ABCC4

Gene Summary

Gene:ABCC4; ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C (CFTR/MRP), member 4
Aliases: MRP4, MOATB, MOAT-B
Location:13q32
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. This family member plays a role in cellular detoxification as a pump for its substrate, organic anions. It may also function in prostaglandin-mediated cAMP signaling in ciliogenesis. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:multidrug resistance-associated protein 4
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 26 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 26 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 26 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ABCC4 (cancer-related)

Wang Z, Xu Y, Meng X, et al.
Suppression of c-Myc is involved in multi-walled carbon nanotubes' down-regulation of ATP-binding cassette transporters in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2015; 282(1):42-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Over-expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, a large family of integral membrane proteins that decrease cellular drug uptake and accumulation by active extrusion, is one of the major causes of cancer multi-drug resistance (MDR) that frequently leads to failure of chemotherapy. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based drug delivery devices hold great promise in enhancing the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. However, CNTs' effects on the ABC transporters remain under-investigated. In this study, we found that multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) reduced transport activity and expression of ABC transporters including ABCB1/Pgp and ABCC4/MRP4 in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. Proto-oncogene c-Myc, which directly regulates ABC gene expression, was concurrently decreased in MWCNT-treated cells and forced over-expression of c-Myc reversed MWCNTs' inhibitory effects on ABCB1 and ABCC4 expression. MWCNT-cell membrane interaction and cell membrane oxidative damage were observed. However, antioxidants such as vitamin C, β-mecaptoethanol and dimethylthiourea failed to antagonize MWCNTs' down-regulation of ABC transporters. These data suggest that MWCNTs may act on c-Myc, but not through oxidative stress, to down-regulate ABC transporter expression. Our findings thus shed light on CNTs' novel cellular effects that may be utilized to develop CNTs-based drug delivery devices to overcome ABC transporter-mediated cancer chemoresistance.

Matsuoka H, Kondo K, Takizawa H, et al.
Comprehensive evaluation of the response of genes to the administration of the antitumor drug S-1 using a low density array.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 46(2):569-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
S-1 is a newly developed dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase inhibitory fluoropyrimidine that exhibits high clinical efficacy against non-small cell lung cancers. To identify genes that may be associated with chemosensitivity to the antitumor drug S-1, we used a low density array representing 93 genes to analyze expression profiles in 4 orthotopically implanted lung cancers derived from human lung cancer cell lines (Lu99, Lu130, LC6 and A549). The tumor growth inhibition (TGI) rates of S-1 in orthotopically implanted tumors of the Lu99, Lu130, LC6 and A549 cell lines were 34.6, 37.5, 32.1 and 3.6%, respectively. The expression of the PRSS3, ABCC4, TXN, SHMT1 and CMPK genes was significantly promoted in the orthotopically implanted SCID mouse model of the 4 lung cancer cell lines by the administration of S-1, while the expression of the LMO7 and FOLH1 genes was significantly suppressed. The expression of the ABCC1, 2 and TST genes was negatively correlated with TGI. The expression of the TK1 and ERCC2 genes was positively correlated with TGI. The results of the present study suggest that the expression of the ABCC1, 2, TST, TK1 and ERCC2 genes is related to resistance to the antitumor drug S-1.

Warrier S, Bhuvanalakshmi G, Arfuso F, et al.
Cancer stem-like cells from head and neck cancers are chemosensitized by the Wnt antagonist, sFRP4, by inducing apoptosis, decreasing stemness, drug resistance and epithelial to mesenchymal transition.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2014; 21(9):381-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are defined by high self-renewal and drug refractory potential. Involvement of Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been implicated in rapidly cycling cells such as CSCs, and inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a novel approach to target CSCs from HNSCC. In this study, we found that an antagonist of FrzB/Wnt, the secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (sFRP4), inhibited the growth of CSCs from two HNSCC cell lines, Hep2 and KB. We enriched the CD44(+) CSC population, and grew them in spheroid cultures. sFRP4 decreased the proliferation and increased the sensitivity of spheroids to a commonly used drug in HNSCC, namely cisplatin. Self-renewal in sphere formation assays decreased upon sFRP4 treatment, and the effect was reverted by the addition of Wnt3a. sFRP4 treatment of spheroids also decreased β-catenin, confirming its action through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Quantitative PCR demonstrated a clear decrease of the stemness markers CD44 and ALDH, and an increase in CD24 and drug-resistance markers ABCG2 and ABCC4. Furthermore, we found that after sFRP4 treatment, there was a reversal in the expression of epithelial to mesenchymal (EMT) markers with the restoration of the epithelial marker E-cadherin, and depletion of EMT-specific markers twist, snail and N-cadherin. This is the first report demonstrating that the naturally occurring Wnt inhibitor, sFRP4, can be a potential drug to destroy CSC-enriched spheroids from HNSCCs. The repression of EMT and the decrease in stemness profile further strengthen the use of sFRP4 as a potent therapeutic against CSCs.

Qian Z, Zhu G, Tang L, et al.
Whole genome gene copy number profiling of gastric cancer identifies PAK1 and KRAS gene amplification as therapy targets.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2014; 53(11):883-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer worldwide, with an approximately 20% 5-year survival rate. To identify molecular subtypes associated with the clinical prognosis, in addition to genetic aberrations for potential targeted therapeutics, we conducted a comprehensive whole-genome analysis of 131 Chinese gastric cancer tissue specimens using whole-genome array comparative genomic hybridization. The analyses revealed gene focal amplifications, including CTSB, PRKCI, PAK1, STARD13, KRAS, and ABCC4, in addition to ERBB2, FGFR2, and MET. The growth of PAK1-amplified gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo was inhibited when the corresponding mRNA was knocked down. Furthermore, both KRAS amplification and KRAS mutation were identified in the gastric cancer specimens. KRAS amplification was associated with worse clinical outcomes, and the KRAS gene mutation predicted sensitivity to the MEK1/2 inhibitor AZD6244 in gastric cancer cell lines. In summary, amplified PAK1, as well as KRAS amplification/mutation, may represent unique opportunities for developing targeted therapeutics for the treatment of gastric cancer.

