Gene Summary

Gene:ADAM10; ADAM metallopeptidase domain 10
Aliases: RAK, kuz, AD10, AD18, MADM, CD156c, HsT18717
Summary:Members of the ADAM family are cell surface proteins with a unique structure possessing both potential adhesion and protease domains. This gene encodes and ADAM family member that cleaves many proteins including TNF-alpha and E-cadherin. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10
Source:NCBIAccessed: 21 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 21 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 21 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ADAM10 (cancer-related)

Magnus N, Meehan B, Garnier D, et al.
The contribution of tumor and host tissue factor expression to oncogene-driven gliomagenesis.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 454(2):262-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive form of glial brain tumors, associated with angiogenesis, thrombosis, and upregulation of tissue factor (TF), the key cellular trigger of coagulation and signaling. Since TF is upregulated by oncogenic mutations occurring in different subsets of human brain tumors we investigated whether TF contributes to tumourigenesis driven by oncogenic activation of EGFR (EGFRvIII) and RAS pathways in the brain. Here we show that TF expression correlates with poor prognosis in glioma, but not in GBM. In situ, the TF protein expression is heterogeneously expressed in adult and pediatric gliomas. GBM cells harboring EGFRvIII (U373vIII) grow aggressively as xenografts in SCID mice and their progression is delayed by administration of monoclonal antibodies blocking coagulant (CNTO 859) and signaling (10H10) effects of TF in vivo. Mice in which TF gene is disrupted in the neuroectodermal lineage exhibit delayed progression of spontaneous brain tumors driven by oncogenic N-ras and SV40 large T antigen (SV40LT) expressed under the control of sleeping beauty transposase. Reduced host TF levels in low-TF/SCID hypomorphic mice mitigated growth of glioma subcutaneously but not in the brain. Thus, we suggest that tumor-associated TF may serve as therapeutic target in the context of oncogene-driven disease progression in a subset of glioma.

Deng G, Shen J, Yin M, et al.
Selective inhibition of mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) via disruption of a metal binding network by an allosteric small molecule.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(2):762-74 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 09/01/2016 Related Publications
Cancer-associated point mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) confer a neomorphic enzymatic activity: the reduction of α-ketoglutarate to d-2-hydroxyglutaric acid, which is proposed to act as an oncogenic metabolite by inducing hypermethylation of histones and DNA. Although selective inhibitors of mutant IDH1 and IDH2 have been identified and are currently under investigation as potential cancer therapeutics, the mechanistic basis for their selectivity is not yet well understood. A high throughput screen for selective inhibitors of IDH1 bearing the oncogenic mutation R132H identified compound 1, a bis-imidazole phenol that inhibits d-2-hydroxyglutaric acid production in cells. We investigated the mode of inhibition of compound 1 and a previously published IDH1 mutant inhibitor with a different chemical scaffold. Steady-state kinetics and biophysical studies show that both of these compounds selectively inhibit mutant IDH1 by binding to an allosteric site and that inhibition is competitive with respect to Mg(2+). A crystal structure of compound 1 complexed with R132H IDH1 indicates that the inhibitor binds at the dimer interface and makes direct contact with a residue involved in binding of the catalytically essential divalent cation. These results show that targeting a divalent cation binding residue can enable selective inhibition of mutant IDH1 and suggest that differences in magnesium binding between wild-type and mutant enzymes may contribute to the inhibitors' selectivity for the mutant enzyme.

Shao Y, Sha XY, Bai YX, et al.
Effect of A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 gene silencing on the proliferation, invasion and migration of the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line TCA8113.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 11(1):212-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 09/01/2016 Related Publications
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) gene silencing on the proliferation, migration and invasion of the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line TCA8113. RNA interference was used to knock down the expression of ADAM10 in the TCA8113 cell line and the proliferation, migration and invasive ability of the treated cells were observed in vitro. The expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and E-cadherin in the treated cells were determined by western blot analysis. The proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of cells in the ADAM10 siRNA-treated group were significantly lower than those in the control groups (P<0.05). In addition, compared with the control groups, the expression levels of EGFR and E-cadherin in the ADAM10 siRNA-treated cells were significantly decreased (P<0.05) and increased (P<0.05), respectively. These results suggested that ADAM10 is important in regulating the proliferation, invasion and migration of the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line TCA8113 and that the mechanism may, at least in part, be associated with the upregulation of EGFR and the downregulation of E-cadherin.

Liu S, Zhang W, Liu K, et al.
Silencing ADAM10 inhibits the in vitro and in vivo growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 11(1):597-602 [PubMed] Related Publications
A disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) is a transmembrane protein associated with metastasis in a number of types of cancer. Little is known, however, regarding the role of ADAM10 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether downregulation of ADAM10 effects HCC cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell migration and cell invasion. A recombinant small hairpin RNA expression vector carrying ADAM10 was constructed and then transfected into the HepG2 human HCC cell line. In vitro cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell migration and cell invasion, and in vivo tumor growth were determined following the downregulation of ADAM10 by RNA interference. The results revealed that downregulation of ADAM10 expression in HepG2 tumor cells using the RNA silencing approach significantly suppressed cell proliferation, cell migration and cell invasion in vitro, and tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, ADAM10 silencing was able to significantly reduce constitutive phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt, which implies that ADAM10 is, at least partially, involved in the activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. These results suggest that ADAM10 is important in regulating the proliferation and metastasis of HCC. Thus, ADAM10 is a promising therapeutic target for the prevention of tumor metastases in HCC.

