Gene Summary

Gene:ABCC4; ATP binding cassette subfamily C member 4
Aliases: MRP4, MOATB, MOAT-B
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. This family member plays a role in cellular detoxification as a pump for its substrate, organic anions. It may also function in prostaglandin-mediated cAMP signaling in ciliogenesis. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:multidrug resistance-associated protein 4
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ABCC4 (cancer-related)

Hu D, Li M, Su J, et al.
Dual-Targeting of miR-124-3p and ABCC4 Promotes Sensitivity to Adriamycin in Breast Cancer Cells.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2019; 23(3):156-165 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Increasing evidence links the abnormal expression of microRNAs and ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 (ABCC4) with tumor development and progression, as well as with chemoresistance. Our aims were to determine the therapeutic potential of targeting both miR-124-3p and ABCC4 in breast cancer cells and to determine if duel targeting increased their sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs, in vitro.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of the ABCC4 protein and miR-124-3p were detected, respectively, by immunohistochemical staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in breast cancer tumor tissue, MCF-7 and MCF-7-ADR cell lines. Suppression of ABCC4 expression and miR-124-3p overexpression were performed in MCF-7-ADR cell lines. Western blot assays were used to detect expression of ABCC4 and permeability glycoprotein 1/multi-drug resistance protein 1 (P-gp) in cells. Cell Counting Kit-8, flow cytometry, transwell, and scratch assays were conducted to detect cell proliferation, cell cycle, invasion, and migration of cells.
RESULTS: We found that ABCC4 protein expression was significantly increased, while the miR-124-3p level was significantly decreased in breast cancer tissue and cell lines. Tumor size and clinical tumor node metastasis stage were significantly correlated with elevated expression of ABCC4 and decreased expression of miR-124-3p. Interestingly, ABCC4 expression was significantly increased in MCF-7-ADR cells, while miR-124-3p level was significantly decreased compared with MCF-7 cells. The inhibition of ABCC4 and miR-124-3p overexpression both led to a significant decrease in cell proliferation, invasion, and migration of MCF-7-ADR cells, and combination of suppression of ABCC4 with miR-124-3p overexpression had a synergistic inhibitory effect. Our results further demonstrated that inhibition of ABCC4 expression and overexpression of miR-124-3p significantly enhanced the sensitivity to adriamycin (ADR) in MCF-7-ADR cells, and that simultaneous dual-targeting of miR-124-3p and ABCC4 had a stronger promotive effect on the sensitivity to ADR in MCF-7-ADR cells. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that miR-124-3p overexpression significantly inhibited P-gp expression in MCF-7-ADR cells.
CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that the combination of downregulation of ABCC4 with overexpression of miR-124-3p significantly increased sensitivity to ADR in MCF-7-ADR cells. This finding suggests that similar dual targeting may serve as a means to enhance therapies for drug-resistant breast cancers.

Malinen MM, Ito K, Kang HE, et al.
Protein expression and function of organic anion transporters in short-term and long-term cultures of Huh7 human hepatoma cells.
Eur J Pharm Sci. 2019; 130:186-195 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
Human-derived hepatic cell lines are a valuable alternative to primary hepatocytes for drug metabolism, transport and toxicity studies. However, their relevance for investigations of drug-drug and drug-organic anion (e.g., bile acid, steroid hormone) interactions at the transporter level remains to be established. The aim of the present study was to determine the suitability of the Huh7 cell line for transporter-dependent experiments. Huh7 cells were cultured for 1 to 4 weeks and subsequently were analyzed for protein expression, localization and activity of solute carrier (SLC) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters involved in organic anion transport using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy, immunocytochemistry, and model substrates [

Ni M, Qin B, Xie L, et al.
IL-13 Contributes to Drug Resistance of NK/T-Cell Lymphoma Cells by Regulating ABCC4.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:2606834 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
Background: Extranodal natural killer/T (NK/T) cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL), represents a rare subtype of T-cell lymphomas with aggressive clinical behavior and is relatively resistant to chemotherapy. However, there is relatively poor understanding of molecular pathogenesis of multidrug resistance in ENKTL. Here, we aimed to explore the biological roles and potential mechanism of IL-13 and ABCC4 in multidrug resistance of NK/T-cell lymphoma.
Methods: ELISA analysis was used to determine the level of serum IL-13 and immunohistochemical analysis was applied to detect the ABCC4 expression level in patients with human NK/T-cell lymphoma. Western blot assay was employed to measure the expression of ABCC4 in cells. Lenti-sh-ABCC4 viruses were constructed to knock down ABCC4 in YTS cells. CCK-8 assay and flow cytometric analysis were performed to detect the effects of IL-13 and ABCC4 on cell proliferation and apoptosis. CCK-8 assay was conducted to detect the effect of IL-13 and ABCC4 on cell sensitivity to adriamycin (ADM) in YTS cells.
Results: Levels of serum IL-13 and ABCC4 expression were observed to be upregulated in patients with human NK/T-cell lymphoma. Moreover, ABCC4 protein expression was also increased in NK/T-cell lymphoma YTS cells compared to the normal NK cells. Interestingly, IL-13 promoted ABCC4 expression in YTS cells. IL-13 promoted proliferation and suppressed apoptosis of YTS cells and reversed the effects of ABCC4 knockdown on promotive proliferation and inhibitory apoptosis. In addition, IL-13 enhanced YTS cell chemotherapy resistance to ADM by promoting ABCC4 expression.
Conclusion: Our findings concluded that IL-13 inhibited chemotherapy sensitivity of NK/T-cell lymphoma cells by regulating ABCC4, disrupting which may effectively improve the therapy protocols against resistant NK/T-cell lymphoma.