Pereira C, Queirós S, Galaghar A, et al.
Genetic variability in key genes in prostaglandin E2 pathway (COX-2, HPGD, ABCC4 and SLCO2A1) and their involvement in colorectal cancer development.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e92000 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The pro-carcinogenic effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in colonic mucosa are not only regulated by the rates between Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) biosynthesis and 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase (15-PGDH)-dependent degradation but also the steady-state levels of PGE2 in extracellular microenvironment, maintained by key specific prostaglandin transporters, the Multidrug Resistance Protein (MRP4) (efflux carrier) and Prostaglandin Transporter (PGT) (influx carrier). To understand the contribution of genetic variability in genes coding for COX-2/15-PGDH/MRP4/PGT proteins in CRC development, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study involving 246 CRC patients and 480 cancer-free controls. A total of 51 tagSNPs were characterized using the Sequenom platform through multiplexed amplification followed by mass-spectrometric product separation or allelic discrimination using real-time PCR. Seven tagSNPs were implicated in CRC development: the rs689466 in COX-2 gene, the rs1346271 and rs1426945 in 15-PGDH, the rs6439448 and rs7616492 in PGT and rs1751051 and rs1751031 in MRP4 coding genes. Upon a stratified analysis a measurable gene-environment interaction was noticed between rs689466 and smoking habits, with individuals ever-smokers carriers of rs689466 GG homozygous genotype having a nearly 6-fold increased susceptibility for CRC onset (95%CI: 1.49-22.42, P = 0.011). Furthermore, the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis identified an overall four-factor best gene-gene interactive model, including the rs1426945, rs6439448, rs1751051 and rs1751031 polymorphisms. This model had the highest cross-validation consistency (10/10, P<0.0001) and an accuracy of 0.6957 and was further associated with a 5-fold increased risk for CRC development (95%CI: 3.89-7.02, P<0.0001). In conclusion, specific low penetrance genes in the pro-carcinogenic PGE2 pathway appear to modulate the genetic susceptibility for CRC development. A clearer understanding on CRC etiology through the identification of biomarkers of colorectal carcinogenesis might allow a better definition of risk models that are more likely to benefit from targeted preventive strategies to reduce CRC burden.

Wang F, Wang XK, Shi CJ, et al.
Nilotinib enhances the efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs in CD34⁺CD38⁻ stem cells and ABC transporter overexpressing leukemia cells.
Molecules. 2014; 19(3):3356-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Incomplete chemotherapeutic eradication of leukemic CD34⁺CD38⁻ stem cells is likely to result in disease relapse. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of nilotinib on eradicating leukemia stem cells and enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. Our results showed that ABCB1 and ABCG2 were preferentially expressed in leukemic CD34⁺CD38⁻ cells. Nilotinib significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin and mitoxantrone in CD34⁺CD38⁻ cells and led to increased apoptosis. Moreover, nilotinib strongly reversed multidrug resistance and increased the intracellular accumulation of rhodamine 123 in primary leukemic blasts overexpressing ABCB1 and/or ABCG2. Studies with ABC transporter-overexpressing carcinoma cell models confirmed that nilotinib effectively reversed ABCB1- and ABCG2-mediated drug resistance, while showed no significant reversal effect on ABCC1- and ABCC4-mediated drug resistance. Results from cytotoxicity assays showed that CD34⁺CD38⁻ cells exhibited moderate resistance (2.41-fold) to nilotinib, compared with parental K562 cells. Furthermore, nilotinib was less effective in blocking the phosphorylation of Bcr-Abl and CrkL (a substrate of Bcr-Abl kinase) in CD34⁺CD38⁻ cells. Taken together, these data suggest that nilotinib particularly targets CD34⁺CD38⁻ stem cells and MDR leukemia cells, and effectively enhances the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs by blocking the efflux function of ABC transporters.

Matimba A, Li F, Livshits A, et al.
Thiopurine pharmacogenomics: association of SNPs with clinical response and functional validation of candidate genes.
Pharmacogenomics. 2014; 15(4):433-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: We investigated candidate genes associated with thiopurine metabolism and clinical response in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
MATERIALS & METHODS: We performed genome-wide SNP association studies of 6-thioguanine and 6-mercaptopurine cytotoxicity using lymphoblastoid cell lines. We then genotyped the top SNPs associated with lymphoblastoid cell line cytotoxicity, together with tagSNPs for genes in the 'thiopurine pathway' (686 total SNPs), in DNA from 589 Caucasian UK ALL97 patients. Functional validation studies were performed by siRNA knockdown in cancer cell lines.
RESULTS: SNPs in the thiopurine pathway genes ABCC4, ABCC5, IMPDH1, ITPA, SLC28A3 and XDH, and SNPs located within or near ATP6AP2, FRMD4B, GNG2, KCNMA1 and NME1, were associated with clinical response and measures of thiopurine metabolism. Functional validation showed shifts in cytotoxicity for these genes.
CONCLUSION: The clinical response to thiopurines may be regulated by variation in known thiopurine pathway genes and additional novel genes outside of the thiopurine pathway.

Chen L, Gu J, Xu L, et al.
RNAi-mediated silencing of ATP-binding cassette C4 protein inhibits cell growth in MGC80-3 gastric cancer cell lines.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2014; 60(1):1-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
ATP-binding cassette C4/multidrug resistance associated protein 4 (ABCC4/MRP4) is a relatively well-studied member of the ATP-binding cassette drug transporter family. Recent studies suggested that ABCC4 is implicated in the development of several human cancers. In the present study, we report that knockdown of ABCC4 by lentivirus-delivered short hairpin RNA could inhibit gastric cancer cell growth in vitro. The proliferation of MGC80-3 cells was significantly reduced after infection with Lv-shABCC4, as determined by MTT and colony formation assays. In addition, knockdown of ABCC4 blocked the cell cycle progression in MGC80-3 cells. To our knowledge, it is the first report to investigate the role of ABCC4 in gastric tumorigenesis. Our data provides additional evidence that ABCC4/MRP4 could be a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancers.