Liu S, Zhang W, Liu K, et al.
Synergistic effects of co-expression plasmid‑based ADAM10-specific siRNA and GRIM-19 on hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(6):2501-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) has been demonstrated to correlate with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) grade and clinical outcome and its potential as a target for HCC therapy has been established. Gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality 19 (GRIM-19), a signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3)-inhibitory protein, was identified as a potential tumor suppressor associated with growth inhibition and cell apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated whether a combined treatment with ADAM10-specific siRNA and GRIM19 gene could have an enhanced anticancer effectiveness on HCC in vitro and in vivo. We developed a dual expression plasmid that co-expressed ADAM10-specific siRNA and GRIM19, to evaluate its effects on HCC growth. Our results showed that simultaneous expression of ADAM10-specific siRNA and GRIM19 (pSi-ADAM10-GRIM19) in HepG2 cancer cells significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis in vitro, and it also suppressed tumor growth in a nude mouse model when compared to the controls, either ADAM10-specific siRNA or GRIM-19 alone. In summary, our data demonstrated that a combined strategy of co-expressed ADAM10-specific siRNA and GRIM19 synergistically and more effectively suppressed HCC tumor growth, and has therapeutic potential for the treatment of HCC.

Shimoda M, Principe S, Jackson HW, et al.
Loss of the Timp gene family is sufficient for the acquisition of the CAF-like cell state.
Nat Cell Biol. 2014; 16(9):889-901 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) drive tumour progression, but the emergence of this cell state is poorly understood. A broad spectrum of metalloproteinases, controlled by the Timp gene family, influence the tumour microenvironment in human cancers. Here, we generate quadruple TIMP knockout (TIMPless) fibroblasts to unleash metalloproteinase activity within the tumour-stromal compartment and show that complete Timp loss is sufficient for the acquisition of hallmark CAF functions. Exosomes produced by TIMPless fibroblasts induce cancer cell motility and cancer stem cell markers. The proteome of these exosomes is enriched in extracellular matrix proteins and the metalloproteinase ADAM10. Exosomal ADAM10 increases aldehyde dehydrogenase expression in breast cancer cells through Notch receptor activation and enhances motility through the GTPase RhoA. Moreover, ADAM10 knockdown in TIMPless fibroblasts abrogates their CAF function. Importantly, human CAFs secrete ADAM10-rich exosomes that promote cell motility and activate RhoA and Notch signalling in cancer cells. Thus, Timps suppress cancer stroma where activated-fibroblast-secreted exosomes impact tumour progression.

Gangemi R, Amaro A, Gino A, et al.
ADAM10 correlates with uveal melanoma metastasis and promotes in vitro invasion.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2014; 27(6):1138-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uveal melanoma (UM) is a rare ocular tumor that may lead to deadly metastases in 50% of patients. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)10, ADAM17, and the HGF-receptor c-Met support invasiveness in different tumors. Here, we report that high ADAM10, MET, and, to a lesser extent, ADAM17 gene expression correlates with poor progression-free survival in UM patients (hazard ratio 2.7, 2.6, and 1.9, respectively). About 60% of primary UM expresses c-Met and/or ADAM10 proteins. Four UM cell lines display high levels of ADAM10 and ADAM17, which constitutively cleave c-Met, inducing the release of soluble c-Met. ADAM10/17 pharmacological inhibition or gene silencing reduces c-Met shedding, but has limited impact on surface c-Met, which is overexpressed. Importantly, ADAM10 silencing inhibits UM cell invasion driven by FCS or HGF, while ADAM17 silencing has a limited effect. Altogether our data indicate that ADAM10 has a pro-invasive role and may contribute to UM progression.

Lee TH, Chennakrishnaiah S, Audemard E, et al.
Oncogenic ras-driven cancer cell vesiculation leads to emission of double-stranded DNA capable of interacting with target cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 451(2):295-301 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cell free DNA is often regarded as a source of genetic cancer biomarkers, but the related mechanisms of DNA release, composition and biological activity remain unclear. Here we show that rat epithelial cell transformation by the human H-ras oncogene leads to an increase in production of small, exosomal-like extracellular vesicles by viable cancer cells. These EVs contain chromatin-associated double-stranded DNA fragments covering the entire host genome, including full-length H-ras. Oncogenic N-ras and SV40LT sequences were also found in EVs emitted from spontaneous mouse brain tumor cells. Disruption of acidic sphingomyelinase and the p53/Rb pathway did not block emission of EV-related oncogenic DNA. Exposure of non-transformed RAT-1 cells to EVs containing mutant H-ras DNA led to the uptake and retention of this material for an extended (30days) but transient period of time, and stimulated cell proliferation. Thus, our study suggests that H-ras-mediated transformation stimulates vesicular emission of this histone-bound oncogene, which may interact with non-transformed cells.

Huang Y, Benaich N, Tape C, et al.
Targeting the sheddase activity of ADAM17 by an anti-ADAM17 antibody D1(A12) inhibits head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell proliferation and motility via blockage of bradykinin induced HERs transactivation.
Int J Biol Sci. 2014; 10(7):702-14 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 09/01/2016 Related Publications
A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) regulates key cellular processes including proliferation and migration through the shedding of a diverse array of substrates such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands. ADAM17 is implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and cancers such as head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). As a central mediator of cellular events, overexpressed EGFR is a validated molecular target in HNSCC. However, EGFR inhibition constantly leads to tumour resistance. One possible mechanism of resistance is the activation of alternative EGFR family receptors and downstream pathways via the release of their ligands. Here, we report that treating human HNSCC cells in vitro with a human anti-ADAM17 inhibitory antibody, D1(A12), suppresses proliferation and motility in the absence or presence of the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) gefitinib. Treatment with D1(A12) decreases both the endogenous and the bradykinin (BK)-stimulated shedding of HER ligands, accompanied by a reduction in the phosphorylation of HER receptors and downstream signalling pathways including STAT3, AKT and ERK. Knockdown of ADAM17, but not ADAM10, also suppresses HNSCC cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, we show that heregulin (HRG) and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor like growth factor (HB-EGF) predominantly participate in proliferation and migration, respectively. Taken together, these results demonstrate that D1(A12)-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation, motility, phosphorylation of HER receptors and downstream signalling is achieved via reduced shedding of ADAM17 ligands. These findings underscore the importance of ADAM17 and suggest that D1(A12) might be an effective targeted agent for treating EGFR TKI-resistant HNSCC.