Khoury H, He R, Schimmer A, et al.
Octadecyloxyethyl Adefovir Exhibits Potent in vitro and in vivo Cytotoxic Activity and Has Synergistic Effects with Ara-C in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Chemotherapy. 2018; 63(4):225-237 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) continues to be a deadly disease, with only 50-70% of patients achieving complete remission and less than 30% of adults having sustained long-term remissions. In order to address these unmet medical needs, we carried out a high-throughput screen of an in-house library of on- and off-patent drugs with the OCI/AML-2 cell line. Through this screen, we discovered adefovir dipi-voxil (adefovir-DP) as being active against human AML. In addition to adefovir-DP, there are second-generation formulations of adefovir, including octadecyloxyethyl adefovir (ODE-adefovir) and hexadecyloxypropyl adefovir (HDP-adefovir), which were designed to overcome the pharmacokinetic problems of the parent compound adefovir. Given the known clinical benefit of nucleoside analogs for the treatment of AML, we undertook studies to evaluate the potential benefit of adefovir-based molecules. In AML cell lines and patient samples, adefovir-DP and ODE-adefovir were highly potent, whereas HDP-adefovir was significantly less active. Interestingly, ODE-adefovir was remarkably less toxic than adefovir-DP towards normal hematopoietic cells. In addition, ODE-adefovir at a dose of 15 mg/kg/day showed potent activity against human AML in a NOD/SCID mouse model, with a reduction of human leukemia in mouse bone marrow of > 40% in all mice tested within 20 days of treatment. Based on its chemical structure, we hypothesized that the cytotoxicity of ODE-adefovir toward AML was through cell cycle arrest and DNA damage. Indeed, ODE-adefovir treatment induced cell cycle arrest in the S phase and increased levels of pH2Ax, indicating the induction of DNA damage. Furthermore, there was an increase in phospho-p53, transactivation of proapoptotic genes and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Subsequent investigation unveiled strong synergism between ODE-adefovir and ara-C, making their coadministration of potential clinical benefit. Expression of MRP4, a nucleoside transporter, appeared to influence the response of AML cells to ODE-adefovir, as its inhibition potentiated ODE-adefovir killing. Taken together, our findings indicate that clinical development of ODE-adefovir or related compounds for the treatment of AML is warranted.

Salvador-Martín S, García-González X, García MI, et al.
Clinical utility of ABCB1 genotyping for preventing toxicity in treatment with irinotecan.
Pharmacol Res. 2018; 136:133-139 [PubMed] Related Publications
Preventing severe irinotecan-induced adverse reactions would allow us to offer better treatment and improve patients' quality of life. Transporters, metabolizing enzymes, and genes involved in the folate pathway have been associated with irinotecan-induced toxicity. We analyzed 12 polymorphisms in UGT1A1, ABCB1, ABCG2, ABCC4, ABCC5, and MTHFR in 158 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with irinotecan and studied the association with grade >2 adverse reactions (CTCAE). Among the most frequent ADRs, the SNPs rs1128503, rs2032582, and rs1045642 in ABCB1 and rs1801133 in MTHFR were associated with hematological toxicity and overall toxicity. The SNP rs11568678 in ABCC4 was also associated with overall toxicity. After correction of P values using a false discovery rate, only ABCB1 variants remained statistically significant. Haplotype analysis in ABCB1 showed an 11.3-fold and 4.6-fold increased risk of hematological toxicity (95% CI, 1.459-88.622) and overall toxicity (95% CI, 2.283-9.386), respectively. Consequently, genotyping of the three SNPs in ABCB1 can predict overall toxicity and hematological toxicity with a diagnostic odds ratio of 4.40 and 9.94, respectively. Genotyping of ABCB1 variants can help to prevent severe adverse reactions to irinotecan-based treatments in colorectal cancer.

Abbaszadegan MR, Taghehchian N, Li L, et al.
Contribution of KCTD12 to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):853 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It has been shown that the expression of potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 12 (KCTD12) as a regulator of GABAB receptor signaling is reversely associated with gastrointestinal stromal tumors. In present study we examined the probable role of KCTD12 in regulation of several signaling pathways and chromatin remodelers in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
METHODS: KCTD12 ectopic expression was done in KYSE30 cell line. Comparative quantitative real time PCR was used to assess the expression of stem cell factors and several factors belonging to the WNT/NOTCH and chromatin remodeling in transfected cells in comparison with non-transfected cells.
RESULTS: We observed that the KCTD12 significantly down regulated expression of NANOG, SOX2, SALL4, KLF4, MAML1, PYGO2, BMI1, BRG1, MSI1, MEIS1, EGFR, DIDO1, ABCC4, ABCG2, and CRIPTO1 in transfected cells in comparison with non-transfected cells. Migration assay showed a significant decrease in cell movement in ectopic expressed cells in comparison with non-transfected cells (p = 0.02). Moreover, KCTD12 significantly decreased the 5FU resistance in transfected cells (p = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: KCTD12 may exert its inhibitory role in ESCC through the suppression of WNT /NOTCH, stem cell factors, and chromatin remodelers and can be introduced as an efficient therapeutic marker.