Noori-Daloii MR, Saffari M, Raoofian R, et al.
The multidrug resistance pumps are inhibited by silibinin and apoptosis induced in K562 and KCL22 leukemia cell lines.
Leuk Res. 2014; 38(5):575-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Silibinin have been introduced for several years as a potent antioxidant in the field of nutraceuticals. Based on wide persuasive effects of this drug, we have decided to investigate the effects of silibinin on chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in vitro models, K562 and KCL22 cell lines. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, microculture tetrazolium test (MTT assay) and real-time PCR were employed to evaluate the effects of silibinin on cell cytotoxicity, cell proliferation and expression of various multidrug resistance genes in these cell lines, respectively. Our results have shown that presence of silibinin has inhibitory effects on cell proliferation of K562 and KCL22 cell lines. Also, our data indicated that silibinin, in a dose-dependent manner with applying no cytotoxic effects, inhibited cell proliferation and reduced mRNA expression levels of some transporter genes e.g. MDR1, MRP3, MRP2, MRP1, MRP5, MRP4, ABCG2, ABCB11, MRP6 and MRP7. The multifarious in vitro inhibitory effects of silibinin are in agreement with growing body of evidence that silibinin would be an efficient anticancer agent in order to be used in multi-target therapy to prevail the therapeutic hold backs against CML.

Sun Y, Shi N, Lu H, et al.
ABCC4 copy number variation is associated with susceptibility to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(9):1941-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the eighth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. However, previous genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism association analyses have not explained the high heritability associated with ESCC. In this study, we performed genome-wide copy number variation (CNV) analysis on 128 discordant sibling pairs to identify novel genes that contribute to ESCC susceptibility. A total of 57 774 individual CNVs were identified, and an interactive network of common CNV-associated genes was constructed, which showed that several ABC transporter genes contain CNVs in ESCC patients. Independent validation of a CNV at 13q32.1 in 1048 northern Chinese Han subjects demonstrated that the amplification of ABCC4 significantly correlated with ESCC risk [odds ratio: 3.36 (1.65-7.93), P = 0.0013]. Immunohistochemistry staining suggested that high copy numbers correlated with increased protein levels. High expression of ABCC4 was an independent poor prognostic factor for ESCC [relative risk: 1.73 (1.10-2.73), P = 0.0181]. The CNV region showed strong enhancer activity. Furthermore, inhibition of ABCC4 protein in ESCC cells decreased cell proliferation and motility via the inhibition of COX-2, PGE2 receptors and c-Myc expression; AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation; and β-catenin nuclear translocation in ESCC cells. In conclusion, the CNV at 13q32.1 is associated with ESCC susceptibility, and a gene within this locus, ABCC4, activates the oncogenic pathways in ESCC and thus facilitates cancer cell development and progression. A direct genetic contribution of ESCC risk through CNV common variants was determined in this study, and ABCC4 might therefore have predictive and therapeutic potential for ESCC.

Harris M, Bhuvaneshwar K, Natarajan T, et al.
Pharmacogenomic characterization of gemcitabine response--a framework for data integration to enable personalized medicine.
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2014; 24(2):81-93 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Response to the oncology drug gemcitabine may be variable in part due to genetic differences in the enzymes and transporters responsible for its metabolism and disposition. The aim of our in-silico study was to identify gene variants significantly associated with gemcitabine response that may help to personalize treatment in the clinic.
METHODS: We analyzed two independent data sets: (a) genotype data from NCI-60 cell lines using the Affymetrix DMET 1.0 platform combined with gemcitabine cytotoxicity data in those cell lines, and (b) genome-wide association studies (GWAS) data from 351 pancreatic cancer patients treated on an NCI-sponsored phase III clinical trial. We also performed a subset analysis on the GWAS data set for 135 patients who were given gemcitabine+placebo. Statistical and systems biology analyses were performed on each individual data set to identify biomarkers significantly associated with gemcitabine response.
RESULTS: Genetic variants in the ABC transporters (ABCC1, ABCC4) and the CYP4 family members CYP4F8 and CYP4F12, CHST3, and PPARD were found to be significant in both the NCI-60 and GWAS data sets. We report significant association between drug response and variants within members of the chondroitin sulfotransferase family (CHST) whose role in gemcitabine response is yet to be delineated.
CONCLUSION: Biomarkers identified in this integrative analysis may contribute insights into gemcitabine response variability. As genotype data become more readily available, similar studies can be conducted to gain insights into drug response mechanisms and to facilitate clinical trial design and regulatory reviews.

Mayba O, Gnad F, Peyton M, et al.
Integrative analysis of two cell lines derived from a non-small-lung cancer patient--a panomics approach.
Pac Symp Biocomput. 2014; :75-86 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer cells derived from different stages of tumor progression may exhibit distinct biological properties, as exemplified by the paired lung cancer cell lines H1993 and H2073. While H1993 was derived from chemo-naive metastasized tumor, H2073 originated from the chemo-resistant primary tumor from the same patient and exhibits strikingly different drug response profile. To understand the underlying genetic and epigenetic bases for their biological properties, we investigated these cells using a wide range of large-scale methods including whole genome sequencing, RNA sequencing, SNP array, DNA methylation array, and de novo genome assembly. We conducted an integrative analysis of both cell lines to distinguish between potential driver and passenger alterations. Although many genes are mutated in these cell lines, the combination of DNA- and RNA-based variant information strongly implicates a small number of genes including TP53 and STK11 as likely drivers. Likewise, we found a diverse set of genes differentially expressed between these cell lines, but only a fraction can be attributed to changes in DNA copy number or methylation. This set included the ABC transporter ABCC4, implicated in drug resistance, and the metastasis associated MET oncogene. While the rich data content allowed us to reduce the space of hypotheses that could explain most of the observed biological properties, we also caution there is a lack of statistical power and inherent limitations in such single patient case studies.