Feldinger K, Generali D, Kramer-Marek G, et al.
ADAM10 mediates trastuzumab resistance and is correlated with survival in HER2 positive breast cancer.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(16):6633-46 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 09/01/2016 Related Publications
Trastuzumab prolongs survival in HER2 positive breast cancer patients. However, resistance remains a challenge. We have previously shown that ADAM17 plays a key role in maintaining HER2 phosphorylation during trastuzumab treatment. Beside ADAM17, ADAM10 is the other well characterized ADAM protease responsible for HER ligand shedding. Therefore, we studied the role of ADAM10 in relation to trastuzumab treatment and resistance in HER2 positive breast cancer. ADAM10 expression was assessed in HER2 positive breast cancer cell lines and xenograft mice treated with trastuzumab. Trastuzumab treatment increased ADAM10 levels in HER2 positive breast cancer cells (p ≤ 0.001 in BT474; p ≤ 0.01 in SKBR3) and in vivo (p ≤ 0.0001) compared to control, correlating with a decrease in PKB phosphorylation. ADAM10 inhibition or knockdown enhanced trastuzumab response in naïve and trastuzumab resistant breast cancer cells. Trastuzumab monotherapy upregulated ADAM10 (p ≤ 0.05); and higher pre-treatment ADAM10 levels correlated with decreased clinical response (p ≤ 0.05) at day 21 in HER2 positive breast cancer patients undergoing a trastuzumab treatment window study. Higher ADAM10 levels correlated with poorer relapse-free survival (p ≤ 0.01) in a cohort of HER2 positive breast cancer patients. Our studies implicate a role of ADAM10 in acquired resistance to trastuzumab and establish ADAM10 as a therapeutic target and a potential biomarker for HER2 positive breast cancer patients.

Lee HR, Shin HK, Park SY, et al.
Cilostazol suppresses β-amyloid production by activating a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 via the upregulation of SIRT1-coupled retinoic acid receptor-β.
J Neurosci Res. 2014; 92(11):1581-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
The accumulation of plaques of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, results from the sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by activation of β- and γ-secretases. However, the production of Aβ can be avoided by alternate cleavage of APP by α-and γ-secretases. We hypothesized that cilostazol attenuates Aβ production by increasing a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10)/α-secretase activity via SIRT1-coupled retinoic acid receptor-β (RARβ) activation in N2a cells expressing human APP Swedish mutation (N2aSwe). To evoke endogenous Aβ overproduction, the culture medium was switched from medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) to medium containing 1% FBS, and cells were cultured for 3∼24 hr. After depletion of FBS in media, N2aSwe cells showed increased accumulations of full-length APP (FL-APP) and Aβ in a time-dependent manner (3-24 hr) in association with decreased ADAM10 protein expression. When pretreated with cilostazol (10-30 μM), FL-APP and Aβ levels were significantly reduced, and ADAM10 and α-secretase activities were restored. Furthermore, the effect of cilostazol on ADAM10 expression was antagonized by pretreating Rp-cAMPS and sirtinol and by SIRT1-gene silencing. In the N2aSwe cells overexpressing the SIRT1 gene, ADAM10, and sAPPα levels were significantly elevated. In addition, like all-trans retinoic acid, cilostazol enhanced the protein expressions of RARβ and ADAM10, and the cilostazol-stimulated ADAM10 elevation was significantly attenuated by LE135 (a RARβ inhibitor), sirtinol, and RARβ-gene silencing. In conclusion, cilostazol suppresses the accumulations of FL-APP and Aβ by activating ADAM10 via the upregulation of SIRT1-coupled RARβ.

Magnus N, D'Asti E, Meehan B, et al.
Oncogenes and the coagulation system--forces that modulate dormant and aggressive states in cancer.
Thromb Res. 2014; 133 Suppl 2:S1-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancers arise and progress genetically amidst profound perturbations of the microenvironmental and systemic homeostasis. This includes the coagulation system, which is a part of the vascular milieu (niche) that remains under the control of molecular events occurring within the cancer cell genome. Thus, activation of several prototypic oncogenic pathways, such as RAS, EGFR, HER2, MET, SHH and loss of tumor suppressors (PTEN, TP53) alter the expression, activity and vesicular release of coagulation effectors, as exemplified by tissue factor (TF). The cancer-specific determinants of coagulopathy are also illustrated by the emerging link between the expression profiles of coagulation-related genes (coagulome) in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), medulloblastoma (MB) and possibly other cancers and molecular subtypes of these respective tumors. The state of the coagulome is consequential for growth, metastasis and angiogenesis of established tumors, but could potentially also affect dormant cancer cells. For example, TF expression may trigger awakening of dormant glioma cells in mice in a manner involving recruitment of vascular and inflammatory cells, and resulting in lasting changes in the cancer cell genome and epigenome. Thus, coagulation system effectors could act as both targets and (indirect) inducers of genetic tumor progression, and a better understanding of this link may hold new diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities.