Aravind Kumar M, Naushad SM, Narasimgu N, et al.
Whole exome sequencing of breast cancer (TNBC) cases from India: association of MSH6 and BRIP1 variants with TNBC risk and oxidative DNA damage.
Mol Biol Rep. 2018; 45(5):1413-1419 [PubMed] Related Publications
Whole exome sequencing in triple negative breast cancer cases (n = 8) and targeted sequencing in healthy controls (n = 48) revealed BRIP1 rs552752779 (MAF: 75% vs. 6.25%, OR 45.00, 95% CI 9.43-243.32), ERBB2 rs527779103 (MAF: 62.5% vs. 7.29%, OR 21.19, 95% CI 5.11-94.32), ERCC2 rs121913016 (MAF: 56.25% vs. 7.29%, OR 16.34, 95% CI 4.02-70.41), MSH6 rs2020912 (MAF: 56.25% vs. 1.04%, OR 122.13, 95% CI 12.29-2985.48) as risk factors for triple negative breast cancer. Construction of classification and regression tree followed by smart pruning identified MSH6 and BRIP1 variants as the major determinants of TNBC (Triple Negative Breast Cancer) risk. Except for ERBB2, all other genes regulate DNA repair and chromosomal integrity. In TNBC cases, two likely pathogenic variations i.e. NCOR1 rs562300336 and PIM1 rs746748226 were observed at frequencies of 18.75% and 12.5%, respectively. Among the 24 variants of unknown significance, MMP9 rs199676062, SYNE1 rs368709678, AURKA rs373550419, ABCC4 rs11568694 have variant allele frequency ≥ 62.5%. These genes regulate metastasis, nuclear modeling, cell cycle and cellular detoxification, respectively. To conclude, aberrations in DNA mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair or BRCA1 associated genome surveillance mechanism contribute towards triple negative breast cancer.

Zhu X, Xue L, Yao Y, et al.
The FoxM1-ABCC4 axis mediates carboplatin resistance in human retinoblastoma Y-79 cells.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2018; 50(9):914-920 [PubMed] Related Publications
Carboplatin is the most commonly used drug in the first-line treatment of human retinoblastoma (RB), but its clinical application is greatly limited due to acquired drug resistance upon the long-term treatment. Forkhead box protein M1 (FoxM1) is the transcription factor aberrantly expressed in various types of human cancers, which plays an essential role in the regulation of tumorigenesis, tumor metastasis and drug resistance. However, little is known about the role of FoxM1 in chemo-resistance of human RB. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effect of FoxM1 on carboplatin resistance in human RB Y-79 cells and carboplatin-resistant Y-79 (Y-79CR) cells, as well as the possible mechanism. Our results showed that FoxM1 was up-regulated in Y-79CR cells and silencing of FoxM1 promoted carboplatin sensitivity and accumulation, while overexpression of FoxM1 in Y-79 cells performed oppositely. Our study further revealed that FoxM1 enhanced carboplatin resistance in Y-79CR cells through directly up-regulating the transcription of ATP-binding cassette transporter C4 (ABCC4), an important drug efflux transporter. Overall, our study demonstrated the novel role of FoxM1-ABCC4 axis in human RB, which provides insights into the prevention of carboplatin resistance in human RB.

Gong M, Chen C, Zhao H, et al.
miR-506 suppresses cervical cancer cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo.
Neoplasma. 2018; 65(3):331-338 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the most common gynecological malignancies in women worldwide. Recently increasing evidences indicate aberrant expression of miR-506 was reported to be associated with a variety of tumors. The aimof this study was to evaluate the potential role of miR-506 in CC and verify its effect on the regulation of ABCC4. The expression of miR-506 in cervical cancer tissues and HeLa and C33A cell lines was examined using quantitative Real-time PCR. MTT assay and animals studies were use to examine the effects of miR-506 on cervical cancer proliferation. Luciferase reporter and western blot were used to confirm miR-506 could regulate ABCC4. We found that miR-506 was significantly downregulated in human CC cell lines (HeLa and C33A) and clinical CC specimens as compared with matched cell lines and adjacent normal tissues, while the expression level of ABCC4 was higher in tumor tissues than it in adjacent normal tissues. We also revealed that up-regulated expression of miR-506 could inhibit CC cells proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, ABCC4 was identified as a direct target of miR-506 and the inverse relationship between them was also observed. In summary, our finding suggests that miR-506 acts an important role in suppressing CC cell proliferation and suppresses the expression of ABCC4 by directly targeting its 3'-UTR. miR-506 may represent a novel therapeutic target of microRNA-mediated suppression of cell proliferation in CC, but the role of the miR-506/ABCC4 axis in CC progression needs further study.

Eldem İ, Yavuz D, Cumaoğullari Ö, et al.
SLCO1B1 Polymorphisms are Associated With Drug Intolerance in Childhood Leukemia Maintenance Therapy.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2018; 40(5):e289-e294 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Therapy discontinuations and toxicities occur because of significant interindividual variations in 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and methotrexate (MTX) response during maintenance therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). 6-MP/MTX intolerance in some of the patients cannot be explained by thiopurine S-methyl transferase (TPMT) gene variants. In this study, we aimed to investigate candidate pharmacogenetic determinants of 6-MP and MTX intolerance in Turkish ALL children.
METHODS: In total, 48 children with ALL who had completed or were receiving maintenance therapy according to Children's Oncology Group (COG) protocols were enrolled. Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 8 candidate genes that were related to drug toxicity or had a role in the 6-MP/MTX metabolism (TPMT, ITPA, MTHFR, IMPDH2, PACSIN2, SLCO1B1, ABCC4, and PYGL) were genotyped by competitive allele-specific PCR (KASP). Drug doses during maintenance therapy were modified according to the protocol.
RESULTS: The median drug dose intensity was 50% (28% to 92%) for 6-MP and 58% (27% to 99%) for MTX in the first year of maintenance therapy, which were lower than that scheduled in all patients. Among the analyzed polymorphisms, variant alleles in SLCO1B1 rs4149056 and rs11045879 were found to be associated with lower 6-MP/MTX tolerance.
CONCLUSIONS: SLCO1B1 rs4149056 and rs11045879 polymorphisms may be important genetic markers to individualize 6-MP/MTX doses.