Bagnoli M, Beretta GL, Gatti L, et al.
Clinicopathological impact of ABCC1/MRP1 and ABCC4/MRP4 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.
Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013:143202 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is the main cause of death from gynaecological malignancies. In spite of the efficacy of platinum-paclitaxel treatment in patients with primary epithelial ovarian carcinoma, platinum-based chemotherapy is not curative and resistance remains one of the most important causes of treatment failure. Although ABC transporters have been implicated in cellular resistance to multiple drugs, the clinical relevance of these efflux pumps is still poorly understood. Thus, we examined the prognostic role of transporters of the MRP family (i.e., ABCC1/MRP1, ABCC4/MRP4) to gain insights into their clinical impacts. A case material of 127 patients with ovarian carcinoma at different stages and histotypes was used. The expression of MRP1 and MRP4 was examined by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays in tumor specimens collected at the time of initial surgery expression. We found an association between MRP1 expression and grading, and we observed that MRP4 displayed an unfavourable impact on disease relapse in multivariate analysis (HR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.01-4.11; P = 0.045). These results suggest that in epithelial ovarian cancer, MRP1 may be a marker for aggressiveness because its expression was associated with tumor grade and support that MRP4 may play an unfavourable role in disease outcome.

Zheng X, Naiditch J, Czurylo M, et al.
Differential effect of long-term drug selection with doxorubicin and vorinostat on neuroblastoma cells with cancer stem cell characteristics.
Cell Death Dis. 2013; 4:e740 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Numerous studies have confirmed that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are more resistant to chemotherapy; however, there is a paucity of data exploring the effect of long-term drug treatment on the CSC sub-population. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether long-term doxorubicin treatment could expand the neuroblastoma cells with CSC characteristics and histone acetylation could affect stemness gene expression during the development of drug resistance. Using n-myc amplified SK-N-Be(2)C and non-n-myc amplified SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells, our laboratory generated doxorubicin-resistant cell lines in parallel over 1 year; one cell line intermittently treated with the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) vorinostat and the other without exposure to HDACi. Cells' sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs, the ability to form tumorspheres, and capacity for in vitro invasion were examined. Cell-surface markers and side populations (SPs) were analyzed using flow cytometry. Differentially expressed stemness genes were identified through whole genome analysis and confirmed with real-time PCR. Our results indicated that vorinostat increased the sensitivity of only SK-N-Be(2)C-resistant cells to chemotherapy, made cells lose the ability to form tumorspheres, and reduced in vitro invasion and the SP percentage. CD133 was not enriched in doxorubicin-resistant or vorinostat-treated doxorubicin-resistant cells. Nine stemness-linked genes (ABCB1, ABCC4, LMO2, SOX2, ERCC5, S100A10, IGFBP3, TCF3, and VIM) were downregulated in vorinostat-treated doxorubicin-resistant SK-N-Be(2)C cells relative to doxorubicin-resistant cells. A sub-population of cells with CSC characteristics is enriched during prolonged drug selection of n-myc amplified SK-N-Be(2)C neuroblastoma cells. Vorinostat treatment affects the reversal of drug resistance in SK-N-Be(2)C cells and may be associated with downregulation of stemness gene expression. This work may be valuable for clinicians to design treatment protocols specific for different neuroblastoma patients.

Silos-Santiago I, Hannig G, Eutamene H, et al.
Gastrointestinal pain: unraveling a novel endogenous pathway through uroguanylin/guanylate cyclase-C/cGMP activation.
Pain. 2013; 154(9):1820-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
The natural hormone uroguanylin regulates intestinal fluid homeostasis and bowel function through activation of guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C), resulting in increased intracellular cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP). We report the effects of uroguanylin-mediated activation of the GC-C/cGMP pathway in vitro on extracellular cGMP transport and in vivo in rat models of inflammation- and stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. In vitro exposure of intestinal Caco-2 cells to uroguanylin stimulated bidirectional, active extracellular transport of cGMP into luminal and basolateral spaces. cGMP transport was significantly and concentration dependently decreased by probenecid, an inhibitor of cGMP efflux pumps. In ex vivo Ussing chamber assays, uroguanylin stimulated cGMP secretion from the basolateral side of rat colonic epithelium into the submucosal space. In a rat model of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced visceral hypersensitivity, orally administered uroguanylin increased colonic thresholds required to elicit abdominal contractions in response to colorectal distension (CRD). Oral administration of cGMP mimicked the antihyperalgesic effects of uroguanylin, significantly decreasing TNBS- and restraint stress-induced visceromotor response to graded CRD in rats. The antihyperalgesic effects of cGMP were not associated with increased colonic spasmolytic activity, but were linked to significantly decreased firing rates of TNBS-sensitized colonic afferents in rats in response to mechanical stimuli. In conclusion, these data suggest that the continuous activation of the GC-C/cGMP pathway along the intestinal tract by the endogenous hormones guanylin and uroguanylin results in significant reduction of gastrointestinal pain. Extracellular cGMP produced on activation of GC-C is the primary mediator in this process via modulation of sensory afferent activity.

Dai ZJ, Gao J, Kang HF, et al.
Targeted inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) enhances radiosensitivity in pancreatic carcinoma cells.
Drug Des Devel Ther. 2013; 7:149-59 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a protein kinase that regulates protein translation, cell growth, and apoptosis. Rapamycin (RPM), a specific inhibitor of mTOR, exhibits potent and broad in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity against leukemia, breast cancer, and melanoma. Recent studies showing that RPM sensitizes cancers to chemotherapy and radiation therapy have attracted considerable attention. This study aimed to examine the radiosensitizing effect of RPM in vitro, as well as its mechanism of action. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and colony formation assay showed that 10 nmol/L to 15 nmol/L of RPM had a radiosensitizing effects on pancreatic carcinoma cells in vitro. Furthermore, a low dose of RPM induced autophagy and reduced the number of S-phase cells. When radiation treatment was combined with RPM, the PC-2 cell cycle arrested in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that the expression of DDB1, RAD51, and XRCC5 were downregulated, whereas the expression of PCNA and ABCC4 were upregulated in PC-2 cells. The results demonstrated that RPM effectively enhanced the radiosensitivity of pancreatic carcinoma cells.