Antonyak MA, Cerione RA
Microvesicles as mediators of intercellular communication in cancer.
Methods Mol Biol. 2014; 1165:147-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
The discovery that cancer cells generate large membrane-enclosed packets of epigenetic information, known as microvesicles (MVs), that can be transferred to other cells and influence their behavior (Antonyak et al., Small GTPases 3:219-224, 2012; Cocucci et al., Trends Cell Biol 19:43-51, 2009; Rak, Semin Thromb Hemost 36:888-906, 2010; Skog et al., Nat Cell Biol 10:1470-1476, 2008) has added a unique perspective to the classical paracrine signaling paradigm. This is largely because, in addition to growth factors and cytokines, MVs contain a variety of components that are not usually thought to be released into the extracellular environment by viable cells including plasma membrane-associated proteins, cytosolic- and nuclear-localized proteins, as well as nucleic acids, particularly RNA transcripts and micro-RNAs (Skog et al., Nat Cell Biol 10:1470-1476, 2008; Al-Nedawi et al., Nat Cell Biol 10:619-624, 2008; Antonyak et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4852-4857, 2011; Balaj et al., Nat Commun 2:180, 2011; Choi et al., J Proteome Res 6:4646-4655, 2007; Del Conde et al., Blood 106:1604-1611, 2005; Gallo et al., PLoS One 7:e30679, 2012; Graner et al., FASEB J 23:1541-1557, 2009; Grange et al., Cancer Res 71:5346-5356, 2011; Hosseini-Beheshti et al., Mol Cell Proteomics 11:863-885, 2012; Martins et al., Curr Opin Oncol 25:66-75, 2013; Noerholm et al., BMC Cancer 12:22, 2012; Zhuang et al., EMBO J 31:3513-3523, 2012). When transferred between cancer cells, MVs have been shown to stimulate signaling events that promote cell growth and survival (Al-Nedawi et al., Nat Cell Biol 10:619-624, 2008). Cancer cell-derived MVs can also be taken up by normal cell types that surround the tumor, an outcome that helps shape the tumor microenvironment, trigger tumor vascularization, and even confer upon normal recipient cells the transformed characteristics of a cancer cell (Antonyak et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4852-4857, 2011; Martins et al., Curr Opin Oncol 25:66-75, 2013; Al-Nedawi et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:3794-3799, 2009; Ge et al., Cancer Microenviron 5:323-332, 2012). Thus, the production of MVs by cancer cells plays crucial roles in driving the expansion of the primary tumor. However, it is now becoming increasingly clear that MVs are also stable in the circulation of cancer patients, where they can mediate long-range effects and contribute to the formation of the pre-metastatic niche, an essential step in metastasis (Skog et al., Nat Cell Biol 10:1470-1476, 2008; Noerholm et al., BMC Cancer 12:22, 2012; Peinado et al., Nat Med 18:883-891, 2012; Piccin et al., Blood Rev 21:157-171, 2007; van der Vos et al., Cell Mol Neurobiol 31:949-959, 2011). These findings, when taken together with the fact that MVs are being aggressively pursued as diagnostic markers, as well as being considered as potential targets for intervention against cancer (Antonyak et al., Small GTPases 3:219-224, 2012; Hosseini-Beheshti et al., Mol Cell Proteomics 11:863-885, 2012; Martins et al., Curr Opin Oncol 25:66-75, 2013; Ge et al., Cancer Microenviron 5:323-332, 2012; Peinado et al., Nat Med 18:883-891, 2012; Piccin et al., Blood Rev 21:157-171, 2007; Al-Nedawi et al., Cell Cycle 8:2014-2018, 2009; Cocucci and Meldolesi, Curr Biol 21:R940-R941, 2011; D'Souza-Schorey and Clancy, Genes Dev 26:1287-1299, 2012; Shao et al., Nat Med 18:1835-1840, 2012), point to critically important roles for MVs in human cancer progression that can potentially be exploited to develop new targeted approaches for treating this disease.

Karlsson C, Rak J, Larsson J
RNA interference screening to detect targetable molecules in hematopoietic stem cells.
Curr Opin Hematol. 2014; 21(4):283-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The molecular principles regulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) remain incompletely defined. In this review, we will discuss how RNA interference (RNAi) screening has emerged as a new and powerful tool to molecularly dissect various functional aspects of both normal and malignant HSCs, and how this may ultimately enable the discovery of novel therapeutic targets for clinical applications.
RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in RNAi technology and the creation of short hairpin RNA retroviral and lentiviral vector-libraries have provided tools to perform broad forward genetic screens in primary mammalian hematopoietic cells. Recent studies have identified novel fate determinants in murine HSCs as well as potential targets for ex-vivo expansion of human HSCs. RNAi screens have further unraveled tumor suppressor genes associated with hematopoietic neoplasms as well as candidate therapeutic targets in leukemic cells.
SUMMARY: RNAi screening is a feasible tool to discover novel molecules that regulate both normal and malignant HSCs, thus increasing our general understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of hematopoiesis. Moreover, RNAi technology holds great promise for the discovery of specific targets for therapeutic interventions.

