland and in adrenocortical zona glomerulosa cell-derived aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) tissue. We used real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to demonstrate the mRNA of adipo-R1 and adipo-R2 in 10 histologically normal human adrenal cortexes that were obtained from patients with renal cancer undergoing nephrectomy with ipsilateral adrenalectomy and in 10 APAs. Melting curve analysis and sequencing were used to confirm the specificity of the amplicons obtained. Results consistently showed the expression of specific mRNAs of adiponectin receptors in all histologically normal human adrenal cortexes and APAs. This novel finding suggests that adiponectin could play a regulatory role in adrenocortical function and growth in humans.