Li PC, Tu MJ, Ho PY, et al.
Bioengineered NRF2-siRNA Is Effective to Interfere with NRF2 Pathways and Improve Chemosensitivity of Human Cancer Cells.
Drug Metab Dispos. 2018; 46(1):2-10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) is a transcription factor in the regulation of many oxidative enzymes and efflux transporters critical for oxidative stress and cellular defense against xenobiotics. NRF2 is dysregulated in patient osteosarcoma (OS) tissues and correlates with therapeutic outcomes. Nevertheless, research on the NRF2 regulatory pathways and its potential as a therapeutic target is limited to the use of synthetic small interfering RNA (siRNA) carrying extensive artificial modifications. Herein, we report successful high-level expression of recombinant siRNA against NRF2 in

Kim H, Seo H, Park Y, et al.
APEX1 Polymorphism and Mercaptopurine-Related Early Onset Neutropenia in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
Cancer Res Treat. 2018; 50(3):823-834 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
Purpose: Mercaptopurine (MP) is one of the main chemotherapeutics for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). To improve treatment outcomes, constant MP dose titration is essential to maintain steady drug exposure, while minimizing myelosuppression. We performed two-stage analyses to identify genetic determinants of MP-related neutropenia in Korean pediatric ALL patients.
Materials and Methods: Targeted sequencing of 40 patients who exhibited definite MP intolerance was conducted using a novel panel of 211 pharmacogenetic-related genes, and subsequent analysis was performed with 185 patients.
Results: Using bioinformatics tools and genetic data, four functionally interesting variants were selected (ABCC4, APEX1, CYP1A1, and CYP4F2). Including four variants, 23 variants in 12 genes potentially linked to MP adverse reactions were selected as final candidates for subsequent analysis in 185 patients. Ultimately, a variant allele in APEX1 rs2307486was found to be strongly associated with MP-induced neutropenia that occurred within 28 days of initiating MP (odds ratio, 3.44; p=0.02). Moreover, the cumulative incidence of MP-related neutropenia was significantly higher in patients with APEX1 rs2307486 variants, as GG genotypes were associated with the highest cumulative incidence (p < 0.01). NUDT15 rs116855232 variants were strongly associated with a higher cumulative incidence of neutropenia (p < 0.01), and a lower median dose of tolerated MP throughout maintenance treatment (p < 0.01).
Conclusion: We have identified that APEX1 rs2307486 variants conferred an increased risk of MP-related early onset neutropenia. APEX1 and NUDT15 both contribute to cell protection from DNA damage or misincorporation, so alleles that impair the function of either gene may affect MP sensitivities, thereby inducing MP-related neutropenia.

Chen Q, Meng F, Wang L, et al.
A polymorphism in ABCC4 is related to efficacy of 5-FU/capecitabine-based chemotherapy in colorectal cancer patients.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):7059 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
To investigate the association of microRNA (miRNA) binding-site polymorphisms in the drug transporter genes with the efficacy of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)/capecitabine-based chemotherapy in colorectal cancer (CRC), 6 polymorphisms were determined in 432 CRC patients by using DNA sequencing method. The impacts of the polymorphisms on the miRNA-mediated regulation of gene expression were evaluated by using the methods including quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting, and luciferase reporter assays. The effects of miRNA on the intracellular concentration and cytotoxicity of 5-FU in CRC cells were measured by high performance liquid chromatography conjected tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and MTT methods, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that a polymorphism rs3742106 in the 3'-UTR of ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 (ABCC4) gene was significantly associated with the efficacy of 5-FU/capecitabine-based chemotherapy in CRC. The patients with T/T genotype had significantly higher response rate than those with G/G and G/T genotypes. The expression of ABCC4 was inhibited by miR-3190-5p through binding to the 3'-UTR of the ABCC4 gene. This regulatory role of miR-3190-5p was disrupted by rs3742106. Furthermore, we found that the intracellular concentration of 5-FU was elevated by miR-3190-5p, and consequently the sensitivity of CRC cells to 5-FU was also enhanced. Rs3742106 might be regarded as a genetic biomarker for individualized use of 5-FU and capecitabine in CRC.

Pellicer M, García-González X, García MI, et al.
Use of exome sequencing to determine the full profile of genetic variants in the fluoropyrimidine pathway in colorectal cancer patients affected by severe toxicity.
Pharmacogenomics. 2017; 18(13):1215-1223 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To identify genetic variants associated with capecitabine toxicity in fluoropyrimidine pathway genes using exome sequencing.
PATIENTS & METHODS: Exomes from eight capecitabine-treated patients with severe adverse reactions (grade >2), among a population of 319, were sequenced (Ion Proton). SNPs in genes classified as potentially damaging (Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant and Polymorphism Phenotyping v2) were tested for association with toxicity in a validation cohort of 319 capecitabine-treated patients.
RESULTS: A total of 17 nonsynonymous genetic variants were identified. Of these, five putative damaging SNPs in DPYD, ABCC4 and MTHFR were genotyped in the validation cohort. DPYD rs1801160 was associated with the risk of toxicity (p = 0.029) and MTHFR rs1801133 with delayed administration of chemotherapy due to toxicity (p = 0.047).
CONCLUSION: Exome sequencing revealed two specific biomarkers of the risk of toxicity to capecitabine.