Schlecker E, Fiegler N, Arnold A, et al.
Metalloprotease-mediated tumor cell shedding of B7-H6, the ligand of the natural killer cell-activating receptor NKp30.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(13):3429-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Natural killer (NK) cells are potent immune effector cells capable of mediating antitumor responses. Thus, during immunoediting, tumor cell populations evolve strategies to escape NK-cell-mediated recognition. In this study, we report a novel mechanism of immune escape involving tumor cell shedding of B7-H6, a ligand for the activating receptor NKp30 that mediates NK-cell binding and NK-cell-mediated killing. Tumor cells from different cancer entities released B7-H6 by ectodomain shedding mediated by the cell surface proteases "a disintegrin and metalloproteases" (ADAM)-10 and ADAM-17, as demonstrated through the use of pharmacologic inhibitors or siRNA-mediated gene attenuation. Inhibiting this proteolytic shedding process increased the levels of B7-H6 expressed on the surface of tumor cells, enhancing NKp30-mediated activation of NK cells. Notably, we documented elevated levels of soluble B7-H6 levels in blood sera obtained from a subset of patients with malignant melanoma, compared with healthy control individuals, along with evidence of elevated B7-H6 expression in melanoma specimens in situ. Taken together, our results illustrated a novel mechanism of immune escape in which tumor cells impede NK-mediated recognition by metalloprotease-mediated shedding of B7-H6. One implication of our findings is that therapeutic inhibition of specific metalloproteases may help support NK-cell-based cancer therapy.

D'Asti E, Magnus N, Meehan B, et al.
Genetic basis of thrombosis in cancer.
Semin Thromb Hemost. 2014; 40(3):284-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetically altered cancer cells both provoke and respond to changes in their microenvironment, stroma, and vasculature. This includes local and systemic activation of the coagulation system, which is a part of the functional continuum involving inflammation, angiogenesis, and tissue repair programs, often reactivated in cancer. These responses coevolve with, and contribute to, the malignant process. Cancer coagulopathy is not only a source of comorbidity and mortality in cancer patients, but it also affects the disease biology including processes of tumor growth, initiation, dormancy, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, and therapeutic responsiveness. Notably, genetic and cellular differences between different cancer types are paralleled by a degree of diversity in the related coagulation system perturbations. Although some of these differences may be unspecific, iatrogenic, or indirect in nature, others are affected by oncogenic pathways (RAS, EGFR, HER2, MET, PTEN, and TP53) activated in cancer cells due to driver mutations of critical genes. Such mutations cooperate with hypoxia, cellular differentiation, and other influences to alter the expression of tissue factor, protease-activated receptors (e.g., PAR-1 and PAR-2), coagulation factors (FII and FVII), and other molecules related to the hemostatic system. Oncogenic pathways also control secretion of some of these entities from cancer cells, either as soluble proteins, or as cargo of extracellular vesicles/microparticles. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that the expression profiles of coagulation-related genes differ between molecularly and genetically distinct subgroups of specific malignancies such as glioblastoma multiforme and medulloblastoma. Certain hereditary thrombophilias may also affect cancer pathogenesis. We suggest that mechanisms of cancer coagulopathy may be more diverse and genetically modulated than hitherto realized. If so, a possibility may exist to deliver more personalized, biologically based, anticoagulation, and thereby improve patient survival.

Kai Y, Peng W, Ling W, et al.
Reciprocal effects between microRNA-140-5p and ADAM10 suppress migration and invasion of human tongue cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 448(3):308-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
ADAM10, overexpressed in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC), has been well documented for its role in tumor progression and metastasis. In the present study, we evaluated the inhibition effect of microRNAs (miRNAs) on the TSCC and identified that miR-140-5p could directly targets ADAM10 and inhibits the invasion and migration of TSCC cells. LAMC1, HDAC7 and PAX6, clustered into migration-related genes, were validated to be direct targets of miR-140-5p, while IGF1R and PSEN1 were not responsible to the regulation. Most intriguingly, ERBB4 was upregulated by miR-140-5p even though the interaction between ERBB4 3'UTR and miR-140-5p existed simultaneously. Meanwhile, ADAM10 is involved in the "positive" regulation of ERBB4 and negative regulation of PAX6 by miR-140-5p. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-140-5p play a role in TSCC cell migration and invasion, and two brand new relationships between miRNA and its targets emerged: (1) ADAM10 is not just a direct target of miR-140-5p, the repressed ADAM10 also helps to enhance the effect of miR-140-5p to other target genes: ERBB4 and PAX6; (2) ERBB4 is "positively" regulated by miR-140-5p.

Magnus N, Garnier D, Meehan B, et al.
Tissue factor expression provokes escape from tumor dormancy and leads to genomic alterations.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(9):3544-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 09/01/2016 Related Publications
The coagulation system links immediate (hemostatic) and late (inflammatory, angiogenic) tissue responses to injury, a continuum that often is subverted in cancer. Here we provide evidence that tumor dormancy is influenced by tissue factor (TF), the cancer cell-associated initiator of the coagulation system and a signaling receptor. Thus, indolent human glioma cells deficient for TF remain viable but permanently dormant at the injection site for nearly a year, whereas the expression of TF leads to a step-wise transition to latent and overt tumor growth phases, a process that is preceded by recruitment of vascular (CD105(+)) and myeloid (CD11b(+) and F4/80(+)) cells. Importantly, the microenvironment orchestrated by TF expression drives permanent changes in the phenotype, gene-expression profile, DNA copy number, and DNA methylation state of the tumor cells that escape from dormancy. We postulate that procoagulant events in the tissue microenvironment (niche) may affect the fate of occult tumor cells, including their biological and genetic progression to initiate a full-blown malignancy.