Yu ZQ, Zhang C, Wang H, et al.
Downregulation of ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 increases sensitivity to neoadjuvant radiotherapy for locally advanced rectal carcinoma.
Dis Colon Rectum. 2013; 56(5):600-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to verify the effect of ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 on radiosensitivity of locally advanced rectal carcinoma.
SETTING: The expression of ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 protein in 121 pretreatment tissue samples from locally advanced rectal carcinoma patients was detected by immunohistochemistry.
DESIGN: Pathological response to radiotherapy was evaluated according to tumor regression grading by postoperative histological examinations after they received long-course preoperative neoadjuvant radiotherapy, and the association between clinicopathological data and tumor regression grading was analyzed retrospectively. For further validation, short hairpin RNA was constructed and transfected into colorectal carcinoma cell line HT29. The knockdown efficiency was confirmed at both RNA and protein levels. The altered radiosensitivity was evaluated by methylthiazolyl tetrazolium assay, colony formation assay, flow cytometry, and Hoechst 33258 staining.
RESULTS: Univariate analysis revealed that ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 expression (p < 0.001), P53 type (p = 0.069), and CEA (p = 0.100) were possibly associated with tumor regression grading, and multivariate analysis demonstrated that ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 expression (p < 0.001) and P53 type (p = 0.039) were positively correlated with response to neoadjuvant radiotherapy in locally advanced rectal carcinoma patients. Lentiviral vector was successfully introduced into HT29 cells and inhibited ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 expression efficiently and persistently. Downregulation of ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 expression significantly enhanced inhibition of cell proliferation, decreased colony formation capacity, and increased cell apoptosis induced by irradiation, as examined by a series of experiments in vitro. In addition, radiobiological parameters calculated according to the single-hit multitarget model were also decreased significantly.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 may be a useful molecular marker in predicting radiosensitivity, and a potential target in improving the response to neoadjuvant radiotherapy in locally advanced rectal carcinoma patients.

Lopez-Lopez E, Ballesteros J, Piñan MA, et al.
Polymorphisms in the methotrexate transport pathway: a new tool for MTX plasma level prediction in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2013; 23(2):53-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Methotrexate (MTX) is an important component of therapy for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Treatment with MTX often causes toxicity, which can necessitate dose reduction or treatment cessation. Interindividual differences in adverse reactions can be due to different factors, including polymorphisms in key genes. Recently, we confirmed the association between SLCO1B1 rs11045879 polymorphism and toxicity previously proposed by Treviño and colleagues. As SLCO1B1 is a transporter involved in MTX elimination, other polymorphisms in genes from this pathway could also have a role in MTX toxicity. The aim of the present study was to analyze in depth the role of polymorphisms in the genes of the MTX transport pathway as putative toxicity predictors in pediatric ALL.
METHODS: We analyzed 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 12 transporter genes (SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, SLCO1A2, ABCB1, ABCG2, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCC3, ABCC4, SLC19A1, SLC22A6 and SLC22A8) and their correlation with different toxicity parameters in 151 pediatric ALL patients treated using the LAL/SHOP protocol.
RESULTS: A significant association with MTX plasma levels was found for 21 polymorphisms from seven genes and 15 haplotypes. After correction, rs9516519 in ABCC4, rs3740065 in ABCC2, and haplotype GCGGG in ABCC2 remained significantly associated.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that polymorphisms in ABCC4 and ABCC2 could be novel markers for MTX toxicity in pediatric ALL.

Shelton P, Jaiswal AK
The transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2): a protooncogene?
FASEB J. 2013; 27(2):414-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The transcription factor Nrf2 is responsible for regulating a battery of antioxidant and cellular protective genes, primarily in response to oxidative stress. A member of the cap 'n' collar family of transcription factors, Nrf2 activation is tightly controlled by a series of signaling events. These events can be separated into the basal state, a preinduction response, gene induction, and finally a postinduction response, culminating in the restoration of redox homeostasis. However, despite the immensely intricate level of control the cellular environment imposes on Nrf2 activity, there are many opportunities for perturbations to arise in the signaling events that favor carcinogenesis and, therefore, implicate Nrf2 as both a tumor suppressor and a protooncogene. Herein, we highlight the ways in which Nrf2 is regulated, and discuss some of the Nrf2-inducible antioxidant (NQO1, NQO2, HO-1, GCLC), antiapoptotic (Bcl-2), metabolic (G6PD, TKT, PPARγ), and drug efflux transporter (ABCG2, MRP3, MRP4) genes. In addition, we focus on how Nrf2 functions as a tumor suppressor under normal conditions and how its ability to detoxify the cellular environment makes it an attractive target for other oncogenes either via stabilization or degradation of the transcription factor. Finally, we discuss some of the ways in which Nrf2 is being considered as a therapeutic target for cancer treatment.

Kurzawski M, Dziedziejko V, Post M, et al.
Expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and transport in end-stage liver disease: up-regulation of ABCC4 and CYP1B1.
Pharmacol Rep. 2012; 64(4):927-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters in liver is mainly regulated by a system of nuclear receptors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the expression of nuclear receptors, as well as these enzymes and transporters, in liver samples from patients suffering from end-stage liver disease of various etiologies (HCV infection, alcohol liver disease, and primary sclerosis cholangitis).
METHODS: Gene expression was measured using quantitative real-time PCR with surgical specimens from livers of patients with end-stage liver disease, and non-tumoral liver tissue that served as control.
RESULTS: Our study confirmed that the expression of most phase I enzymes is suppressed in end-stage liver disease, and is correlated with a decrease in NR1I2 and NR1I3, the main regulators of xenobiotic metabolism. While mRNA levels of phase II enzymes were generally unchanged, some ABC transporters were up-regulated. The most spectacular increases in expression were observed with ABCC4 (MRP4) - at the mRNA level, and CYP1B1 - at both the mRNA and protein levels. We also demonstrated that IL-6 can induce CYP1B1 expression independently of CYP1A1, in a human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line.
CONCLUSIONS: As CYP1B1 is an enzyme which converts various substrates into carcinogenous metabolites, its overexpression in liver may be one of the factors increasing the risk of hepatic cancers in patients with liver disease. CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 are often referred to as model AHR target genes, but CYP1A1 was down-regulated in diseased liver samples. This points to the existence of differences in regulation of these two genes.