Gervasini G, de Murillo SG, Jiménez M, et al.
Effect of polymorphisms in transporter genes on dosing, efficacy and toxicity of maintenance therapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Gene. 2017; 628:72-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present work was to assess whether polymorphisms in genes coding for drug transport proteins may influence dosing, efficacy and toxicity of maintenance therapy with methotrexate (MTX) and 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A total of 41 children with ALL were screened for 10 SNPs in the SLC19A1, ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCC4 and ABCG2 transporter genes by means of direct sequencing. Carriers of the ABCC4 934CC and ABCB1 1236TT genotypes received a lower percentage of the protocol-recommended starting dose of MTX (62.1 vs. 81.3% for 934CA carriers, p=0.001) and 6MP (73.1 vs. 87.7% for 1236CC/CT carriers; p=0.026), respectively. The C1236T SNP also increased the efficiency of myelosuppression. Median (and interquartile) number of blood tests with leukocytes levels <310

Mesrian Tanha H, Rahgozar S, Mojtabavi Naeini M
ABCC4 functional SNP in the 3' splice acceptor site of exon 8 (G912T) is associated with unfavorable clinical outcome in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2017; 80(1):109-117 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 (ABCC4) encoding MRP4 protein is involved in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) drug resistance. The nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2274407 (G912T; K304N) is located in the 3' splice acceptor site of exon 8 of ABCC4 pre-mRNA. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of rs2274407 in childhood ALL and its possible functional effect on MRP4.
METHODS: ABCC4 G912T SNP was genotyped in 145 Iranian Philadelphia-negative (Ph
RESULTS: ABCC4 912T allele carriers (G/T and T/T genotypes) are associated with worse 3DFS in Pre-B cell ALL [P = 0.00019, OR (95% CI) = 13.17 (2.55-68.11)]. In addition, computational studies showed that K304N alteration has no impact on the MRP4 activity. However, it may disrupt the normal splicing process of ABCC4 pre-mRNA.
CONCLUSIONS: To date, this is the first study that shows the potential functional impact of rs2274407 SNP on the aberrant splicing of ABCC4 mRNA. We also demonstrated a robust association between G912T and pediatric ALL negative outcome, which may be explained by the novel computational studies performed in this study.

Tanaka Y, Nakadate H, Kondoh K, et al.
Interaction between NUDT15 and ABCC4 variants enhances intolerability of 6-mercaptopurine in Japanese patients with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Pharmacogenomics J. 2018; 18(2):275-280 [PubMed] Related Publications
6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) is a main component of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment. Some candidate gene variants are associated with its toxicities, but the major variants and effects of combined variants remain unclear. We used Cox regression analysis to evaluate the time-dependent association between candidate variants and the cumulative incidence of 6-MP intolerability in 95 Japanese patients. The major risk factors for severe leukopenia were ABCC4 rs3765534, NUDT15 rs116855232 and rs186364861 in multi-covariate analysis (P<0.05). NUDT15 intermediate activity variant, that is, heterozygous rs116855232 or rs186364861 variant, and the ABCC4 rs3765534 variant showed leukopenia more frequently than either variant alone. All patients with both the intermediate activity NUDT15 variant and the ABCC4 rs3765534 variant suffered from leukopenia, and 57.1% patients required 50% protocol dose by day 168. These data indicate that NUDT15 and ABCC4 are major factors for 6-MP intolerability and that the interaction between these variants enhances intolerability to 6-MP.

Lee HS, Park SB, Kim SA, et al.
A novel HDAC inhibitor, CG200745, inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth and overcomes gemcitabine resistance.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7:41615 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer is predominantly lethal, and is primarily treated using gemcitabine, with increasing resistance. Therefore, novel agents that increase tumor sensitivity to gemcitabine are needed. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are emerging therapeutic agents, since HDAC plays an important role in cancer initiation and progression. We evaluated the antitumor effect of a novel HDAC inhibitor, CG200745, combined with gemcitabine/erlotinib on pancreatic cancer cells and gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells. Three pancreatic cancer-cell lines were used to evaluate the antitumor effect of CG200745 combined with gemcitabine/erlotinib. CG200745 induced the expression of apoptotic proteins (PARP and caspase-3) and increased the levels of acetylated histone H3. CG200745 with gemcitabine/erlotinib showed significant growth inhibition and synergistic antitumor effects in vitro. In vivo, gemcitabine/erlotinib and CG200745 reduced tumor size up to 50%. CG200745 enhanced the sensitivity of gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine, and decreased the level of ATP-binding cassette-transporter genes, especially multidrug resistance protein 3 (MRP3) and MRP4. The novel HDAC inhibitor, CG200745, with gemcitabine/erlotinib had a synergistic anti-tumor effect on pancreatic cancer cells. CG200745 significantly improved pancreatic cancer sensitivity to gemcitabine, with a prominent antitumor effect on gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells. Therefore, improved clinical outcome is expected in the future.

Kochel TJ, Reader JC, Ma X, et al.
Multiple drug resistance-associated protein (MRP4) exports prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and contributes to metastasis in basal/triple negative breast cancer.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(4):6540-6554 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its primary enzymatic product, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), are associated with a poor prognosis in breast cancer. In order to elucidate the factors contributing to intratumoral PGE2 levels, we evaluated the expression of COX-2/PGE2 pathway members MRP4, the prostaglandin transporter PGT, 15-PGDH (PGE2 metabolism), the prostaglandin E receptor EP4, COX-1, and COX-2 in normal, luminal, and basal breast cancer cell lines. The pattern of protein expression varied by cell line reflecting breast cancer heterogeneity. Overall, basal cell lines expressed higher COX-2, higher MRP4, lower PGT, and lower 15-PGDH than luminal cell lines resulting in higher PGE2 in the extracellular environment. Genetic or pharmacologic suppression of MRP4 expression or activity in basal cell lines led to less extracellular PGE2. The key finding is that xenografts derived from a basal breast cancer cell line with stably suppressed MRP4 expression showed a marked decrease in spontaneous metastasis compared to cells with unaltered MRP4 expression. Growth properties of primary tumors were not altered by MRP4 manipulation. In addition to the well-established role of high COX-2 in promoting metastasis, these data identify an additional mechanism to achieve high PGE2 in the tumor microenvironment; high MRP4, low PGT, and low 15-PGDH. MRP4 should be examined further as a potential therapeutic target in basal breast cancer.