Bouillez A, Gnemmi V, Gaudelot K, et al.
MUC1-C nuclear localization drives invasiveness of renal cancer cells through a sheddase/gamma secretase dependent pathway.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(3):754-63 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 09/01/2016 Related Publications
MUC1 is a membrane-anchored mucin and its cytoplasmic tail (CT) can interact with many signaling pathways and act as a co-transcription factor to activate genes involved in tumor progression and metastasis. MUC1 is overexpressed in renal cell carcinoma with correlation to prognosis and has been implicated in the hypoxic pathway, the main renal carcinogenetic pathway. In this context, we assessed the effects of MUC1 overexpression on renal cancer cells properties. Using shRNA strategy and/or different MUC1 constructs, we found that MUC1-extracellular domain and MUC1-CT are involved in increase of migration, cell viability, resistance to anoikis and in decrease of cell aggregation in cancer cells. Invasiveness depends only on MUC1-CT. Then, by using siRNA strategy and/or pharmacological inhibitors or peptides, we showed that sheddases ADAM10, ADAM17 and gamma-secretase are necessary for MUC1 C-terminal subunit (MUC1-C) nuclear location and in increase of invasion property. Finally, MUC1 overexpression increases ADAM10/17 protein expression suggesting a positive regulatory loop. In conclusion, we report that MUC1 acts in renal cancer progression and MUC1-C nuclear localization drives invasiveness of cancer cells through a sheddase/gamma secretase dependent pathway. MUC1 appears as a therapeutic target by blocking MUC1 cleavage or nuclear translocation by using pharmacological approach and peptide strategies.

Ma J, Tang X, Wong P, et al.
Noncanonical activation of Notch1 protein by membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) controls melanoma cell proliferation.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(12):8442-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 09/01/2016 Related Publications
Notch1 is an evolutionarily conserved signaling molecule required for stem cell maintenance that is inappropriately reactivated in several cancers. We have previously shown that melanomas reactivate Notch1 and require its function for growth and survival. However, no Notch1-activating mutations have been observed in melanoma, suggesting the involvement of other activating mechanisms. Notch1 activation requires two cleavage steps: first by a protease and then by γ-secretase, which releases the active intracellular domain (Notch1(NIC)). Interestingly, although ADAM10 and -17 are generally accepted as the proteases responsible of Notch1 cleavage, here we show that MT1-MMP, a membrane-tethered matrix metalloproteinase involved in the pathogenesis of a number of tumors, is a novel protease required for the cleavage of Notch1 in melanoma cells. We find that active Notch1 and MT1-MMP expression correlate significantly in over 70% of melanoma tumors and 80% of melanoma cell lines, whereas such correlation does not exist between Notch1(NIC) and ADAM10 or -17. Modulation of MT1-MMP expression in melanoma cells affects Notch1 cleavage, whereas MT1-MMP expression in ADAM10/17 double knock-out fibroblasts restores the processing of Notch1, indicating that MT1-MMP is sufficient to promote Notch1 activation independently of the canonical proteases. Importantly, we find that MT1-MMP interacts with Notch1 at the cell membrane, supporting a potential direct cleavage mechanism of MT1-MMP on Notch1, and that MT1-MMP-dependent activation of Notch1 sustains melanoma cell growth. Together, the data highlight a novel mechanism of activation of Notch1 in melanoma cells and identify Notch1 as a new MT1-MMP substrate that plays important biological roles in melanoma.

Scherzed A, Hackenberg S, Radeloff A, et al.
Human mesenchymal stem cells promote cancer motility and cytokine secretion in vitro.
Cells Tissues Organs. 2013; 198(5):327-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interactions of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) with tumors are controversially discussed since there is evidence for both tumor progression as well as tumor inhibition by hMSC. The objective of the present study is to investigate whether hMSC support cell motility and cytokine secretion in a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line (HLaC 78). A spheroid model was generated in which the ultrastructure of spheroids was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The migration capability was monitored in a monolayer as well as in a spheroid model. The variation in migration and secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), as well as the expression of the multidrug resistance gene (MDR-1) was investigated. Finally, the alteration in the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. SEM showed a tight cell-cell contact with extensive secretion of extracellular matrix. The migration and invasion capability of HLaC 78 was enhanced by hMSC. Cancer cell motility was also increased by hMSC as well as secretion of the cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF. hMSC did not induce the expression of MDR-1 in HLaC 78, and there was no alteration in the cell cycle of HLaC 78 after cocultivation with hMSC. Our results confirm the important role of hMSC in cancer biology since both an enhancement of cell motility as well as cytokine secretion could be shown. However, based on these findings and those in the current literature, caution must be applied when using hMSC as a carrier for tumor therapy in cancer treatment.

Swiderek E, Kalas W, Wysokinska E, et al.
The interplay between epigenetic silencing, oncogenic KRas and HIF-1 regulatory pathways in control of BNIP3 expression in human colorectal cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 441(4):707-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B-19kDa-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3) is an important mediator of cell survival and a member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins that regulate programmed cell death and autophagy. We have previously established a link between the expression of oncogenic HRas and up-regulation of BNIP3 and the control of autophagy in cancer cells. However, in view of varied expression of BNIP3 in different tumor types and emerging uncertainties as to the role of epigenetic silencing, oncogenic regulation and the role of BNIP3 in cancer are still poorly understood. In the present study we describe profound effect of KRas on the expression of methylated BNIP3 in colorectal cancer cells and explore the interplay between HIF-1, hypoxia pathway and oncogenic KRas in this context. We observed that BNIP3 mRNA remains undetectable in aggressive DLD-1 cells harboring G13D mutant KRAS and HT-29 colorectal cancer cells unless the cells are exposed to demethylating agents such as 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Following this treatment BNIP3 expression remains uniquely dependent on the Ras activity. We found that hypoxia or pharmacological activation of HIF-1 alone contributes to, but is not sufficient for efficient induction of BNIP3 mRNA transcription in cells lacking mutant KRas activity. The up-regulation of BNIP3 by KRas in this setting is mediated by the MAPK pathway, and is attenuated by the respective inhibitors (PD98059, U0126). Thus, we demonstrate the novel mechanism where activity of Ras is essential for 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-mediated BNIP3 expression. Moreover, we found that 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-mediated or enforced up-regulation of BNIP3 in DLD-1 cells results in KRas-dependent resistance to 5-Fluorouracil.