Warrier S, Pavanram P, Raina D, Arvind M
Study of chemoresistant CD133+ cancer stem cells from human glioblastoma cell line U138MG using multiple assays.
Cell Biol Int. 2012; 36(12):1137-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma is one of the most common malignant tumours in adults, with an average life expectancy of less than 1 year. The high mortality of glioblastomas is attributed to its resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Numerous studies have established the presence of a cancer stem population within glioblastomas. These CSC (cancer stem cell) populations express the cell-surface marker, CD133, and are tumorigenic and chemoresistant. Hence, CSCs make a potential target for anticancer therapies. We have focused on techniques that can reliably identify and isolate a viable CSC population, and studied their chemoresistant attributes. We show the presence of a CSC population within a slowly proliferating glioblastoma cell line, U138MG. An improvised neurosphere enrichment culture technique was developed for the isolation of CSC population. Stem cell neurospheres obtained by this protocol maintained their viability for several weeks, and could be redispersed for deriving colony-forming units and secondary spheres from single-cell suspensions. RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR), cell surface localization by immunofluorescence and enumeration by FACS analysis showed that the sphere cultures of U138MG grown on agarose-coated plates had elevated CD133 levels. Drug sensitivity assays indicated that these enriched spheres were more resistant to drug treatment than their non-CSC controls. Drug-resistant CSC had an increased expression of ABC (ATP-binding-cassette) drug transporters, such as ABCC2, ABCC4, ABCG2 and p-glycoprotein, indicative of their role in the resistance mechanisms. These studies will facilitate the development of in vitro assays for the sparse CSC population and strategies for improved treatment regimens for glioblastomas.

Skrypek N, Duchêne B, Hebbar M, et al.
The MUC4 mucin mediates gemcitabine resistance of human pancreatic cancer cells via the Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter family.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(13):1714-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The fluorinated analog of deoxycytidine, Gemcitabine (Gemzar), is the main chemotherapeutic drug in pancreatic cancer, but survival remains weak mainly because of the high resistance of tumors to the drug. Recent works have shown that the mucin MUC4 may confer an advantage to pancreatic tumor cells by modifying their susceptibility to drugs. However, the cellular mechanism(s) responsible for this MUC4-mediated resistance is unknown. The aim of this work was to identify the cellular mechanisms responsible for gemcitabine resistance linked to MUC4 expression. CAPAN-2 and CAPAN-1 adenocarcinomatous pancreatic cancer (PC) cell lines were used to establish stable MUC4-deficient clones (MUC4-KD) by shRNA interference. Measurement of the IC50 index using tetrazolium salt test indicated that MUC4-deficient cells were more sensitive to gemcitabine. This was correlated with increased Bax/BclXL ratio and apoptotic cell number. Expression of Equilibrative/Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter (hENT1, hCNT1/3), deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), ribonucleotide reductase (RRM1/2) and Multidrug-Resistance Protein (MRP3/4/5) was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting. Alteration of MRP3, MRP4, hCNT1 and hCNT3 expression was observed in MUC4-KD cells, but only hCNT1 alteration was correlated to MUC4 expression and sensitivity to gemcitabine. Decreased activation of MAPK, JNK and NF-κB pathways was observed in MUC4-deficient cells, in which the NF-κB pathway was found to have an important role in both sensitivity to gemcitabine and hCNT1 regulation. Finally, and in accordance with our in vitro data, we found that MUC4 expression was conversely correlated to that of hCNT1 in tissues from patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This work describes a new mechanism of PC cell resistance to gemcitabine, in which the MUC4 mucin negatively regulates the hCNT1 transporter expression via the NF-κB pathway. Altogether, these data point out to MUC4 and hCNT1 as potential targets to ameliorate the response of pancreatic tumors to gemcitabine treatment.

Sloan JA, de Andrade M, Decker P, et al.
Genetic variations and patient-reported quality of life among patients with lung cancer.
J Clin Oncol. 2012; 30(14):1699-704 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Recent evidence has suggested a relationship between the baseline quality of life (QOL) self-reported by patients with cancer and genetic disposition. We report an analysis exploring relationships among baseline QOL assessments and candidate genetic variations in a large cohort of patients with lung cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: QOL data were provided by 1,299 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer observed at the Mayo Clinic between 1997 and 2007. Overall QOL and subdomains were assessed by either Lung Cancer Symptom Scale or Linear Analog Self Assessment measures; scores were transformed to a scale of 0 to 10, with higher scores representing better status. Baseline QOL scores assessed within 1 year of diagnosis were dichotomized as clinically deficient (CD) or not. A total of 470 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 56 genes of three biologic pathways were assessed for association with QOL measures. Logistic regression with training/validation samples was used to test the association of SNPs with CD QOL.
RESULTS: Six SNPs on four genes were replicated using our split schemes. Three SNPs in the MGMT gene (adjusted analysis, rs3858300; unadjusted analysis, rs10741191 and rs3852507) from DNA repair pathway were associated with overall QOL. Two SNPs (rs2287396 [GSTZ1] and rs9524885 [ABCC4]) from glutathione metabolic pathway were associated with fatigue in unadjusted analysis. In adjusted analysis, two SNPs (rs2756109 [ABCC2] and rs9524885 [ABCC4]) from glutathione metabolic pathway were associated with pain.
CONCLUSION: We identified three SNPs in three glutathione metabolic pathway genes and three SNPs in two DNA repair pathway genes associated with QOL measures in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer.