Santos MD, Silva C, Rocha A, et al.
Prognostic and Therapeutic Potential Implications of Genetic Variability in Prostaglandin E2 Pathway Genes in Rectal Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(1):281-291 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To evaluate the prognostic significance and potential therapeutic implication of genetic variability in prostaglandin E
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cohort study included 167 patients with LARC, treated with nCRT followed by surgery. A total of 61 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were characterized using the Sequenom platform through multiplex amplification followed by mass-spectometric product separation. Surgical specimens were classified according to Mandard tumor regression grade (TRG). The patients were divided as 'good responders' (Mandard TGR1-2) and 'poor responders' (Mandard TRG3-5). We examined prognostic value of polymorphisms studied to determine if they are related to Mandard response.
RESULTS: Mandard tumor response and rs17268122 in ATP binding cassette subfamily C member (ABCC4) gene were the only two parameters with independent prognostic significance for disease-free survival.
CONCLUSION: tagSNP ABCC4 rs17268122 appears to be a prognostic factor in LARC treated with nCRT and surgery, independently of response to nCRT. The screening of ABCC4 rs17268122 tagSNP and the Mandard tumor response in clinical practice may help to identify patients with different rectal cancer prognosis and contribute to an individualized therapeutic decision tree.

Wang W, Li Y, Zhu JY, et al.
Triple negative breast cancer development can be selectively suppressed by sustaining an elevated level of cellular cyclic AMP through simultaneously blocking its efflux and decomposition.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(52):87232-87245 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) has the highest mortality among all breast cancer types and lack of targeted therapy is a key factor contributing to its high mortality rate. In this study, we show that 8-bromo-cAMP, a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) analog at high concentration (> 1 mM) selectively suppresses TNBC cell growth. However, commonly-used cAMP-elevating agents such as adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin and pan phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) are ineffective. Inability of cAMP elevating agents to inhibit TNBC cell growth is due to rapid diminution of cellular cAMP through efflux and decomposition. By performing bioinformatics analyses with publically available gene expression datasets from breast cancer patients/established breast cancer cell lines and further validating using specific inhibitors/siRNAs, we reveal that multidrug resistance-associated protein 1/4 (MRP1/4) mediate rapid cAMP efflux while members PDE4 subfamily facilitate cAMP decomposition. When cAMP clearance is prevented by specific inhibitors, forskolin blocks TNBC's in vitro cell growth by arresting cell cycle at G1/S phase. Importantly, cocktail of forskolin, MRP inhibitor probenecid and PDE4 inhibitor rolipram suppresses TNBC in vivo tumor development. This study suggests that a TNBC-targeted therapeutic strategy can be developed by sustaining an elevated level of cAMP through simultaneously blocking its efflux and decomposition.

Iparraguirre L, Gutierrez-Camino A, Umerez M, et al.
MiR-pharmacogenetics of methotrexate in childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2016; 26(11):517-525 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Methotrexate (MTX), the key drug in childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) therapy, often causes toxicity. An association between genetic variants in MTX transport genes and toxicity has been found. It is known that these transporters are regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs), and miRNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) interfere with miRNA levels or function. With regard to B-cell ALL, we have previously found rs56103835 in miR-323b that targets ABCC4 associated with MTX plasma levels. Despite these evidences and that nowadays a large amount of new miRNAs have been annotated, studies of miRNA polymorphisms and MTX toxicity are almost absent. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether there are other variants in miRNAs associated with MTX levels.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Blood samples of 167 Spanish patients with pediatric B-cell ALL treated with the LAL-SHOP protocol were analyzed. We selected all the SNPs described in pre-miRNAs with a minor allele frequency more than 1% (213 SNPs in 206 miRNAs) that could regulate MTX transporters because the miRNAs that target MTX transporter genes are not completely defined. Genotyping was performed with VeraCode GoldenGate platform.
RESULTS: Among the most significant results, we found rs56292801 in miR-5189, rs4909237 in miR-595, and rs78790512 in miR-6083 to be associated with MTX plasma levels. These miRNAs were predicted, in silico, to regulate genes involved in MTX uptake: SLC46A1, SLC19A1, and SLCO1A2.
CONCLUSION: In this study, we detected three SNPs in miR-5189, miR-595, and miR-6083 that might affect SLC46A1, SLC19A1, and SLCO1A2 MTX transport gene regulation and could affect MTX levels in patients with pediatric B-cell ALL.