Magnus N, D'Asti E, Garnier D, et al.
Brain neoplasms and coagulation.
Semin Thromb Hemost. 2013; 39(8):881-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Brain vasculature is uniquely programmed to protect central nervous system tissues and respond to their metabolic demands. These functions are subverted during the development of primary and metastatic brain tumors, resulting in vascular perturbations that are thought to contribute to progression and comorbidities of the underlying disease, including thrombosis and hemorrhage. Chronic activation of the coagulation system is particularly obvious in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), where intratumoral vasoocclusive thrombosis may contribute to hypoxia, pseudopalisading necrosis, and angiogenesis. GBM is also associated with spontaneous or iatrogenic bleeding, and the emission of circulating procoagulants implicated in the unusually high risk of peripheral venous thromboembolism. Tissue factor (TF) expression is elevated in several types of brain tumors, including adult and pediatric GBM, as is the production of TF-containing microparticles (TF-MPs). Both TF expression and its vesicular emission are regulated by tumor microenvironment (e.g., hypoxia), in concert with activated oncogenic and growth factor pathways (RAS, EGFR, MET), as well as the loss of tumor suppressor gene activity (PTEN). Discovery of distinct oncogenic networks led to recognition of unique molecular subtypes within brain tumors, of which GBM (proneural, neural, classical, and mesenchymal), and medulloblastoma (SHH, WNT, group 3, and group 4) exhibit subtype-specific composition of the tumor coagulome. It remains to be established whether mechanisms of thrombosis and biological effects of coagulation in brain tumors are also subtype specific. In this regard, TF pathway represents a paradigm, and its impact on tumor dormancy, inflammation, angiogenesis, formation of cancer stem cell niches, and dissemination is a subject of considerable interest. However, establishing the extent to which TF and TF-MPs contribute to pathogenesis and thromboembolic disease in the context of primary and secondary brain tumors may require molecular stratification of patient populations. We suggest that a better understanding of these molecular linkages may pave the way to a more effective (targeted) therapy, prophylaxis, adjunctive use of anticoagulants, and other agents able to modulate interactions between brain tumors and the coagulation system.

Garbers C, Kuck F, Aparicio-Siegmund S, et al.
Cellular senescence or EGFR signaling induces Interleukin 6 (IL-6) receptor expression controlled by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR).
Cell Cycle. 2013; 12(21):3421-32 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 09/01/2016 Related Publications
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) signaling plays a role in inflammation, cancer, and senescence. Here, we identified soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) as a member of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Senescence-associated sIL-6R upregulation was mediated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). sIL-6R was mainly generated by a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10)-dependent ectodomain shedding to enable IL-6 trans-signaling. In vivo, heterozygous PTEN-knockout mice exhibited higher mTOR activity and increased sIL-6R levels. Moreover, aberrant EGF receptor (EGFR) activation triggered IL-6 synthesis. In analogy to senescence, EGFR-induced activation of mTOR also induced IL-6R expression and sIL-6R generation. Hence, mTOR activation reprograms IL-6 non-responder cells into IL-6 responder cells. Our data suggest that mTOR serves as a central molecular switch to facilitate cellular IL-6 classic and trans-signaling via IL-6R upregulation with direct implications for cellular senescence and tumor development.

Yue Y, Shao Y, Luo Q, et al.
Downregulation of ADAM10 expression inhibits metastasis and invasiveness of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.
Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013:434561 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 09/01/2016 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the effects of ADAM10 expression on metastasis and invasiveness of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.
METHODS: The HepG2 cells were transfected with medium only, the empty vector, the control siRNA, or siRNA against ADAM10, respectively. Cell migration assay and Transwell invasiveness assay were performed to detect the effects of ADAM10 knockdown on migration and invasiveness of HepG2 cells. Western blotting and real-time RT PCR were performed to investigate the effects of knock-down of ADAM10 on protein and mRNA levels of E-cadherin gene.
RESULTS: Cell migration and invasiveness of HepG2 cells transfected with ADAM10 siRNA were significantly decreased, when compared with the cells transfected with the control siRNA, suggesting that the downregulation of ADAM10 expression inhibits cell migration and invasiveness. The Western blotting results suggest that the down-regulation of ADAM10 expression increases E-cadherin protein levels. The real-time RT-PCR results indicated that the mRNA level of E-cadherin is not detectably affected by the knock-down of ADAM10 gene.
CONCLUSIONS: Expression of ADAM10 may be related to cell migration and invasiveness of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells via a mechanism related to E-cadherin.

Yuan S, Lei S, Wu S
ADAM10 is overexpressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma and contributes to the proliferation, invasion and migration of HepG2 cells.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(4):1715-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
The overexpression of A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) has been found to be closely associated with the development and progression of various types of tumors. However, ADAM10 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its significance remain largely unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of ADAM10 in human HCC and the effect of ADAM10 gene silencing by siRNA on the proliferation, invasion and migration of HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the expression of ADAM10 in human HCC tissues and in the adjacent non-cancer tissues from 30 patients with HCC. RNA interference was used to knock down ADAM10 expression in HepG2 human hepatoma cells and the proliferation and migration as well as the invasive ability of the treated cells were observed in vitro. The expression of ADAM10 protein in HCC tissues was significantly higher when compared to that in adjacent non-tumor tissues (P<0.05). The high expression of ADAM10 in cancer was significantly correlated with clinical outcomes (P<0.05). Silencing of ADAM10 resulted in inhibition of proliferation and migration as well as invasion of HepG2 human hepatoma cells (P<0.05). These studies suggest that ADAM10 plays an important role in regulating proliferation, invasion and migration of HepG2 cells. High expression of ADAM10 may be a valuable predictive factor for HCC prognosis, and ADAM10 is potentially an important therapeutic target for the prevention of tumor development and progression in HCC.