Lai KC, Kuo CL, Ho HC, et al.
Diallyl sulfide, diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide affect drug resistant gene expression in colo 205 human colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
Phytomedicine. 2012; 19(7):625-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
To elevate chemo-resistance of human cancer cells is a major obstacle in the treatment and management of malignant cancers. Diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) are presented in the Alliaceae family particularly in garlic. Although DAS, DADS and DATS have been shown to exhibit anticancer activities, there is little information on effects of these compounds on drug resistant genes in human colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we are the first to show that DAS, DADS and DATS at 25 μM for 24-h and 48-h incubations promoted expression of drug resistant genes in colo 205 human colon cancer cells. In vitro experiments indicated that DATS promoted gene expression of multidrug resistant 1 (Mdr1) (p<0.05), and DAS and DADS promoted MRP3 gene expression and DATS alone stimulated gene expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP1) (p<0.05) in colo 205 cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that DADS and DATS induced Mdr1 and MRP1 gene expression (p<0.05). DADS promoted MRP3 gene expression (p<0.05) as well as DADS and DATS increased MRP4 and MRP6 gene expression (p<0.05) in the colo 205 xenograft mice. Based on our in vitro and in vivo results, diallyl polysulfides (DAS, DADS and DATS) affected the gene expression of the multidrug resistance in colo 205 human colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

Tong XZ, Wang F, Liang S, et al.
Apatinib (YN968D1) enhances the efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutical drugs in side population cells and ABCB1-overexpressing leukemia cells.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2012; 83(5):586-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) overexpression and enrichment of stem-like cells are linked to poor prognosis in tumor patients. In this study, we investigated the effect of apatinib, an oral multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) on enhancing the efficacy of conventional anticancer drugs in side population (SP) cells and ABCB1-overexpressing leukemia cells in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo. Our results showed that apatinib significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell apoptosis induced by doxorubicin in SP cells sorted from K562 cells. Furthermore, apatinib also strongly reversed multidrug resistance (MDR) in K562/ADR cells, and the primary leukemia blasts overexpressing ABCB1 while showed no synergistic interactions with chemotherapeutic agents in MRP1-, MRP4-, MRP7- and LRP-overexpressing cells. Apatinib treatment markedly increased the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123 in K562/ADR cells and the accumulation of rhodamine 123 in the primary leukemia blasts with ABCB1 overexpression. Apatinib stimulated the ATPase activity of P-gp in a dose-dependent manner but did not alter the expression of ABCB1 at both mRNA and protein levels. The phosphorylation level of AKT and ERK1/2 remained unchanged after apatinib treatment in both sensitive and MDR cells. Importantly, apatinib significantly enhanced the antitumor activity of doxorubicin in nude mice bearing K562/ADR xenografts. Taken together, our results suggest that apatinib could target to SP cells and ABCB1-overexpressing leukemia cells to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs. These findings should be useful for the combination of apatinib and chemotherapeutic agents in the clinic.

Zhang Z, Wang J, Shen B, et al.
The ABCC4 gene is a promising target for pancreatic cancer therapy.
Gene. 2012; 491(2):194-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm of the pancreas that usually has a poor prognosis. The investigation of targets that effectively inhibit pancreatic cancer cell proliferation should provide a fundamental basis for the clinical application of gene therapy. Here, high expression levels of ABCC4 protein in thirty-six pancreatic cancer specimens were quantified using an immunohistochemical assay, and the potential of ABCC4 as a therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer was investigated. Inhibition of ABCC4 expression at the mRNA and protein levels was achieved in Panc-1 and BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells infected with a lentivirus expressing an ABCC4 short hairpin RNA (shRNA). The downregulation of ABCC4 expression in Panc-1 and BxPC-3 cells significantly inhibited their proliferation and colony formation in vitro, compared to cells infected with mock control (p<0.05). Moreover, the specific downregulation of ABCC4 led to the accumulation of cells at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Our findings reveal that the ABCC4 gene promotes pancreatic cancer cell growth and represents a promising target for gene therapy in pancreatic cancer.

Coghill AE, Newcomb PA, Poole EM, et al.
Genetic variation in inflammatory pathways is related to colorectal cancer survival.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(22):7139-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) is associated with systemic inflammation, and anti-inflammatory drugs can reduce both CRC incidence and mortality. Genetic variation in proinflammatory pathways can affect an individual's CRC risk. However, few studies have investigated the prognostic importance of this genetic variation in CRC patients.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We investigated the association between CRC survival and genetic variation in proinflammatory pathways among patients from the Puget Sound Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results registry. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in five genes (PTGS-1, PTGS-2, MRP4, NFκB, and IκBKβ). Vital status was ascertained through linkage to the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The false discovery rate method of Benjamini and Hochberg was applied to address multiple testing.
RESULTS: Four PTGS-1 variants were associated with CRC survival. One, G>A intron 9 (rs1213266), was associated with approximately 50% lower CRC mortality (HR(AA/AG vs. GG) = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.25-0.93). Three variants, including L237M, resulted in significantly elevated CRC mortality risk, with HRs ranging from approximately 1.5 to 2.0. Two variants in IκBKβ, including R526Q, were significantly associated with CRC survival. Correction for multiple testing indicated that variants in both PTGS-1 and IκBKβ are reproducibly associated with CRC survival.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that genetic variation in proinflammatory pathways may be important for CRC prognosis. This investigation represents one of the first descriptions of the relationship between inherited polymorphisms and mortality in CRC patients and provides a starting point for further research.