Huang P, Cheng CL, Chang YH, et al.
Molecular gene signature and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(32):51898-51907 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
The current staging system for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is inadequate for predicting outcome. Risk score, a linear combination of the values for the expression of each gene multiplied by a weighting value which was estimated from univariate Cox proportional hazard regression, can be useful. The aim of this study is to analyze survival-related genes with TaqMan Low-Density Array (TLDA) and risk score to explore gene-signature in lung cancer. A total of 96 NSCLC specimens were collected and randomly assigned to a training (n = 48) or a testing cohort (n = 48). A panel of 219 survival-associated genes from published studies were used to develop a 6-gene risk score. The risk score was used to classify patients into high or low-risk signature and survival analysis was performed. Cox models were used to evaluate independent prognostic factors. A 6-gene signature including ABCC4, ADRBK2, KLHL23, PDS5A, UHRF1 and ZNF551 was identified. The risk score in both training (HR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.14-8.67, p = 0.03) and testing cohorts (HR = 5.42, 95% CI: 1.56-18.84, p = 0.01) was the independent prognostic factor. In merged public datasets including GSE50081, GSE30219, GSE31210, GSE19188, GSE37745, GSE3141 and GSE31908, the risk score (HR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.25-1.80, p < 0.0001) was also the independent prognostic factor. The risk score generated from expression of a small number of genes did perform well in predicting overall survival and may be useful in routine clinical practice.

Luo K, Gu X, Liu J, et al.
Inhibition of disheveled-2 resensitizes cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells through down-regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
Exp Cell Res. 2016; 347(1):105-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cisplatin (CDDP) is currently recommended as the front-line chemotherapeutic agent for lung cancer. However, the resistance to cisplatin is widespread in patients with advanced lung cancer, and the molecular mechanism of such resistance remains incompletely understood. Disheveled (DVL), a key mediator of Wnt/β-catenin, has been linked to cancer progression, while the role of DVL in cancer drug resistance is not clear. Here, we found that DVL2 was over-expressed in cisplatin-resistant human lung cancer cells A549/CDDP compared to the parental A549 cells. Inhibition of DVL2 by its inhibitor (3289-8625) or shDVL2 resensitized A549/CDDP cells to cisplatin. In addition, over-expression of DVL2 in A549 cells increased the protein levels of BCRP, MRP4, and Survivin, which are known to be associated with chemoresistance, while inhibition of DVL2 in A549/CDDP cells decreased these protein levels, and reduced the accumulation and nuclear translocation of β-catenin. In addition, shβ-catenin abolished the DVL2-induced the expression of BCRP, MRP4, and Survivin. Furthermore, our data showed that GSK3β/β-catenin signals were aberrantly activated by DVL2, and inactivation of GSK3β reversed the shDVL2-induced down-regulation of β-catenin. Taken together, these results suggested that inhibition of DVL2 can sensitize cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells through down-regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling and inhibiting BCRP, MRP4, and Survivin expression. It promises a new strategy to chemosensitize cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in lung cancer.

Abdallah EA, Fanelli MF, Souza E Silva V, et al.
MRP1 expression in CTCs confers resistance to irinotecan-based chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2016; 139(4):890-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Circulating tumor cells are important markers of tumor progression and can reflect tumor behavior in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Identification of proteins that confer resistance to treatment is an important step to predict response and better selection of treatment for patients. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) and Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4) play a role in irinotecan-resistance, and Excision Repair Cross-Complementation group 1 (ERCC1) expression can confer resistance to platinum compounds. Here, we included 34 patients with mCRC and most of them received FOLFIRI or FOLFOX chemotherapy (91.1%). CTCs were isolated by ISET(®) Technology and identified in 30 patients (88.2%), with a median of 2.0 CTCs/mL (0-31.0). We analyzed the immunocytochemical expression of MRP1, MRP4 and ERCC1 only in patients who had previously detectable CTCs, accordingly to treatment received (n = 19, 15 and 13 patients, respectively). Among patients treated with irinotecan-based chemotherapy, 4 out of 19 cases with MRP1 positive CTCs showed a worse progression free survival (PFS) in comparison to those with MRP1 negative CTCs (2.1 months vs. 9.1 months; p = 0.003). None of the other proteins studied in CTCs had significant association with PFS. We analyzed also histological sections of primary tumors and metastases by immunohistochemistry, and found no association with clinicopathological characteristics or with PFS. Our results show MRP1 as a potential biomarker of resistance to treatment with irinotecan when found in CTCs from mCRC patients. This is a small proof-of-principle study and these early findings need to be validated in a larger cohort of patients.

Drenberg CD, Hu S, Li L, et al.
ABCC4 Is a Determinant of Cytarabine-Induced Cytotoxicity and Myelosuppression.
Clin Transl Sci. 2016; 9(1):51-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
Resistance to cytarabine remains a major challenge in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Based on previous studies implicating ABCC4/MRP4 in the transport of nucleosides, we hypothesized that cytarabine is sensitive to ABCC4-mediated efflux, thereby decreasing its cytotoxic response against AML blasts. The uptake of cytarabine and its monophosphate metabolite was found to be facilitated in ABCC4-expressing vesicles and intracellular retention was significantly impaired by overexpression of human ABCC4 or mouse Abcc4 (P < 0.05). ABCC4 was expressed highly in AML primary blasts and cell lines, and cytotoxicity of cytarabine in cells was increased in the presence of the ABCC4 inhibitors MK571 or sorafenib, as well as after ABCC4 siRNA. In Abcc4-null mice, cytarabine-induced hematological toxicity was enhanced and ex vivo colony-forming assays showed that Abcc4-deficiency sensitized myeloid progenitors to cytarabine. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that ABCC4 plays a protective role against cytarabine-mediated insults in leukemic and host myeloid cells.