Hong KJ, Wu DC, Cheng KH, et al.
RECK inhibits stemness gene expression and tumorigenicity of gastric cancer cells by suppressing ADAM-mediated Notch1 activation.
J Cell Physiol. 2014; 229(2):191-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Reversion-inducing Cysteine-rich Protein with Kazal Motifs (RECK) gene encodes a membrane-anchored glycoprotein that exhibits strong inhibitory activity against various matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10). RECK functions as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. However, whether RECK can modulate the stem-like phenotypes of cancer cells is not known. In this study, we demonstrate that RECK is down-regulated in gastric cancer cells and is further reduced in CD133-positive cancer stem-like cells. Ectopic expression of RECK induces down-regulation of the expression of stemness genes including Sox2, Oct4, and Nanog and the cancer stem cell marker CD133. Treatment of DAPT (a γ-secretase inhibitor) or TAPI-2 (a hydroxamate-based inhibitor of MMPs, tumor necrosis factor α converting enzyme and ADAM17) reduces Notch1 shedding and activation which results in attenuation of stemness genes and CD133. Our data show that ADAM10 and ADAM17 are co-pulled down by RECK suggesting a physical interaction between RECK and ADAMs on cell surface. In addition, RECK suppresses sphere formation and sphere size of CD133-positive gastric cancer cells. Overexpression of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) or ADAM17 effectively reverse the inhibitory effect of RECK in CD133-positive cells. More importantly, RECK reduces tumorigenic activity of CD133-positive cells in vivo. Conversely, knockdown of RECK in non-tumorigenic GI2 cells increases stemness and CD133 expression and sphere forming ability. Collectively, these results indicate that RECK represses stemness gene expression and stem-like properties by inhibiting ADAM-mediated Notch1 shedding and activation.

Twito T, Chen Z, Khatri I, et al.
Ectodomain shedding of CD200 from the B-CLL cell surface is regulated by ADAM28 expression.
Leuk Res. 2013; 37(7):816-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
CD200, a membrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is overexpressed in CLL. Soluble in serum CD200 (sCD200) is correlated with poor prognosis in CLL. ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) enzymes are implicated in membrane protein shedding. ADAM28 mRNA expression in CLL was correlated with plasma sCD200 levels, and release into culture from CLL cells. siRNA for ADAM28 decreased release of sCD200 from cultures and transfection of a cloned ADAM28 gene into CD200(+) cells enhanced release of sCD200. Our data support the hypothesis that ADAM28 plays a role in the shedding of CD200 from B-cell CLL cells.

Deng X, Fogh L, Lademann U, et al.
TIMP-1 overexpression does not affect sensitivity to HER2-targeting drugs in the HER2-gene-amplified SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cell line.
Tumour Biol. 2013; 34(2):1161-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) has been suggested as a marker of prognosis and response to treatment in breast cancer. In vitro, TIMP-1 can regulate shedding of the extracellular domain of HER2 and signalling via the Akt pathway, and we hypothesize that TIMP-1 therefore can affect sensitivity to the HER2-targeting drugs trastuzumab and lapatinib. SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cells were stably transfected with TIMP-1, characterized with regard to TIMP-1 protein expression, proliferation, and functionality of the secreted TIMP-1, and the sensitivity to trastuzumab and lapatinib was studied in five selected single-cell subclones expressing TIMP-1 protein at various levels plus the parental SK-BR-3 cell line. Both trastuzumab and lapatinib reduced cell viability, as determined by MTT assay, but the sensitivity to the drugs was not associated with the expression level of TIMP-1 protein. Western blotting showed that the activation of Akt, PTEN, and HER2 as well as ADAM10 was similar in all clones. In conclusion, in this model, TIMP-1 overexpression does not affect HER2 cleavage by ADAM10 or signalling via the Akt pathway, and TIMP-1 does not influence sensitivity to trastuzumab and lapatinib.

Lee JH, Wittki S, Bräu T, et al.
HIV Nef, paxillin, and Pak1/2 regulate activation and secretion of TACE/ADAM10 proteases.
Mol Cell. 2013; 49(4):668-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
The HIV Nef protein recruits the polycomb protein Eed and mimics an integrin receptor signal for reasons that are not entirely clear. Here we demonstrate that Nef and Eed complex with the integrin effector paxillin to recruit and activate TNFα converting enzyme (TACE alias ADAM 17) and its close relative ADAM10. The activated proteases cleaved proTNFα and were shuttled into extracellular vesicles (EVs). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells that ingested these EVs released TNFα. Analyzing the mechanism, we found that Pak2, an established host cell effector of Nef, phosphorylated paxillin on Ser272/274 to induce TACE-paxillin association and shuttling into EVs via lipid rafts. Conversely, Pak1 phosphorylated paxillin on Ser258, which inhibited TACE association and lipid raft transfer. Interestingly, melanoma cells used an identical mechanism to shuttle predominantly ADAM10 into EVs. We conclude that HIV-1 and cancer cells exploit a paxillin/integrin-controlled mechanism to release TACE/ADAM10-containing vesicles, ensuring better proliferation/growth conditions in their microenvironment.

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