Borel F, Han R, Visser A, et al.
Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter genes up-regulation in untreated hepatocellular carcinoma is mediated by cellular microRNAs.
Hepatology. 2012; 55(3):821-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are drug efflux pumps responsible for the multidrug resistance phenotype causing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment failure. Here we studied the expression of 15 ABC transporters relevant for multidrug resistance in 19 paired HCC patient samples (16 untreated, 3 treated by chemotherapeutics). Twelve ABC transporters showed up-regulation in HCC compared with adjacent healthy liver. These include ABCA2, ABCB1, ABCB6, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCC3, ABCC4, ABCC5, ABCC10, ABCC11, ABCC12, and ABCE1. The expression profile and function of some of these transporters have not been associated with HCC thus far. Because cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in posttranscriptional gene silencing, we hypothesized that regulation of ABC expression in HCC might be mediated by miRNAs. To study this, miRNAs were profiled and dysregulation of 90 miRNAs was shown in HCC compared with healthy liver, including up-regulation of 11 and down-regulation of 79. miRNA target sites in ABC genes were bioinformatically predicted and experimentally verified in vitro using luciferase reporter assays. In total, 13 cellular miRNAs were confirmed that target ABCA1, ABCC1, ABCC5, ABCC10, and ABCE1 genes and mediate changes in gene expression. Correlation analysis between ABC and miRNA expression in individual patients revealed an inverse relationship, providing an indication for miRNA regulation of ABC genes in HCC.
CONCLUSION: Up-regulation of ABC transporters in HCC occurs prior to chemotherapeutic treatment and is associated with miRNA down-regulation. Up-regulation of five ABC genes appears to be mediated by 13 cellular miRNAs in HCC patient samples. miRNA-based gene therapy may be a novel and promising way to affect the ABC profile and overcome clinical multidrug resistance.

Henderson MJ, Haber M, Porro A, et al.
ABCC multidrug transporters in childhood neuroblastoma: clinical and biological effects independent of cytotoxic drug efflux.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011; 103(16):1236-51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although the prognostic value of the ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C (ABCC) transporters in childhood neuroblastoma is usually attributed to their role in cytotoxic drug efflux, certain observations have suggested that these multidrug transporters might contribute to the malignant phenotype independent of cytotoxic drug efflux.
METHODS: A v-myc myelocytomatosis viral related oncogene, neuroblastoma derived (MYCN)-driven transgenic mouse neuroblastoma model was crossed with an Abcc1-deficient mouse strain (658 hMYCN(1/-), 205 hMYCN(+/1) mice) or, alternatively, treated with the ABCC1 inhibitor, Reversan (n = 20). ABCC genes were suppressed using short interfering RNA or overexpressed by stable transfection in neuroblastoma cell lines BE(2)-C, SH-EP, and SH-SY5Y, which were then assessed for wound closure ability, clonogenic capacity, morphological differentiation, and cell growth. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to examine the clinical significance of ABCC family gene expression in a large prospectively accrued cohort of patients (n = 209) with primary neuroblastomas. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression were used to test for associations with event-free and overall survival. Except where noted, all statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: Inhibition of ABCC1 statistically significantly inhibited neuroblastoma development in hMYCN transgenic mice (mean age for palpable tumor: treated mice, 47.2 days; control mice, 41.9 days; hazard ratio [HR] = 9.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.65 to 32; P < .001). Suppression of ABCC1 in vitro inhibited wound closure (P < .001) and clonogenicity (P = .006); suppression of ABCC4 enhanced morphological differentiation (P < .001) and inhibited cell growth (P < .001). Analysis of 209 neuroblastoma patient tumors revealed that, in contrast with ABCC1 and ABCC4, low rather than high ABCC3 expression was associated with reduced event-free survival (HR of recurrence or death = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.4 to 4.2; P = .001), with 23 of 53 patients with low ABCC3 expression experiencing recurrence or death compared with 31 of 155 patients with high ABCC3. Moreover, overexpression of ABCC3 in vitro inhibited neuroblastoma cell migration (P < .001) and clonogenicity (P = .03). The combined expression of ABCC1, ABCC3, and ABCC4 was associated with patients having an adverse event, such that of the 12 patients with the "poor prognosis" expression pattern, 10 experienced recurrence or death (HR of recurrence or death = 12.3, 95% CI = 6 to 27; P < .001).
CONCLUSION: ABCC transporters can affect neuroblastoma biology independently of their role in chemotherapeutic drug efflux, enhancing their potential as targets for therapeutic intervention.

Pankratz VS, Sun Z, Aakre J, et al.
Systematic evaluation of genetic variants in three biological pathways on patient survival in low-stage non-small cell lung cancer.
J Thorac Oncol. 2011; 6(9):1488-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Studies from selected candidate genes suggest that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in glutathione metabolism, DNA repair, or inflammatory responses may affect overall survival (OS) in stages I to II or low-stage non-small cell lung cancer (LS-NSCLC); however, results are inconclusive. In this study, we took a systematic pathway-based approach to simultaneously evaluate the impact of genetic variation from these three pathways on OS after LS-NSCLC diagnosis.
METHODS: DNA from 647 patients with LS-NSCLC was genotyped for 480 SNPs (tag-SNPs) tagging 57 genes from the three candidate pathways. Associations of tag-SNPs with OS were assessed at the individual SNP and whole gene levels, adjusting for age, tumor stage, surgery type, and adjuvant therapy. The genotype combinations of the SNPs associated with OS were also estimated.
RESULTS: Among the 412 tag-SNPs that were successfully genotyped and passed quality assessments, 28 showed association with OS (p < 0.05). Two of the 28 were estimated to have less than a 20% chance of being false positives (rs3768490 in GSTM5: p = 1.32 × 10, q = 0.06; rs1729786 in ABCC4: p = 9.25 × 10, q = 0.20). Gene-based analysis suggested that in addition to GSTM5 and ABCC4, variation in two other genes, PTGS2 and GSTA2, was also associated with OS.
CONCLUSIONS: We describe further evidence that variations in genes involved in the glutathione and inflammatory response pathways are associated with OS in patients with LS-NSCLC. Further studies are warranted to verify our findings and elucidate their functional mechanisms and clinical utility leading to improved survival for patients with lung cancer.

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