Tomonari T, Takeishi S, Taniguchi T, et al.
MRP3 as a novel resistance factor for sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(6):7207-15 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
The mechanism of resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to sorafenib is unknown and no useful predictive biomarker for sorafenib treatment has been reported. Accordingly, we established sorafenib-resistant HCC cells and investigated the underlying mechanism of resistance to sorafenib. Sorafenib-resistant cell lines were established from the HCC cell line PLC/PRF5 by cultivation under continuous exposure to increasing concentration of sorafenib. The IC50 values of the 2 resistant clones PLC/PRF5-R1 and PLC-PRF5-R2 were 9.2±0.47 μM (1.8-fold) and 25±5.1 μM (4.6-fold) respectively, which were significantly higher than that of parental PLC/PRF5 cells (5.4±0.17 μM) (p < 0.01 respectively), as determined by MTT assay. Western blot analysis of signal transduction-related proteins showed no significant differences in expression of AKT/pAKT, mTOR/pmTOR, or ERK/pERK between the 2 resistant clones versus parent cells, suggesting no activation of an alternative signal transduction pathway. Likewise, when expression of membrane transporter proteins was determined, there were no significant differences in expression levels of BSEP, MDR1, MRP2, BCRP, MRP4 and OCT1 between resistant clones and parent cells. However, the expression levels of MRP3 in the 2 resistant clones were significantly higher than that of parent cells. When MRP3 gene was knocked down by siRNA in PLC-PRF5-R2 cells, the sensitivity of the cells to sorafenib was restored. In the analysis of gene mutation, there was no mutation in the activation segment of Raf1 kinase in the resistant clones. Our data clearly demonstrate that the efflux transporter MRP3 plays an important role in resistance to sorafenib in HCC cells.

Chen SF, Zhang ZY, Zhang JL
Meloxicam increases intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin via downregulation of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) in A549 cells.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(4):14548-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
It has been suggested that selected COX inhibitors can overcome multidrug resistance through the inhibition of ATP‑binding cassette-transporter proteins thereby enhancing the inhibitory effect of doxorubicin on human tumor growth and promoting the actions of cytostatics. However, their effect on lung cancer and the molecular mechanisms involved in the overcoming of multidrug resistance are unclear. In the present study, the ability of meloxicam, a COX-2-specific inhibitor to enhance doxorubicin‑mediated inhibition was investigated in human A549 lung cancer in vivo and in vitro. In order to unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in doxorubicin accumulation, we measured the levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)-transporter protein activity and expression by western blotting, since this has been implicated in meloxicam action as well as in chemoresistance. We found that, in A549 cells, meloxicam could increase intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin, a substrate for MRP, through inhibition of cellular export. Western blot analysis indicated that meloxicam reduced the expression of MRP1 and MRP4. The results reported in the present study demonstrate for the first time that the specific COX-2 inhibitor meloxicam can increase the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin and enhance doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in A549 cancer cells by reducing the expression of MRP1 and MRP4.

Rumiato E, Brunello A, Ahcene-Djaballah S, et al.
Predictive markers in elderly patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer treated with aromatase inhibitors: an array-based pharmacogenetic study.
Pharmacogenomics J. 2016; 16(6):525-529 [PubMed] Related Publications
So far, no reliable predictive clinicopathological markers of response to aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have been identified, and little is known regarding the role played by host genetics. To identify constitutive predictive markers, an array-based association study was performed in a cohort of 55 elderly hormone-dependent breast cancer (BC) patients treated with third-generation AIs. The array used in this study interrogates variants in 225 drug metabolism and disposition genes with documented functional significance. Six variants emerged as associated with response to AIs: three located in ABCG1, UGT2A1, SLCO3A1 with a good response, two in SLCO3A1 and one in ABCC4 with a poor response. Variants in the AI target CYP19A1 resulted associated with a favourable response only as haplotype; haplotypes with increased response association were also detected for ABCG1 and SLCO3A1. These results highlight the relevance of host genetics in the response to AIs and represent a first step toward precision medicine for elderly BC patients.

Zhang X, Zhao L, Li X, et al.
ATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 4 (ABCC4) is overexpressed in human NK/T-cell lymphoma and regulates chemotherapy sensitivity: Potential as a functional therapeutic target.
Leuk Res. 2015; 39(12):1448-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nasal-type natural killer/T-cell (NK/T-cell) lymphomas are subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), which are typically more clinically aggressive. There is, however relatively little understanding of nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma molecular pathogenesis. Thus, in this study we applied RNA sequencing to systematically screen for altered gene expression in human NK/T-cell lymphoma cell lines YTS and SNK-6 versus normal NK cells. We found that ATP-binding cassette sub-family C Member 4 (ABCC4) levels were significantly upregulated both in human NK/T-cell lymphoma YTS and SNK-6 cells, as compared with normal NK cells. These expression levels were further confirmed by real-time PCR. Protein levels of ABCC4 were also significantly higher in YTS and SNK-6 cells as compared with normal NK cells. Clinically relevant, ABCC4 expression levels were significantly higher in human NK/T-cell lymphoma tissues as compared with control nasal mucosa tissues, confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. In addition, we explored the biological function of such ABCC4 upregulation. Overexpression of ABCC4 by lentivirus transfection induced chemotherapy resistance to epirubicin (EPI) and cisplatin (DDP) in YTS cells. In contrast, knockdown of ABCC4 expression by shRNA contributed to chemotherapy sensitivity by both EPI and DDP. Furthermore, overexpression of ABCC4 inhibited, while downregulation of ABCC4 increased, YTS cell apoptosis following treatment by EPI or DDP. Therefore, the present study identified ABCC4 to be overexpressed in human NK/T-cell lymphoma cells, to regulate chemotherapy sensitivity to EPI and DDP, and possibly to be a functional therapeutic target. These findings may provide a basic rationale for new approaches in the effort to develop anti-tumor therapeutics for NK/T-cell lymphoma.

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